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3:
Photosynthesis
PL ANT #1: ARE YOU HUNGRY?
PL ANT #2: I COULD GO FOR A LIGHT SNACK.
Plants are autotrophs.

Autotrophs produce their


own food using light as
an source of energy.

So How do they do it?!

6CO2 + 6H2O + Light C6H12O6 + 6O2


Photosynthesis is the production of carbon compounds in cells using
light energy.

Light E
nergy
Carbon Compounds
(i.e. sugars)

CO2
O2
H 2O
Photosynthesis consists of ligh
dependent and light-
independent reactions.
The Earths atmosphere, oceans, and rock depositions have changed due
to photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis has drastically changed the


planet:
Photosynthetic prokaryotes oxygenated the
atmosphere (2400 mya)
2400 mya- The Great Oxidation
Oxidation (and precipitation) of dissolved iron
created the banded iron formations on the sea beds
of Proterozoic oceans.
Significant increases in atmospheric oxygen resulted
in the evolution of much bigger, multicellular
organisms.
Visible light has a range of wavelengths with violet the shortest
wavelengths and red the longest.
Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light most effectively and reflects green
light more than other colours.
Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light most effectively and reflects green
light more than other colours. Hey, you! Draw this!
The structure of the chloroplast is adapted to its function of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast.
Double membranes and loops of DNA as
remnants of their endosymbiotic origins.
Stacks of thylakoids, called grana, increase
surface area with which to absorb light.
Thylakoid spaces are small to generate proton
gradients quickly.
Stroma holds enzymes to carry out the light-
independent reactions.
Lipid droplets and starch granules result after
LOTS of photosynthesis.
Mrs. G, what other kinds of pigments do
plants have?!?! Lets find out!

Separating the photosynthetic pigments


of plants can be easily done with a
process called chromatography.

Turn to pg. 130-131 of your textbook for a


detailed procedure
Data-Based Question:

Growth of Tomato Seedlings in Red,


Green, and Blue Light
pg. 134
10 marks
20 minutes
Photosynthesis consists of light-dependent and light-independent
reactions. Hey, you! Draw this, too!

Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast.


Light-dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid space and on the
thylakoid membranes.
The light-dependent reactions
produce NADPH and ATP for
the Calvin Cycle (AKA the
light-independent reactions).
Reduced NADP and ATP are produced in the light-dependent reactions.

The light-dependent reactions


happen in a series of steps:
1. Photoactivation
2. Photolysis
3. Electron transport
4. Chemiosmosis
5. ATP synthesis
6. Reduction of NADP
Absorption of light by photosystems generates excited! electrons.
There are two photosystems:
Photosystem I
Photosystem II

1. Photoactivation is the
e-
absorption of light energy
by chlorophyll and other
accessory pigments on
light-harvesting proteins
called photosystems.

This excites electrons from


the chlorophylls at the
reaction center of
Photosystems, which then
reduce another thylakoid
membrane protein called
plastoquinone (Pq).
Absorption of light by photosystems generates excited! electrons.

1. Photoactivation is the
absorption of light energy
by chlorophyll and other
accessory pigments on
light-harvesting proteins
called photosystems.

This excites electrons from


the chlorophylls at the
reaction center of
Photosystems.

There are two photosystems:


Photosystem I (PSI)
Photosystem II (PSII)
Photolysis of water generates electrons for use in the light-dependent
reactions.
2. Photolysis is the splitting of
water at Photosystem II.

Once PSII passes its electrons


on to (aka reduces) Pq, it
attracts the electrons in H2O so
strongly that it splits water in
half, producing hydrogen and
oxygen
Oxygen is produced in photosynthesis from photolysis of water.
Oxygen from photolysis will
be lost as a waste product


Mmmm sis
ot o sy nthe
Ph
st e p roduct.
wa
Transfer of excited electrons occurs between carriers in thylakoid
membranes.
3. The Electron Transport Chain
(ETC) is embedded in the
thylakoid membrane of the
chloroplast.

The excited electrons from PSII


pass on to the remaining proteins
in the ETC, losing energy as they
go.

The electrons do not have enough


energy from PSII to finish the
entire ETC, so they get another jolt
of energy at PSI.
Excited electrons from Photosystem II are used to generate a proton
gradient.
3. The released energy from
electrons moving down the ETC
is used to pump H+ ions into
the thylakoid space from the
stroma.

The small thylakoid space makes it


easy to build a concentration
gradient.
ATP synthase in thylakoids generates ATP using the proton gradient.

4. The build up of H+ ions


(protons) in the thylakoid space
creates a concentration
gradient.

As H+ ions flow down the


concentration gradient (High
Low), ATP Synthase turns and
provides energy to make ATP
from ADP and Pi. This is called
chemiosmosis.

ATP will be used as an energy


source for the light-independent
reactions of photosynthesis.
Excited electrons from Photosystem I are used to reduce NADP.

5. Electrons passed from PSI


reduce NADP into NADPH.

NADPH will be used later as


reducing power for the light-
independent reactions of
photosynthesis.
After the light-dependent, the light-independent reactions uses a carboxylase
enzyme to catalyze the carboxylation of ribulose bisphosphate.

So we made NADPH and ATP Now what?


The light-independent reactions
happen in the stroma of the
chloroplast.

Light-independent reactions use an


enzyme called Ribulose
bisphosphate carboxylase to fix
carbon from the atmosphere into
organic compounds.
Want an abbreviation for that enzyme?
Call it Rubisco!
Glycerate 3-phosphate is reduced to triose phosphate using reduced
NADP and ATP. C C C

1C CO2
C C C C C
C C C C C C
C C C C C C C C C C C
Rubisco
C C C C C
5C 6C C C C C C C

C C C
3C C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
Triose phosphate C C C
C C C
C C C
3C 6 ATP
C C C Glycerate 3
C C C 6 NADPH phosphate
6 ADP
C C C
C C C

6 NADP 3C
Triose phosphate is used to regenerate RuBP and produce carbohydrates.
C C C

C C C C C 1C CO2
1 triose phosphate is used to
C C C C C C C C C C C
make sugars. Rubisco C C C C C C
C C C C C
5C 6C C C C C C C
The other 5 triose phosphates
are used to regenerate RuBP for 3 ATP
the next cycle.
3 ADP
C C C
3C C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
3C C C C
C C C
C C C C C C
C=C=C C C C Triose phosphate 6 ATP
So, thats C C C
Glycerate 3
where the H H H 6 NADPH phosphate
6 ADP
NADPH went!! | | |
CCC
3C
| | |
H H H
6 NADP
Ribulose bisphosphate is reformed using ATP.
C C C

C C C C C 1C CO2
And thats C C C C C C C C C C C
where the ATP C C C C C
Rubisco C C C C C C

went!
5C 6C C C C C C C

3 ATP
3 ADP
C C C
3C C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
3C C C C
C C C
C C C C C C
C=C=C C C C Triose phosphate 6 ATP
C C C
Glycerate 3
6 NADPH phosphate
6 ADP
H H H
| | |
CCC
3C
| | |
H H H
6 NADP
DBQ: The effect of light and dark on carbon dioxide fixation.

Analyze the data and answer the questions on pg. 398 of


your textbook.
Temperature, light intensity, and carbon dioxide concentration are
possible limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis.

Discuss and explain the graphs above. Why do you think these factors
follow the trends they do?
Design an experiment that investigates a factor affecting photosynthesis.

Materials to choose from: Be sure to:


Elodea Consider control factors
Beakers Record possible sources of
Hot plates error.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate Create a procedure that with
(CO2 source) quantifiable data.
Water How will you graph this?
Lights
Timers Need some inspiration? Check
out pg. 137-138 of your textbook.