PHILOSOPHY

Greek
Wisdom on Man
WISDOM
-is the ability to think and act
using knowledge, experience, unde
rstanding, common sense,
and insight.
Mr. Wiki
MAN
-an individual human
Mrs. Miriam
The Greek Philosophers

• Socrates
• Plato
• Aristotle
Socrates
(Father of Western Philosophy)
Socrates, Plato (429-348 B.C.) and
Aristotle (384-228) – taught that the
proper way to solve the problem of man is
to first inquire into the true nature of
man.

This three philosopher, believe that man’s
soul pre-existed his body
The Cosmic Computer
Cosmic Computer
Reflecting on the Pure Mind of the
perfect man visualized by Plato and
Socrates equipped with all the knowledge
of all things, we see such mind equivalent
to a cosmic computer brain in this our
third generation age of computer.

Reflection:
Socrates
• One of mankind’s greatest teachers
• One of the founders of Western Philosophy
• Born in Athens Circa 469 B.C
Continuation …

• Teacher of Plato
• He is discarded the arts and air of the
Sophists
• He used a teaching method known as
Socratic Method
Socratic Method

Two Process:
• The Ironic
• The Maieutic
The Ironic Process
Serves to make the seeker after
knowledge, clear his mental decks for
action. It rids the mind of prejudices
and leads to humble and sincere
confession of ignorance.
The Maieutic Process
is a form of cooperative argumentative
dialogue between individuals, based on
asking and answering questions to stimulate
critical thinking and to draw out ideas and
underlying presumptions.
For Short..

• Draw truth out of the pupil’s mind
• Done by means of dialogue or conversation
Man and Virtue
• KNOWLEDGE is inborn VIRTUE
is a natural endowment
• Self-knowledge is the source of all wisdom,
then the only way to acquire virtue is to
know what is in the mind, in the self
• VIRTUE- true knowledge of one ‘s self
“Knowledge is virtue:
Ignorance is vice”
-Socrates
Man
and
The Problem of Evil
According to Socrates, evil is the
result of ignorance, the opposite of
knowledge. Socrates explain the great
problem of evil:

Limitation
Imperfection
Plato
(Student of Socrates)
Who is Plato ?
• Socrates’ Student
• Founded the Academy
(First Institution for Higher Education)
• First Western Philosopher whose writing
are survived
• Most of what we know about Socrates
comes from Plato’s writings
• Agreed with the Pythagoras that
Mathematics is essential in understanding
the world
The Ideal Man,
The Perfect Man
Ideal
-satisfying one's conception of what is
perfect; most suitable.
Perfect
-having all the required or desirable
elements, qualities, or characteristics;
as good as it is possible to be.
Plato propounded the view that the man,
in his present earthly existence, is only a
imperfect copy of his real original self, the
perfect man, in the realm of ideas.
Man’s perfection consists in constant
recollection and imitation of his former
perfect self.
The One
and
The Many
“The true lover of wisdom is
always looking for the ON ” (Greek for
being one)
Plato
Continuation…

…the one in the many, the unity amidst
variety, the universality underlying
individuality
For short...

It’s the Idea behind the
things that we see.

This is the theory of Idealism.
Continuation…

The individual things, that we
perceive, exist in space-time. These are
not real since they change, pass in and out
of existence and therefore are inconstant,
unreal.
Continuation…

The individual men that we see is not
real, because they come and go.
Man and Knowledge
In such a perfect state as pure
mind, man knew all things by direct
intuition.

According to Plato, man know
everything before he came to be born in
this world.
Continuation…

When man separated in the paradise
of truth and knowledge. Man forgot most
of the knowledge he had.
The Perfect Model
Man who is now an exile on earth has a
guiding star, a model, a divine exemplar which
he must follow to reach and attain his destiny.
In practical terms,
Man imitate the example of his former
self, more specifically he should live a life of
virtue in which true human perfection
consists.
Man
and
Contemplation
Contemplation

- is essential and vital component of
Plato’s idealism.
Contemplation as contemplated by
Plato consists in the communion of the
mind with universal and eternal ideas. To
Plato, contemplation is a way available to
mortal man while serving life sentence on
earth……
Continuation…..

-to free himself from his space-time
confinement to ascend to the heaven of
ideas and there commune with immortal, the
eternal, the infinite and divine verities.

Contemplation
Inward Contemplation
Man need to go outside himself to be
one with the eternal ideas. He can enter into
the heaven or his own mind to discover and
enjoy the eternal truths and beauties of
existence hidden or dormant
Contemplation
and
Imitation
Contemplation, in the Platonic sense does
not mean passive thinking or inaction, much
less mere speculation.

Not only mean knowing and appreciating
the GOOD.
It means…

IMITATING THE GOOD EXAMPLER
AND LIVING THE GOOD by leading a
good life.
Continuation……

Happiness, to Plato, consists not
merely in constantly feeling good but in
being and doing good.
Quotations
from
Plato
Idealistic Philosophy of Love and Beauty
(Quotations) Love can be compared to a
Ladder.
“He who has been instructed thus far
in the things of love, and who has
learned to see the beautiful in due
order and succession, when he comes
toward the end will………….

(Introduction to Philosophy through the Man by
Montemayor pp. 23-24)
Absolute Beauty
Completely
Independent of the
Senses
“ It is a beauty if you once beheld,
you would see not to be after the
measure of gold, and garments, and
fair boys and youths, whose
presence now entrances you; ………

(Introduction to Philosophy through the Man by
Montemayor pp. 24-25)
Therefore, love is more perfect the
further away it is from matter, from the
bodily senses, from acquisitiveness and
selfish interest.
Plato