Topic 2 Cell As A Unit

Of Life

2.1 What Is A Cell?

ITeach – Science Form 1

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

What Is A Cell?

Can only be seen under a microscope.

Cells The basic unit of living things.

In 1665, Robert Hooke became the first person to
study cell by using a microscope. He discovered
that cork consists of small units that he named as
cell.

Hooke’s drawing of cork cells

ITeach – Science Form 1

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan

Apakah Sel?

Hanya boleh dilihat melalui mikroskop

Sel Unit asas benda hidup

Pada 1665, Robert Hooke menjadi orang yang
pertama yang mengkaji sel dengan
menggunakan mikroskop. Dia mendapati gabus
terdiri daripada unit-unit kecil yang dinamakan
sel.

Lukisan sel gabus oleh Hooke

ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life

What Is A Cell?

Microscope

Eyepiece

Coarse focus knob
Body tube
Fine focus knob

Objective lens arm

Clip

Condenser

Mirror
Base

ITeach – Science Form 1

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Mikroskop Kanta mata Pelaras kasar Tiub badan Pelaras halus Kanta objektif Lengan Klip Kondenser Cermin Tapak ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Use the high power objective lens to look at the specimen. Look through and adjust the mirror to allow enough light entering into the Coarse focus microscope. Turn the course focus knob anticlockwise until the specimen can be seen. Turn the course focus knob clockwise until it nearly touches the slide. Turn the fine focus knob clockwise until the specimen can be seen more clearly. knob Move the body tube up Put the prepared slide on top of the stage down and hold it with the clip. Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life What Is A Cell? The Correct Way To Use A Microscope Turn the low power objective lens until it is directly on top of the stage. Look through the eyepiece. ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Laraskan pelaras kasar sehingga spesimen dapat dilihat Pusingkan pelaras halus mengikut arah jam sehingga spesimen dapat dilihat dengan lebih jelas. Gunakan kanta objektif berkuasa tinggi untuk meneliti spesimen ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . Laraskan pelaras kasar mengikut arah jam sehingga ia hampir menyentuh slaid Lihat melalui kanta mata. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Cara Yang Betul Menggunakan Mikroskop Letakkan kanta objektif berkuasa rendah di atas pentas Lihat melaluinya dan laraskan cermin untuk membenarkan cahaya yang cukup Pelaras kasar memasuki mikroskop Gerakkan Gerakkan tiub tiubbadan badan Letakkan slaid yang disediakan di atas ke bawah ke atas pentas dan klipkan slaid itu.

An onion Absorbs any excess iodine solution with a filter paper. ITeach – Science Form 1 . Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life What Is A Cell? Preparing A Slide Of Onion Cells Cut and remove a square section of an onion. Scale leaf Add a drop of water and follow by Filter paper iodine solution. Pell off a thin epidermal layer of the onion. Observe the specimen under a microscope. Iodine solution Cover the onion cells with a cover slip. Cover slip The prepared slide Place the epidermal layer on a slide.

Bawang Serap larutan iodin berlebihan pada sel bawang dengan menggunakan kertas turas. Perhatikan sel bawang di bawah mikroskop. Tambah setitis air dan kemudian Kertas turas setitis larutan iodin pada sel bawang. Penutup Slaid yang disediakan Letakkan lapisan epidermis di atas Satu bahagian pada bawang slaid. Larutan iodin Tutup sel bawang dengan menggunakan penutup. ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . Kupaskan selapis nipis lapisan epidermis bawang. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Menyediakan Slaid Sel Bwang Potong dan keluarkan satu bahagian segiempat sama pada bawang.

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life What Is A Cell? General Structure Of Animal Cell Animal Cell Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Struktur Umum Sel Haiwan Sel Haiwan Membran sel Sitoplasma Nukleus ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life What Is A Cell? General Structure Of Plant Cell Plant Cell Cell wall Cell membrane Cytoplasm Vacuole Chloroplast Nucleus ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Struktur Umum Sel Tumbuhan Sel Tumbuhan Dinding sel Membran sel Sitoplasma Vakuol Kloroplas Nukleus ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life What Is A Cell? Cell Structures Vacuole : Stores water and dissolved minerals Cell wall : Maintains the shape of plant cells Nucleus : Controls Cell membrane : all cell activities Controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell Chloroplast : Contains the Cytoplasm : Medium for green pigment that absorbs chemical processes in sunlight for photosynthesis plant cells ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Struktur Sel Vakuol : Menyimpan air dan bahan mineral terlarut Dinding sel : Mengekalkan bentuk sel Nukleus : Mengawal Membran sel : aktiviti sel Mengawal pergerakan bahan masuk dan keluar dari sel Kloroplas : Mengandungi Sitoplasma : Medium pigmen hijau yang menyerap bagi tindak balas kimia cahaya matahari untuk sel fotosintesis ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life What Is A Cell? Comparison Between Animal Cell and Plant Cell Cells are the basic unit of both animal and plant cells Similarities Both have cell membrane. cytoplasm and nucleus Plant cell Differences Animal cell Leaf cells Example Human hand cells Fixed Shape Not Fixed Has cellulose cell wall Cell wall None Has chloroplast that Chloroplast None contains chlorophyll None except in lower Large vacuole Vacuole level animals ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Apakah Sel? Perbandingan Antara Sel Haiwan Dan Sel Tumbuhan Sel adalah unit asas sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan Persamaan Kedua-duanya mempunyai sel membran. sitoplasma dan nukleus Sel tumbuhan Perbezaan Sel haiwan Sel daun Contoh Sel kulit manusia Tetap Bentuk Tidak tetap Mempunyai dinding sel Dinding sel Tiada Kloroplas Kloroplas Tiada mengandungi klorofil Tiada kecuali haiwan Vakuol yang besar Vakuol kelas bawah ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life 2.2 Unicellular And Multicellular Organisms ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Lives in wet places. Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Unicellular And Multicellular Organisms Organisms Unicellular Multicellular Uni means one Multi means many Consists of only one cell Consist of many cells joined together. Most of the multicellular Can only be seen through microorganisms live in microscope water.  Amoeba  Yeast  Hydra  Spirogyra  Paramecium  Chlamydomonas ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Kebanyakan organisma Hanya boleh dilihat melalui multisel tinggal dalam air mikroskop  Ameba  Yis  Hidra  Spirogira  Paramesium  Klamidomonas ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisma Unisel Dan Multisel Organisma Unisel Multisel Uni bermaksud satu Multi bermaksud banyak Terdiri daripada satu sel Terdiri daripada banyak sel Tinggal dalam di tempat yang lembap.

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life 2.3 Cell Organisation In The Human Body ITeach – Science Form 1 .

A system carries out specialized function. Different systems work together to form a whole organism. Each cell in a tissue carries out the same function. The same type of cells form a tissue. Different tissues form an organ. Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body The Organisation In The Human Body The human body is made up of different cells. Different organs form a system. Cell Tissue Organ System Organism ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Setiap sistem melakukan fungsi yang khusus. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Organisasi Sel Manusia Badan manusia terdiri daripada sel-sel yang berlainan Sel yang sama membentuk tisu. Organ yang berlainan membentuk sistem. Sel Tisu Organ Sistem Organisma ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . Setiap sel dalam tisu melakukan fungsi yang sama Tisu yang berlainan membentuk organ. Sistem yang berlainan membentuk organisma.

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body Cell Organisation in the Human Body Smooth muscle cell 1 Cellular level Smooth Blood muscle cell circulatory 2 Tissue level system Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle Blood tissue vessel 5 Organism level (organ) Connective tissue 3 Organ level 4 System level ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Organisasi Sel Sel otot 1 Peringkat sel Tisu otot Blood circulatory 2 Peringkat tisu system Tisu epitelium Tisu otot Salur darah 5 Organisma (organ) Tisu penghubung 3 Peringkat organ 4 Peringkat sistem ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body Types of Human Cells Example of Cells Red blood cells Nerve cells Receives stimuli and send For transportation of oxygen information to all parts of the and carbon dioxide body Epithelial cells Ovum Form layer of skin To produce offspring Protect cells from injury White blood cells Muscle cells Play a vital role in body Play a vital role in your movement through immune system contraction and relaxation. ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Jenis – Jenis Sel Contoh- contoh Sel Sel darah merah Sel saraf Menerima rangsangan dan Mengangkut gas oksigen menghantar maklumat ke dan karbon dioksida bahagian badan yang lain Sel epitelium Ovum Menghasilkan lapisan kulit Untuk menghasillkan anak Melindungi sel daripada kecederaan Sel darah putih Sel otot Memainkan peranan penting Memainkan peranan penting dalam pergerakan melalui dalam sistem keimunan pengecutan dan pengenduran. ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body Connective tissue Epithelial tissue Provides support Covers and protects the internal and external Connect different types of surfaces of organs and tissue cavities Example Of Tissues Nerve tissue Muscle tissue Attached to the bone Transmits impulses and responses Cause movement through contraction and relaxation ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Tisu penghubung Tisu epitelium Memberikan sokongan Meliputi dan melindungi Menghubungkan tisu-tisu permukaan dalam dan luar yang berlainan organ Contoh Tisu Tisu saraf Tisu otot Melekat pada tulang Menghantar impuls dan gerak balas Membantu pergerakan melalui pengecutan dan pengenduran ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

the blood ITeach – Science Form 1 . Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body Example of Organs Kidney Stomach Liver Heart • Removes • To process and • To filter harmful • To pump blood. substances from from the blood. water and waste transport food.

makanan. dari darah. ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . lain dari darah. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Contoh-contoh Organ Buah pinggang Perut Hati Jantung •Mengeluarkan air • Memproses dan • Menuraskan • Mengepam dan bahan kumuh mengangkut bahan berbahaya darah.

metabolic gases with the water. internal environment and processing An important part of nerve impulses the immune system. ITeach – Science Form 1 . and disease. Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body Various systems of the Human Body and Their Functions Respiratory Excretory system Circulatory system Respiratory system Controls water and Transport of is about exchanging salt balance nutrients. Lymphatic system Nervous system To maintain fluid Responsible for balance in the sending. receiving. throughout the body. water salts environment.

oksigen dan karbon kandungan air dan oksigen. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Sistem dalam Tubuh Manusia dan Fungsinya Sistem Pernafasan Sistem Perkumuhan Sistem Peredaran Darah Melakukan Mengawal pertukaran gas keseimbangan Menghantar nutrien. Memainkan peranan menerima dan penting dalam sistem memproses impuls keimunan ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . dan air ke dioksida dengan garam seluruh tubuh persekitaran Sistem Limfa Sistem Saraf Mengekalkan keseimbanagn bendalir Menghantar.

stores. faeces Skeletal system Urinary system For support and protection Produces. Provides framework for Regulates water and muscle electrolyte ITeach – Science Form 1 . Regulate into absorbable and For locomotion and the body's growth. and Undigested food is sexual development eliminated as and function. and eliminates urine. Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life Cell Organisation In The Human Body Various system of the Human Body and their Functions Muscular system Endocrine system Digestive system To maintain posture Produce and secrete Breaks down food hormones. simpler units facial expressions metabolism.

menyimpan dan melindungi organ dan menyingkirkan urin badan Mengawalatur kandungan Sebagai rangka untuk otot air ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 . teringkas pergerakan Pengawalaturan Makanan yang tidak pertumbuhan badan dicerna disingkirkan dan metabolisme sebagai najis Sistem Rangka Sistem Urinari Sistem sokongan badan Menghasilkan. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Organisasi Sel Di Dalam Tubuh Badan Manusia Pelbagai Sistem Dan Fungsinya Sistem Otot Sistem Endokrin Sistem Pencernaan Mengekalkan postur Menghasilkan dan Memecah makanan badan merembeskan menjadi molekul Memudahkan hormon.

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life 2.4 The Human Being–A Complex Organism ITeach – Science Form 1 .

The Human Being–A Each type of cell specializes in performing a Complex Organism particular function. organs. and systems to ensure that the body function efficiently. ITeach – Science Form 1 . Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life The Human Being–A Complex Organism The human body is made up of billions of cells. Cells are organized to form tissues.

Kompleks Sel membentuk tisu. Manusia Ialah Organisma Yang Setiap sel mempunyai fungsi yang khusus. organ. Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Manusia Ialah Organisma Yang Kompleks Badan manusia terdiri daripada berjuta-juta sel. dan sistem bagi membolehkan badan dapat berfungsi dengan baik. ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Topic 2 Cell As A Unit Of Life The Human Being–A Complex Organism The Ability of Human Brain Create and Distinguish perform many between right specialized and wrong Understand functions problem and solve the problem ITeach – Science Form 1 .

Topik 2 Sel Sebagai Unit Asas Kehidupan Manusia Ialah Organisma Yang Kompleks Keupayaan Otak Manusia Menentukan Mencipta idea perkara yang dan betul atau melakukan salah Memahami dan fungsi khusus menyelesaikan masalah ITeach – Sains Tingkatan 1 .

Teach .The End i .