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PUMPS

Introduction
Types of pumps
Major Manufacturers
Tabular Casing Pump
Pump performance curve
Pump performance test
Head
ISO Standards
Introduction
A device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.

The three basic functions of pumps are:


1. Flow liquid from low to high pressure reigon
2. Flow liquid from lower to higher level
3. Flow liquid at a faster rate

The two basic types of pumps are dynamic pumps and displacement pumps
Dynamic Pumps
Velocity Pressure is converted into Static Pressure
Provides constant water supply
Impeller rotates the liquid which increases its Kinetic Energy
Liquid passed through increasing area to increase pressure
Volume and discharge pressure are inversely related
Can operate for short period of time with discharge valve closed
For RPM>5000: discharge valve should be opened gradually
1) End-Suction Centrifugal Pump

(i) Frame mounted pumps:


have a separate shafts/bearing for motor and impellers which are
joined together by a coupler
Provides easy maintenance, high efficiency

(ii) Closed Coupled pumps:


Have both the impeller and the motor connected on a same
shaft/bearing.
Compact, easily replaceable
2) Vertical Turbine Pump
They are used to pump water from
under ground
(i) Can-Turbine Pump:
(ii) Line Shaft Turbine:
(iii) Axial Flow Vertical turbine:

Provides lower head with high flowrates


(iv) Submersible Pump:

Doesnt require priming


Lesser energy needed as water forced into it naturally
Lower chances of cavitation
3) Slit-Case Pump
Easy maintenance as the center casing can easily be removed without hindering the inlet, outet
and impeller. Is a type of centrifugal pump.
Positive Displacement Pump
Periodic working
Pressure and volume are not related
Will be destructed when operated without opening the discharge valve as pressure keeps on
building up
Basic principle involves trapping of a volume of liquid and exerting a pressure on it by decreasing
the gap between the rotor and its wall.
Self priming
1) Rotary Pump
(i) Screw Pump:
(ii) Gear Pump:
(iii) Lobe Pump:

(iv) Vane Pump:


2) Positive Displacement Pump
Cam is rotated by a motor
Reciprocating piston pressurizes the fluid
The check valve allows the discharge and suction of fluid
at the right time
Pump Curve
Links flowrate, head, efficiency, NPSHr, impeller diameter, minimum flowrate and horse powers
Also used to perform pump performance test as follows
Tabular Casing Pump
A tubular casing pump is a centrifugal pump in which the fluid handled, having passed the
impeller and the diffuser, flows through the tube shaped pump casing. The most common tubular
casing pumps are vertical pumps
Major Pump Manufacturers
COMPANY COUNTRY
ITT USA
Ebara JAPAN
Grundfos DENMARK
Flowserve USA
Sulzer SWITZERLAND

Weir SCOTLAND

KSB(Klein, Schanzlin & Becker AG) GERMANY

Wilo AG GERMANY

Roper Industries USA


Putzmeister GERMANY
Different Types of HEADS
Suction head: is the total static head of the fluid in suction tube
Discharge Head: the total height to which the fluid can travel if vertically discharged
Total Head: is the difference between the two and
is referred to the additional head provided by the pump.
It is referred to as the characteristic of the pump.
Shutoff head: is the amount of head the pump
produces at zero flowrate.
Total head = static head + frictional head
Net Positive Suction Head
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (available)
Is the head of the fluid at the suction inlet point.
NPSHA= HA HZ- HF+ HV- HVP
HA= The absolute pressure on the surface of the liquid in the supply tank
HZ= The vertical distance between the surface of the liquid in the supply tank and the centerline of the pump
HF= Friction losses in the suction piping
HV= Velocity head at the pump suction port
HVP= Absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at the pumping temperature
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (required)
NPSHr is a value that expresses the minimum absolute pressure that must be acting on a liquid as it enters the pump
impeller to avoid excessive cavitation and degradation of pump performance.
Different Parts of Pump
1. Bell Mouth:
Is a nozzle-shaped inlet casing component, often employed with vertical tubular casing pumps.
Ensures uniform velocity distribution at the entry level, failure to comply with would cause flow separation
and vena contracta.
2. Diffuser:
Facilitates reduction in flow velocity and corresponding increase in static pressure whilst causing as small a
loss as possible
Preferable angle is 8 to 10 degrees
3. Impeller:
A rotating component equipped with vanes or blades used in turbomachinery.
Flow deflection at the impeller vanes allows mechanical power (energy at the vanes) to be converted into
pump power output
three main types of impellers are radial, mixed and axial.

4. Shaft:
A central component of a centrifugal pump rotor and carries the impellers, the shaft sleeves and
the bearings
While designing a shaft, factors which are considered includes the torque, deflection,
bending/torsional vibrations and corrosion
5. Bushing:
an independent plain bearing that is inserted into a housing to provide a bearing surface for
rotary applications
6. Anti-friction Bearing:
A bearing which contains anti-friction elements like balls to avoid friction with the rotating shaft.
7. Motor Stool:
connects the pump casing with the motor housing
8. Bearing Housing:
A cover of the bearing which hold the bearing from its outter side at a fixed position
9. Joint/ O-rings:
Mechanical gaskets to seal the two components being joined together
10. Stuffing Box Ring:
It is an assembly which contains gland seal which prevents leakage of water
11. Casing wear ring:
A device used to seal the pressure leakage of the liquid between the inlet of the impeller and the
pump casing.
12. The shaft protecting sleeve:
is fitted to the shaft and rotates in the bearing bush.
It protects the pump shaft against mechanical damage caused by shaft
seals and bearing shells and against chemical
damage caused by aggressive fluids
13. Coupling:
The shaft coupling is the connecting element between
the electric motor and the pump hydraulic system.
Standards
Factory pump performance tests are typically conducted in accordance with the Hydraulic
Institute Test Standard (ANSI/HI 14.6 "Rotodynamic Pumps for Performance Acceptance Tests,"
2011).
1. ISO 9600/2
This International Standard specifies hydraulic performance tests for customers acceptance of
rotodynamic pumps
2. ISO 228-6
This part of ISO 228 specifies the requirements for thread form, dimensions, tolerances and
designation for fastening pipe threads, thread sizes
3. DIN 2501:
Used for flange dimensions and drilling for different PN rating (https://mdmetric.com/tech/2501sum.pdf)
4. DIN EN 1092-2:
Relates outside diameter, bolt circle diameter and number of bolts (https://www.samson.de/pdf_en/t00020en.pdf