Shiva Prasad
Ext. 7571

Reference Books
Relativity Portion
1. Introduction to Special Relativity: R.
Resnik; Wiley Eastern (New Delhi)
2. An Introduction to Mechanics: D.
Kleppner and R.J. Kolenkow (Tata Mc
Graw Hill) 1973

• There would be no Tutorial on
Wednesday this week.
• We shall announce when the tutorials
will start.

Evaluation Scheme • In-semester (60%) • Multiple Tests (30% total) • One Mid-semester (30%) • All tests and mid-sem compulsory and no re-exam or compensation in any form will be given on any ground whatsoever. • End-semester (40%) .

• Students with poor attendance find it difficult to cope with tests and often land up with poor grades or even fail the course.Attendance Policy • Attendance would not affect grades • Warning • Attendance is helpful in understanding the subject. .

. • Seeds were grown more than a century ago.Modern Physics (How Modern?) • Not really so modern.

E. John N.Our future discoveries must be looked for in sixth place of decimal” Ref: “ Introduction to Modern Physics” : F. Graw Hill) 1976. Kennard. and they are so firmly established that the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of the new discoveries is exceedingly remote…. 6th Edition . Cooper ( Tata Mc. H. Richtmyer.Michelson in 1899 “The more important fundamental laws and facts of physical science have all been discovered.K.

Clouds on Classical Physics “The beauty and clearness of the dynamical theory. which asserts light and heat to be modes of motion is at present obscured by two clouds”-Lord Kelvin in 1900 Cloud1: The motion of Earth in Ether Cloud2: Failure of Maxwell-Boltzmann doctrine regarding Equipartition of Energy .

• Electromagnetic theory • Newtonian Mechanics • Classical Statistics • Newer ideas required. .Need of new ideas • Classical approach did not lead to solution.

Clouds • The first cloud started disappearing quickly in 1905. • The second needed much more time and took almost 25 more years to show sign of dissolution. .

• Also give a flavor of the new Physics that developed after these failures.This course • Is meant to give an idea of the failures of the then well-established Classical Physics. .

. • We shall then move to the second cloud and discuss Quantum theory and then possibly Quantum Statistics.Approach • We shall start with the first cloud and discuss the Special theory of Relativity that developed as a result of it.

Inertial Frame of Reference “Isolated Objects move with constant Velocity” .

In Special Theory of Relativity We shall assume . . that observations are being made only in an inertial frame of reference. unless specifically mentioned.

• Acceleration is same in all inertial frames. r r F = ma . • Newton’s law depends on acceleration and Force.Newton’s law • Velocity is a frame dependent quantity.

x’ R (t ) z z’ r r r r (t ) = R(t ) + r � (t ) .Two Inertial Frames y y’ S r S’ r r (t ) r� (t ) Or O’ x.

Velocity and Acceleration r r r r = R + r� r r r v = vo + v � r r a = a� .

if needed. We must specify the frame to know the velocity. .Newton’s Law in Different Frames r r F = ma Force is normally expected to be frame independent “Newton’s law is valid in all inertial frames” From this law velocity can be evaluated in any frame.

r r r r F = q(E + v �B) • Speed of light is related to fundamental constants. 1 c= e o mo .Problems • Velocity Dependent force.

Second Problem Illustrated r r v u A B r r v u A B .

Is Speed of light frame dependent? r u c c r u .

If yes And if the following expression is valid in all frames of reference. 1 c= e o mo .

• Fundamental constants εo and μo become frame dependent? • That means basic electric and magnetic forces are also frame dependent. .

Or is it that? • The following expression valid only in some specific frame? 1 c= e o mo .

• A special inertial frame may then exist. . which can be identified as absolute rest. though equivalent from mechanical point of view are not equivalent from electromagnetic point of view.The Second Option implies • All the inertial frames.

. which is the second choice. one is likely to prefer lesser evil.What is your pick? Do you allow fundamental constants to become frame dependent? Or You allow a special inertial frame? Ideally None? But if there is no other choice given.

• It was imagined that the universe is filled with ocean of ether. Light needs this medium to travel. .Ether • Earlier ideas favored the concept of a special frame • Light also does not seem to require a medium to travel unlike other waves like sound wave.

• The speed of light is ‘c’ only in this medium as given by the expression involving fundamental constants. .Implications • All planets. stars. galaxies float in ether.

One can determine the speed of the frame by measuring the speed of light in that frame.Implications • In other frames the speed of light could be different from ‘c’. .

without specifying the frame. • Hence we can ask a question what is the absolute speed of sun or earth. .• Ether can be thought as signifying absolute rest.

which is purely mechanical? . • But is there any process. they need not be from the electromagnetic point of view.Broader Implication • Though all the inertial frames are equivalent from mechanical point of view.

Is it a Chance? • That nature has made mechanical processes equivalent in inertial frames but not the electromagnetic processes? Are you Happy with the situation? Look at Experiments .

.Michelson Morley Experiment • Can we experimentally measure different speeds of light in different frames? • Attempt was unsuccessful.

• The speed of light ‘c’ is same in all inertial frames. .Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity • Laws of Physics are same in all inertial frames of references. No preferred inertial frame exists.

. • We require something real to which we can attach our frame of reference and only with respect to that frame we can talk of velocities.First Postulate Implies • No absolute rest. • No ether. • Space is filled with nothing. • No absolute velocities.

Second Postulate implies r u c c r u .

” ...Quote from Prof. for it would be intolerable for all inertial systems to be equivalent from dynamical point of view yet distinguishable by optical measurements. Herman Bondi: “The special theory of relativity is a necessary consequence of any assertion that the unity of Physics is essential.

New Approach Needed • Relative velocity formula requires modification. • The new formulation must be consistent with the first postulate . • A new formulation is needed which can ensure that the speed of light is same in all the inertial frames.