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# CONSOLIDATION

PRESENTED BY:
SHUBHAM KUMAR
GUIDED BY:
Prof S.P.MUKHERJEE
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
PROCESS OF CONSOLIDATION
TYPES OF CONSOLIDATION DEPENDING UPON STRESS HISTORY
1-D CONSOLIDATION THEORY OF TERZAGHI
SAND DRAINS
APPLICATION OF CONSOLIDATION
CONCLUSION
REFRENCES
INTRODUCTION
When a soil mass is subjected to a compressive force its
volume decreases this property of soil is compressibility of
soil .The compression in soil can occur due to
Compression of solid particles and water in the voids
Compression and expulsion of air in the void
Expulsion of water in the void
CONSOLIDATION PROCESS
PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION: expulsion of water from the
void of soil grain.
SECONDARY CONSOLIDATION: If the load applied is
constantly acting even after the expulsion of water then
due to plastic rearrangement of soil solids further
settlement occur which is called as secondary
consolidation of soil.
TYPES OF SOIL
DEPENDING UPON STRESS HISTORY
consolidation ratio=
Over
NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED:-The present effective stress is
the maximum stress that it has ever experienced in its stress
history.
OCR=1
OVER CONSOLIDATED :The effective stress is less than the
pre consolidation stress .
OCR>1
TERZAGHIS THEORY OF ONE
DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION
According to Karl Von Terzagahi consolidation is any
process which involves a decrease in water content of
saturated soil without replacement of water by air.
Mechanical model of consolidation
Assumptions
Mathematical formula
Non dimensional parameter
MECHANICAL MODEL OF
CONSOLIDATION
spring represents skeleton of saturated soil.
Water in the vessel represents the water filling in the voids in the
soil.
The perforations in the pistons are analogous to the void in the
soil.

## fig-1 spring model of terzaghi

ASSUMPTION OF TERZAGHIS
THEORY
Compression and flow is one dimensional.
Soil is homogeneous and completely saturated.
The soil grain and the water grain both are
incompressible.
Darcy law is valid.
The total additional stress ,coefficient of permeability and
the coefficient of volume compressibility is constant.
MATHEMATICAL FORMULA

## Fig-2 section of clay layer

where u:-pore water pressure ,t:-time ,z:-thickness :- coefficient of
consolidation
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
At
t=0, for all values of z and applied effective stress .
As for all values of z.

## Fig -3 soil with drainage

layer
NON DIMENSIONAL PARAMETRS

## Drainage path ratio:- where H is longest drainage path

taken by the pore water pressure to reach a permeable
sub-surface layer above or below.
Consolidation ratio:-ratio of the dissipated pore pressure
to the initial excess pore pressure.
Time factor(T):-
CONSOLIDATION TEST
Two types of test
Floating ring test: soil sample moves in both top and bottom of the ring
Fixed ring test : soil sample moves only in downward direction.

## Fig -4 oedometer test device Fig-5 fixed ring consolidation cell

COEFFICIENT OF
CONSOLIDATION
It is a factor governing the rate by which compression can
occur in a particular soil.
Calculation of coefficient of consolidation from laboratory
test results
A.Cassangrande method(logarithm-of-time method):-

## Taylors method(square-root -of-time method):-

SAND DRAINS
Based on three dimensional consolidation,
Radial drainage provides shortening of drainage path so
faster dissipation of pore water pressure.

## Fig -6 vertical sand drain system

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Consolidation is a time dependent process and the rate of
consolidation is generally very slow
Slow rate of consolidation can be accelerated by sand drains.
Settlement is the main effect of consolidation which may
cause the failure of the foundation of structure.
For any design of foundation on soil the calculation of
settlement should be done to obtain the allowable bearing
capacity according to settlement criterion.
REFRENCES
Basics and applied soil mechanics by GopalRanjan & AS
Rao
https://en.Wikipedia.org
https: //theconstructor.org
https://nptel.ac.in
https://slideshare.net
www.pcte.com.au
THANK YOU