You are on page 1of 20


ONNA2017: Optical Nanofiber Applications: From Quantum to Bio

5-8 th June 2017

From nano to distributed optical fiber

based sensors
Daniele Farnesi, A. Barucci, F. Chiavaioli, F. Cosi,
S.Pelli, S. Soria, G. C. Righini and G. Nunzi Cont

Outline 2

Optical Fiber nanotips

Static chemical etching

Dynamic chemical etching

Optical couplers for WGM microresonators

Tapered fiber

LPG based coupler

Optical fibre nanotips 3

Key components in many applicatons:

scanning probe microscopes (e.g. SNOM)
nanoscale imaging

Good tp:
high optcal transmission, small apex diameter
and large cone angle.

Aim: To overcome the main drawbacks of traditonal

optcal fiber chemical etching techniques Dynamic

Mechanical movements + chemical etching

to control the shape and roughness

Dynamical chemical etching for fabrication of

optical fibre nanotips,
A. Barucci et al., Journal of Applied Physics 117,
053104 (2015)
Static etching 4

Dennis R. Turners Patent

The stripped optcal fiber end is dipped into a vial
containing an aqueous HF solution covered with a
protection layer;
Chemical etching of the nanotp is performed at the
interface between the two fluids decreasing of

Many variatons of this method: e.g.

Tube etching

Environmental inuences Roughness and asymmetry

New dynamic etching 5

Vial and optcal fiber are connected to

motors allowing them to rotate
independently around the fiber and the
vial axis respectvely.

Relative rotational movement

structures are not influenced by
environmental disturbances and by the
propertes of the etchant.

Single-mode and multmode optcal fiber

Mechanical-chemical mixed etching method (International

patent pending: Barucci, A. et al., PCT/EP2014/071743) Combinatons of rotatonal movements
Taylor-Couette ow 6

Different kinds of flow inside the vial can be described in

the framework of the Taylor-Couette theory
Ranging from laminar flow to the onset of chaotc flow.

Ideal case

modify the wettability of the optcal fiber
surface and the diffusivity dynamics
Different regimes by changing the
shortening the time scale of the process and
rato between the angular
decreasing the roughness
velocities and/or the rato between
the radii of optcal fiber and vial
affect the shape of the meniscus:
different shapes (cone length and angle)
RMS 20 nm
Results 7

RMS 20 nm

Slow rotation: RMS 10 nm

linear profile

Fast rotation: RMS 7 nm

curved profile
Computational uid dynamic simulations 8

DIEF - Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence

CFD analysis:
evaluate shear forces and stresses actng on
the forming optcal fibre nanoprobe caused by
differences in terms of flow structures;

Fibre and vial are counter-rotating

Two operatve conditons:

TCN1: slow rotation (6.28 rad/s both for fibre
and vial), quasi-statc conditon;
TCN2: fast rotation (628 rad/s for the fibre
and 18.85 rad/sec for the vial).

On the CFD Analysis of a Stratified Taylor-Couette System Dedicated to the Fabrication of Nanosensors,
D. Griffini - Fluids 2, 8 (2017)
Optical fibers as coupling device for WGM resonators
WGM resonators



Tapered fiber Waist 1 m Efficient light coupling to the cavity

Phase matching + Mode overlap

Very exible >> prism and waveguide coupling.

Prism Channel waveguide Angled polished fiber

Critical point: fragile and easy to deteriorate;

Selective addressing along the same fiber is complicated. 9
Long period gratings (LPGs) based coupler 10

An LPG is characterized by a series of periodic RI changes in the core of a single-mode

optcal fiber.
Typical gratng period 100 m - 500 m
Couple the forward fundamental core mode with forward-propagating cladding modes.

One or more attenuaton bands characterize the transmission spectrum. The minimum of
each band represents the coupling with a selectve azimuthally symmetric cladding mode
LPG fabrication and characterization 11

Boron-germanium co-doped optcal fibers (Fibercore PS1250/1500) with a point-to-point

technique, by using a KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physic COMPex 110 at = 248 nm).

Near field images






-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600





-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
New coupling unit 12

Partal tapering of the fiber (15-18m):

More elementary units (LPG + taper + LPG) in series
reduce the optcal field size
increase its external evanescent porton

Resonance contrast 60% Different LPG period different excitaton wavelength

Cross-talk test 13

Independently excited without cross-talk

D. Farnesi, F. Chiavaioli et al. Quasi-distributed and wavelength selectve addressing of optcal

micro-resonators based on long period fiber gratngs Optcs Express 23, 21175 (2015)
Additional cross-talk test 14

Transm ission (a.u.)




0 500 1000 1500
Detuning (M Hz)

Thermal resonance drift induced in one of the resonators

Conclusions 15

New dynamic chemical etching

Optcal fibre nanotps with:
partcular shape: from linear to curved
cone angle ranging from 15 to 40
roughness below 10 nm
distal end smaller than 30 nm

Several different types of single-mode and multmode

optcal fibres were tested

CFD supports experimental evidences

New coupling method based on LPGs with different


Robustness: thick fiber taper (1518 m in waist)

Wavelength selectve addressing of different

micro-resonators along the same fiber quasi- Multiplexing
distributed soluton. capability
Acknowledgments 16

MIPLAB group from CNR-IFAC,
D. Griffini, M. Insinna and and S.Salvadori from DIEF - Department of
Industrial Engineering - University of Florence;

Sens4bio Italian MIUR-FIR program No. RBFR122KL1
Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze project No. 2014.0770A2202.8861

for your attention

RMS 20 nm
a 100 m
RMS 20

20 m 5 m

RMS 10 nm
100 m RMS 10 nm
b 50 m 1 m

Vial turning at 3 rpm, fibre at 1000 rpm

RMS 7 nm
RMS 7 nm
200 m 20 m 2 m

Vial turning at 17 rpm, fibre at 2000 rpm

Results 7/17

Slow rotation: Fast rotation:

linear profile curved profile

Cone angle of Fast rotation:

about 40. cone angle of
about 25.

Dimension of the tips:

30 - 40 nm

Combined movements: extraction:
rotation + extraction, cone angle of
angle of about 7 about 14
WGMRs for sensing applications 11/17


= 1550nm

MicroBubble Resonator (MBR)

Two evanescent field tails

Integrated solution:
Possibility of testng liquids
or gases flow inside the
bubble without disturbing
Interacton of the light
the microfiber coupling.
with the inner medium.