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Original Title: Section 14-1 - 14-3

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Section 14-1 - 14-3

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Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Calculate the work of a force. In-Class Activities:

2. Apply the principle of work and Check Homework

energy to a particle or system of Reading Quiz

particles. Applications

Work of a Force

Principle of Work and

Energy

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

READING QUIZ

F

1. What is the work done by the force F?

A) F s B) F s s1 s2

C) Zero D) None of the above. s

particle by the force, FR will be

A) B)

C) D)

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS

cars in reaching high speeds in the valleys of the track.

How can we design the track (e.g., the height, h, and the radius

of curvature, r) to control the forces experienced by the

passengers?

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

along roadways in front of

barriers for crash protection.

kinetic energy by deforming.

an oncoming car and the

amount of energy that can

be absorbed by each barrel,

how can we design a crash

cushion?

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK AND ENERGY

particles can be derived by integrating the equation of motion

(F = ma) with respect to displacement.

By substituting at = v (dv/ds) into

Ft = mat, the result is integrated to

yield an equation known as the

principle of work and energy.

This principle is useful for solving problems that involve

force, velocity, and displacement. It can also be used to

explore the concept of power.

To use this principle, we must first understand how to

calculate the work of a force.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A FORCE (Section 14.1)

displacement along the line of action of the force.

and displacement components acting in

the same direction. So, if the angle

between the force and displacement

vector is q, the increment of work dU

done by the force is

dU = F ds cos q

and integrating, the total work can be U =

written as

1-2 F dr

r1

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A FORCE (continued)

case) this becomes

s2

U1-2 = F cos q ds

s1

simplifies to

U1-2 = Fc cos q (s2 - s1)

same direction. If they are opposing, then the work is

negative. If the force and the displacement directions are

perpendicular, the work is zero.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A WEIGHT

(or weight of an object) can be calculated by using

y2

U1-2 = - W dy

y1

the particles weight and its vertical displacement. If Dy

is upward, the work is negative since the weight force

always acts downward.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A SPRING FORCE

develops a force of magnitude Fs = ks, where

k is the spring stiffness and s is the

displacement from the unstretched position.

s2 s2

s2 is

U1-2 = Fs ds = k s ds = 0.5 k (s2)2 0.5 k (s1)2

s1 s1

particle is opposite to that exerted on the spring. Thus, the work

done on the particle by the spring force will be negative or

U1-2 = [ 0.5 k (s2)2 0.5 k (s1)2 ].

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

SPRING FORCES

that a linear spring develops a force according to

F = ks (essentially the equation of a line).

at some point, i.e., (ksi)(si). Beware, this is a trap that

students often fall into!

calculating it. It is positive work if the force on the object by

the spring and the movement are in the same direction.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND ENERGY

(Section 14.2 & Section 14.3)

principle of work and energy can be written as

U1-2 = 0.5 m (v2)2 0.5 m (v1)2 or T1 + U1-2 = T2

U1-2 is the work done by all the forces acting on the particle as it

moves from point 1 to point 2. Work can be either a positive or

negative scalar.

T1 and T2 are the kinetic energies of the particle at the initial and final

position, respectively. Thus, T1 = 0.5 m (v1)2 and T2 = 0.5 m (v2)2.

The kinetic energy is always a positive scalar (velocity is squared!).

So, the particles initial kinetic energy plus the work done by all the

forces acting on the particle as it moves from its initial to final position

is equal to the particles final kinetic energy.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND ENERGY (continued)

Note that the principle of work and energy (T1 + U1-2 = T2) is

not a vector equation! Each term results in a scalar value.

Both kinetic energy and work have the same units, that of

energy! In the SI system, the unit for energy is called a joule (J),

where 1 J = 1 Nm. In the FPS system, units are ftlb.

determine forces directed normal to the path, since these forces

do no work.

of particles by summing the kinetic energies of all particles in

the system and the work due to all forces acting on the system.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF FRICTION CAUSED BY SLIDING

consideration.

Consider a block which is moving over a

rough surface. If the applied force P just

balances the resultant frictional force k N,

a constant velocity v would be

maintained.

The principle of work and energy would be

applied as

0.5m (v)2 + P s (k N) s = 0.5m (v)2

This equation is satisfied if P = k N. However, we know from

experience that friction generates heat, a form of energy that does

not seem to be accounted for in this equation. It can be shown that

the work term (k N)s represents both the external work of the

friction force and the internal work that is converted into heat.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

not stretched or compressed,

and the 10 kg block, which is

subjected to a force of 100 N,

has a speed of 5 m/s down

the smooth plane.

Plan: Since this problem involves forces, velocity and

displacement, apply the principle of work and energy to

determine s.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

Apply the principle of work and energy between position 1

(s1 = 0.6 m) and position 2 (s2). Note that the normal force (N)

does no work since it is always perpendicular to the

displacement. T1 + U1-2 = T2 S =0.6 m 1

S2

1) work of a the force F =100 N;

UF = 100 (s2 s1) = 100 (s2 0.6)

2) work of the block weight;

UW = 10 (9.81) (s2 s1) sin 30 = 49.05 (s2 0.6)

3) and, work of the spring force.

US = - 0.5 (200) (s20.6)2 = -100 (s2 0.6)2

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

T1 + U1-2 = T2

Solving for (s2 0.6),

(s2 0.6) = {-149.05 (149.052 4(-100)125)0.5} / 2(-100)

(s2 0.6) = 2.09 m

Therefore, s2 = 2.69 m

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONCEPT QUIZ

length of 2 in to a length of 4 in. The work done on the spring

is _________ inlb .

A) -[0.5 k(4 in)2 - 0.5 k(2 in)2] B) 0.5 k (2 in)2

C) -[0.5 k(3 in)2 - 0.5 k(1 in)2] D) 0.5 k(3 in)2 - 0.5 k(1 in)2

by s = 0.5 m, the work done on a particle attached to the

spring will be

A) 0.625 N m B) 0.625 N m

C) 0.0781 N m D) 0.0781 N m

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

down a smooth roof,

with vA=5 ft/s.

the distance d from the

wall to where the brick

strikes the ground, and

C

C its speed at C.

and determine the speeds at B and C.

2) Apply the kinematic relations in x and y-directions.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Solution:

1) Apply the principle of work and energy

TA + UA-B = TB

C

C

Similarly, apply the work and energy principle between A and

C

TA + UA-C = TC

vC = 54.1 ft/s

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

2) Apply the kinematic relations in x and y-directions:

Equation for horizontal motion

+ xC = xB + vBx tBC

d = 0 + 31.48 (4/5) tBC

d = 6.996 tBC

Equation for vertical motion

+ yC = yB + vBy tBC 0.5 g tBC2 C

d = 6.996 tBC = 6.996 (0.899) = 22.6 ft

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

and block B has a weight of 40

lb. The coefficient of kinetic

friction between the blocks and

the incline is k = 0.1. Neglect

the mass of the cord and pulleys.

plane, starting from rest.

Plan: 1) Define the kinematic relationships between the

blocks.

2) Draw the FBD of each block.

3) Apply the principle of work and energy to the

system of blocks. Why choose this method?

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

Solution:

1) The kinematic relationships can be determined by defining

position coordinates sA and sB, and then differentiating.

2sA + sB = l

sA sB 2DsA + DsB = 0

When DsB = -2 ft DsA = 1 ft

and 2vA + vB = 0

vB = -2vA

Note that, by this definition of sA and sB, positive motion

for each block is defined as downwards.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

WA

2T T WB

y

x

A kNA B

kNB

30

60 NB

NA

(note that there is no motion in y-direction):

NB = WB cos 30

Fy = 0: NA WA cos 60 = 0

NA = WA cos 60

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

3) Apply the principle of work and energy to the system (the

blocks start from rest).

T1 + U1-2 = T2

+ [WB sin 30 T + kNB]DsB = [0.5mA(vA2)2 + 0.5mB(vB2)2]

DsB = -2 ft, vB = -2vA,

NA = WA cos 60, NB = WB cos 30

[0 + 0] + [ 60 sin 60 2T 0.1(60 cos 60) ] (1)

+ [ 40 sin 30 T + 0.1(40 cos 30) ] (-2)

= [ 0.5(60/32.2) (vA2)2 + 0.5(40/32.2) (-2vA2)2 ]

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

[0 + 0] + [60 sin 60 2T 0.1(60 cos 60)] (1)

+ [40 sin 30 T + 0.1(40 cos 30)] (-2)

= [0.5(60/32.2)(vA2)2 + 0.5(40/32.2)(-2vA2)2]

vA2 = 0.771 ft/s

Note that the work being done due to the cable tension

force on each block cancels each other (add to zero).

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. What is the work done by the normal

force N if a 10 lb box is moved from A

to B ?

A) - 1.24 lb ft B) 0 lb ft

C) 1.24 lb ft D) 2.48 lb ft

be needed to determine the velocity of block A after block

B moves 4 m horizontally on the smooth surface?

A) One B) Two

2 kg

C) Three D) Four

2 kg

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

End of the Lecture

Let Learning Continue

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

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