You are on page 1of 35

Chapter 3

Learning & Memory


Solomon text
Learning Process
Permanent change in behavior
Caused by experience
On-going process
Methods to learn
Active Incidental
learning learning
Vicariously
Without trying,
unintentional,
observations
casual
learning
Behavior Learning Theories
Assumes learning takes place
as a result of responses to external
environments
Stimuli -> Black Box -> Response
Behavior Learning Theories
Two views:
Classical conditioning

Instrumental conditioning
1. Classical Conditioning
A stimulus
(unconditioned stimuli)
that elicits a response
(conditioned response)
is paired with another stimulus
(conditioned stimuli )
that does not elicit a response on its own
Classical Conditioning examples
Association between stimuli & expectation
Pavlovs dog

Food Bell drooling //

Bell alone = drooling

Automatically using a credit card when


purchasing items.
Other responses & terms = CC
Repetition
Stimulus generation
Halo effect

Masked branding

Stimulus discrimination
Substitutes
Marketing applications = BLT
Distinctive
brand image
Link between product & need
Brand equity
Marketing applications = BLT
Ad wearout
(too much repetition)
Backward conditioning
Extinguishing product
associations
Strategies: stimulus generalization
Family branding
Product line extensions
Licensing
Look-alike packaging
2. Instrumental conditioning
A. Operant conditioning
As individual learns to perform
behaviors that produces a positive
outcome

Avoids those that yield negative


outcomes
2. Instrumental conditioning
B. SHAPING
Rewarding desired behavior

B.F. Skinner & pigeons


Instrumental learning
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
Extinction
When positive outcome no longer occurs
Rules for reinforcements
Fixed Example:
interval Frequency
Variable marketing
Fixed ratio Prizes for the
more you buy
Variable ratio
Discover Card
3.COGNITIVE LEARNING
THEORY
Internal mental processes
View people as problem solvers
Actively uses information to
master environment.
3. CLT:
Conscious learning or not?
Observational learning
Modeling
3. CLT Modeling conditions
Attentiondirected at model
Model must be desirable to
emulate
Must remember what model does
& says
3. CLT Modeling conditions

Must convert information into


action
Must be motivated to perform
actions
3. CLT : marketing application
Consumer willingness
tomake own reinforcement
Saves marketers the task

Consumers enjoy using models


for guidance in purchasing
4. Observational Learning
We watch others and note
reinforcements they
receive for behaviors
Vicarious learning
Socially desirable
models/celebrities who use or
do not use their products
4. Observational Learning
Modeling: imitating others behavior

PRODUCTION
ATTENTION RETENTION MOTIVATION
PROCESSES

OBSERVATIONAL
LEARNING
Figure 3.3 (Abridged)
Stop finish on Friday
MEMORY in Learning
Process
Acquires information
Stores it over time for access
later

Encoding, storage, retrieval


MEMORY: Encoding
Sensory meaning
Semantic meaning
Episodic memories
Flashbulb memories
Through narrative or story
Memory Systems

SENSORY SHORT-TERM LONG-TERM


MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY

ELABORATIVE
ATTENTION
REHEARSAL

Figure 3.5 (Abridged)


Memory Systems:
Sensory memory
Short-term memory
Info passes thru attentional gate, then transferred
Long-term memory
Retains information for long period of time
Catchy slogans & jingles help this
STORING info in Memory
Multiple-store
Activation models of memory
Knowledge structures
Nodes
Hierarchical processing model
Evoked sets
Storing info in Memory
Spreading activation
Coding
Proposition
Links nodes with chunks of info
Script
Sequence of events is expected
Service scripts
Scripts that guide behavior in commercial environ.
RETRIEVAL from memory
Info accessed from LT memory
Influencing factors
Age
Situational variable (e.g. environment)

Viewing the environment


Retrieval: (recall)
State-dependent retrieval
If internal state is similar when info learned
Mood Congruence effect
Prior Familiarity with item enhances recall
Salience of brand (level of prominence)
Von Restorff Effect
Surprise element
FORGETTING
Decay Response bias
Interference Memory lapses
Retroactive Facts vs. feelings
interference
Proactive
interference
Part-listing cueing
effect
Products as memory makers
Nostalgia
Retro brand
Updated version of an historical
brand
Measuring memory
Poor job of recall
Factors:
Impact

Recognition (longer)
recall
The end