You are on page 1of 46

Module III Space Frame

Vishal Chettry
Assistant Professor
School of Planning and Architecture
Poornima University
INTRODUCTION
A space frame is a structure system
assembled of linear elements so
arranged that forces are transferred in a
three-dimensional manner.
In some cases, the constituent element
may be two-dimensional.
Macroscopically a space frame often
takes the form of a flat or curved
surface.
A space frame or space structure is a
truss-like, lightweight rigid structure.
Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often
used to accomplish long spans with few supports.
Theory DESIGN METHOD
Space frames are typically
Force designed using a rigidity matrix.
The special characteristic of
the stiffness matrix in an
architectural space frame is the
independence of the angular
factors.
If the joints are sufficiently rigid,
the angular deflections can be
Tension
neglected, simplifying the
calculations.
HISTORY OF SPACE FRAME Tetrahedron
Space frames were independently
developed by alexander graham
A tetrahedron shape is the simplest space truss, consisting
bell around 1900 and buckminster
fuller in the 1950s of six members which meet at four joints.
Buckminster fuller's focus
was architectural structures; his work had
greater influence.
It was developed in california during the
1960s and introduced to the south african
market in 1982.
It was specifically developed for unstable
soil conditions, the panels form a
monolithic structure offering superior wall
strength in which no cracking will occur.
APPLICATIONS

Aircraft hangers
Factories
Cinema halls
Exhibition halls
Airports
Canopies
Swatara State Park in Pennsylvani Vierendeel bridge at Grammene, Belgium

Miramar Hotel, Barcelona, Spain Miramar Metroplex ,San Diego, CA Eden Project in Cornwall, England
ADVANTAGES
Light weight.
Large spans can be achieved
Elegant & Economical.
Carry load by three dimensional action.
High Inherent Stiffness.
Easy to construct.
Save Construction Time & Cost.
Services (such as lighting and air conditioning) can be integrated with space frames.
Offer the architect unrestricted freedom in locating supports and planning the subdivision
of the covered space.
Durable materials & protective finishes.
Construction is simple, safe and fast.
No Site Painting or Welding.
DISADVANTAGES
One major disadvantage is that they can be difficult to engineer.

It's not straightforward to determine how forces will distribute throughout


a structure that has a lot of redundant pieces.
MATERIALS
MANY MATERIALS ARE USED FOR THESE SPACE FRAMES
STEEL TIMBER
CONCRETE
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
TYPES OF TUBES
CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTION RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTION
Types of space frames
They are classified broadly in three categories
I. Skeleton (braced) frame work
e.g. domes, barrel vaults, double and multiplier
grids, braced plates. They
are more popular. They are innumerable
combinations and variation possible and follow
regular geometric forms.

ii. Stressed skin systems


e.g. Stressed skin folded plates, stressed skin
domes and barrel vaults,

iii. Suspended (cable or membrane) structures


e.g. Cable roofs.
San Siro stadium, Milan
Some Basic Patterns
Pattern Creation By Element Removal
TYPES OF SPACE FRAME
2.Classification by the arrangement of its elements
Single layer grid
Double layer grid
Triple layer grid

Single Layer Grid- All elements are located on the surface.


2. DOUBLE LAYER GRID

commonly used spaceframes are double layered and flat.


elements are organized in two parallel layers with each other at a certain distance apart.
each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection
of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other.
3. TRIPLE LAYER GRID -
Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals.
They are almost always flat.
Practically used for a larger span building.
TYPES OF CONNECTOR
Nodus connector:
it can accept both rectangular and circular hollow sections and the
cladding can be fixed directly to the chords.
chord connectors have to be welded to the ends of the hollow members
on site.
Triodetic connector:
It consists of a hub, usually an aluminium extrusion, that has slots or key
ways, which the ends of members are pressed or coined to match the slots.
Tuball node connector:
Hollow sphere made of spheroidal graphite.
End of the circular hollow section member to be connected is fitted at its ends by welding
Connection from inside the cup is done using bolt and nut.
Hemispherical dome connector:
Usually use for double layer domes.
Has a span more than 40m.
More economical for long span.
The jointing is connect by slitting the end of the tube or rod with the joint fin.
Two types of joint: pentagonal joint and hexagonal joint.
Nodes Members/Struts
Typical Connections
The Ericsson Globe
Leightons Stadium Disaster
MODULAR SPACE FRAME
MODULAR SPACE FRAME
Component of SPACE FRAME
Member - alumunium, stainless steel, PVC, fiber glass)
Joint / Connector
Component of SPACE FRAME
Support point