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Introduction to Poetry

Poetry - A type of writing that uses

language to express imaginative
and emotional qualities instead of
or in addition to meaning.

Poetry may be written as

individual poems or included in
other written forms as in dramatic
poetry, hymns, or song lyrics.
Types of Poetry
Narrative Poem:

A poem that tells the

sequence of events of a

A very structured fourteen-line poem that follows

a specific rhyme structure and rhythm.
The two most common sonnets are the Italian
sonnet and the English sonnet.
William Shakespeare wrote many English
sonnets, which are also referred to as
hakespearean sonnets.
One of the most beautiful elements found in
poetry is rhyme.
Rhyme is the matching of sounds that are
When working with rhyme, you should always
remember that the most important part of verse
is the last word.
The last word of each verse is what establishes
they rhyme.

The repetition of the initial letter or sound in

two or more words in a line.
To the lay-person, these are called tongue-
Example: How much dew would a
dewdrop drop if a dewdrop did drop dew?
Figurative Language
Figurative Language is the
use of words outside of their
literal or usual meaning to
add beauty or force.

It is characterized by the use

of similes
A direct, explicit comparison of one
thing to another in which the
words like or as are used.

She looks like an angel.

Her lips are as sweet as honey.


The attempt to echo or

imitate sounds with words.

Bow-wow, oink-oink, tic-tac, howling

Introduction to Drama

Drama is a type of literature that is

primarily written to be performed for an
audience. When reading a play, it is
important to keep certain features of
drama in mind.

Some of these features relate to drama

as literature; others reflect its character
as a performance.
Types of Drama- Tragedy

Tragedy: A play in which the main

character experiences disaster, but faces
this downfall in such a way as to attain
heroic stature.*
Even though Tragedies are gloomy they
are triumphant, because they inspire
exaltation at the greatness human beings
can attain even in defeat.

Comedy closes with a peaceful resolution

of the main conflict.*
High Comedy: The humor arises from subtle
characterization, social satire, and
sophisticated wit.
Low Comedy: Emphasizes absurd dialogue,
bawdy jokes, visual gags, and physical
Types of Comedy

Romantic Comedy: The main characters are

lovers, and the plot tends to follow the pattern
of boy gets girl, boy loses girl, boy gets girl
Satiric Comedy: Uses humor to ridicule foolish
ideas or customs with the purpose of improving
Comedy of Manners: Satirizes the vices and follies
of the upper class.*
Additional Forms of Drama

Farce: Relies on exaggeration,

absurdity, and slapstick
Straight Drama or Drama: Deal with
serious subjects, but do not always
end in disaster.
Elements of Dramatic Language

A convincing illustration of the power of
foregrounding to suggest latent significance is
furnished by modern poets who make use of
stylistic devices of transporting pieces of
ordinary, non poetic language into poetic

A linguistic deviation is a disruption of the

normal process of communication: it leaves
a gap, as it were, in ones comprehension of
text. The gap can be filled, and the
deviation rendered significant. But only if by
an effort of imagination the reader
perceives some deeper connection which
compensates for the superficial oddity. In
case of a metaphor this compensation is in
the form of an analogy.

A parallel structure joins together two or

more recognizably similar, yet not identical
structures, and can, just like deviation or
repetition, occur at all levels of language
(phonological, syntactic, morphological
etc.). It is very frequently used as a
rhetorical device, in both literary and non-
literary texts, and is common even in
everyday speech, e.g. in proverbs, or in
Introduction to the Novel

a fictional prose work
usually divided into chapters
relatively long and often complex plot
story traditionally develops through
the thoughts and actions of its
Main characters - characters who the story
revolves around the most.
Minor characters - interact with the main
characters and help move the story along.
Static characters - stay the same over the
entire course of the story, even though
their situation may change.
Dynamic characters - evolve as individuals,
learning from their experiences and
growing emotionally.
Introduction to Short Stories

Narrative Prose Length
Both the novel and the short story A short story should be able to narrate
share the same main narrative a story in less than 7,000 words, when
elements, such as plot, characters, a novel always exceeds 50,000 words
theme and conflict. and sometimes even reaches 100,000
Theme Plot and Characters
Both the novel and the short story Usually, a short story will deal with
always have a strong central theme, one incident at a specific time and
sometimes clearly stated and focus more on creating a certain mood
sometimes just implied and atmosphere. On the other hand,
the novel is more complex, dealing
with a chain of closely connected
events, involving more characters and
more setting
Conflict Exposition and Resolution

Both the novel and the short In longer forms of narrative

story need conflict in order to prose, like the novel, stories
create obstacles, to raise action start with an exposition, an
and lead their characters and introduction to the plot until the
readers to a climax, the turning conflict reaches its climax, and
point of the story which will there is no other way to go but
later bring the resolution. towards a resolution
Very often a short story will have
a sudden beginning and an
abrupt ending instead of a
meaningful resolution, focusing
more on describing one event
and creating a certain emotion,
rather than answering questions
and solving problems.
Introduction - The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is
Rising Action - This is where the events in the story become complicated and the
conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax).
Climax - This is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story.
The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not?
Falling action - The events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The
reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not
(events between climax and denouement).
Denouement - This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.

It is helpful to consider climax as a three-fold phenomenon: 1) the main

character receives new information 2) accepts this information (realizes it but
does not necessarily agree with it) 3) acts on this information (makes a choice
that will determine whether or not he/she gains his objective).
CHARACTER -- There are two meanings for the word character:
1) The person in a work of fiction.
2) The characteristics of a person.

Persons in a work of fiction - Antagonist and Protagonist

Short stories use few characters. One character is clearly central to the story with all
major events having some importance to this character - he/she is the PROTAGONIST.
The opposer of the main character is called the ANTAGONIST.

The Characteristics of a Person -

In order for a story to seem real to the reader its characters must seem real.
Characterization is the information the author gives the reader about the characters
themselves. The author may reveal a character in several ways:
a) his/her physical appearance
b) what he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams
c) what he/she does or does not do
d) what others say about him/her and how others react to him/her
Characters are convincing if they are: consistent,
motivated, and life-like (resemble real people)

Characters are...
1. Individual - round, many sided and complex
2. Developing - dynamic, many sided personalities that
change, for better or worse, by the end of the story.
3. Static - Stereotype, have one or two characteristics that
never change and are emphasized e.g. brilliant detective,
drunk, scrooge, cruel stepmother, etc.
THEME -- The theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central
insight. It is the author's underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying
to convey. The theme may be the author's thoughts about a topic or view
of human nature. The title of the short story usually points to what the
writer is saying and he may use various figures of speech to emphasize his
theme, such as: symbol, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or irony.

Some simple examples of common themes from literature, TV, and film
- things are not always as they appear to be
- Love is blind
- Believe in yourself
- People are afraid of change
- Don't judge a book by its cover