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What is respiration?
Respiration is the process by which organisms extract the
energy stored in complex molecules and use it to generate
adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

In this way they obtain energy to fuel their metabolic pathways.

ATP provides the ATP
immediate source of
energy for biological
processes such as active
transport, movement and
metabolism.

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C6H12O6  2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP ethanol C6H12O6  2 C3H6O3 + 2 ATP lactate 4 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP In anaerobic respiration. e.g. glucose. glucose is converted (in the absence of oxygen) to either lactate or ethanol.Types of respiration During aerobic respiration. is split in the presence of oxygen to release carbon dioxide and water. A large number of ATP molecules are produced. a respiratory substrate. The ATP yield is low. releasing the energy from the glucose.

The later stages of respiration are restricted to the mitochondria. so can manufacture their own respiratory enzymes.  Mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes. In eukaryotes the early stages of respiration occur in the cytoplasm. 5 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .  Mitochondria provide an isolated environment to maintain optimum conditions for respiration.  Mitochondria contain highly folded inner membranes that hold key respiratory proteins (including the enzyme that makes ATP) over a large surface area.Where does respiration occur? Respiration occurs in all living cells.

The structure of the mitochondria 6 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

An overview of respiration 7 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

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30. ribose phosphates When ATP is hydrolysed to form ADP and inorganic phosphate.5 kJ inorganic ATP H 2O ADP phosphate 9 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . a base (adenine) and three phosphate groups. +  + + 30.Adenosine triphosphate ATP contains a sugar adenine (ribose).5 kJ of energy are released.

 The hydrolysis of ATP releases a small amount of energy. ideal for fuelling reactions in the body. 10 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .Why ATP? Biological systems transfer the energy in glucose to ATP because unlike glucose… glucose ATP  ATP releases its energy instantly in a single reaction.

Two types of phosphorylation occur during respiration: 1. 2. 11 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .Phosphorylation of ADP The addition of an inorganic phosphate group (Pi) to a molecule like ADP is called phosphorylation. Oxidative: electron transport chain A series of oxidation reactions that produce sufficient energy to form ATP from ADP and phosphate. Substrate-level: glycolysis & Krebs cycle A single reaction involving the direct transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to ADP. ADP is phosphorylated during respiration.

substrate otherwise coenzyme concentration will drop. Breaking the bonds between coenzyme and product after a reaction is crucial. helping to catalyze a reaction. enzyme coenzyme Three major coenzymes are used in respiration:  NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)  CoA (coenzyme A)  FAD (flavine adenine dinucleotide) 12 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . limiting respiratory rate.Coenzymes Coenzymes are molecules that bind with a specific enzyme or substrate.

FAD and coenzyme A NAD can accept a hydrogen molecule. like NAD. forming reduced NAD (NADH).NAD. 13 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . FAD. can accept hydrogen to form reduced FAD (FADH2). NAD Coenzyme A aids the transition between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. nicotinamide NAD+ + 2H NADH + H+ adenine This is used to regenerate ADP in the ribose electron transport chain (ETC). by converting pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A.

The molecules of respiration 14 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

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The first stage of respiration: glycolysis 16 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

The stages of glycolysis 17 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

The fate of pyruvate 18 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

Krebs cycle 19 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

Counting carbons 20 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

the link reaction produces:  2×  2×  2× 21 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . glycolysis produces:  2×  2×  2× For each molecule of glucose.Keeping track of the products For each molecule of glucose.

Krebs cycle generates:  4× produced by decarboxylation  6× produced by redox reactions  2× produced by redox reactions  2× produced by substrate-level phosphorylation The NADH and FADH2 contain the potential energy originally locked in glucose. This energy is now transferred to ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain.Keeping track of the products For each molecule of glucose. 22 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

The electron transport chain 23 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

Understanding the ETC 24 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

each NADH can yield 2.5 ATP. From one molecule of glucose.5 = 25 ATP from NADH 2 × 1. the link reaction yields 2 NADH and the Krebs cycle yields 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. glycolysis yields 2 NADH. 10 × 2.5 ATP and each FADH2 1.5 = 3 ATP from FADH2 total = 2 + 2 + 25 + 3 = 32 ATP overall 25 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .How much ATP is produced? Process ATP in ATP produced Net ATP out glycolysis 2 4 2 link reaction 0 0 0 Krebs cycle 0 2 (per glucose) 2 (per glucose) Via the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.

This heat helps to maintain a suitable body temperature for enzyme-controlled reactions.  Some ATP is used up moving hydrogen from reduced NAD made during glycolysis into the mitochondria.  Some protons leak across the mitochondrial membrane. so not all are available to generate ATP via chemiosmosis. In fact respiration is only about 32% efficient. 26 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .Efficiency of aerobic respiration The theoretical yield of 32 ATPs for each glucose molecule is rarely achieved.  Some ATP is used up moving pyruvate into the mitochondria by active transport.  Some energy is lost as heat.

Adaptations of mitochondria 27 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

 Chemicals that block the ETC inhibit the formation of a proton gradient and prevent ATP synthesis.  Isolated ATP synthase enzymes can produce ATP using a proton gradient even if no electron transport is occurring. 28 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . Evidence includes:  The proton gradient across the inner membrane can be measured as it corresponds to a pH gradient.Evidence for chemiosmosis The theory of chemiosmosis matrix states that the energy in a chemical gradient established by electron movement is used to generate ATP.

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Studies on simple animals often use a respirometer.Respiratory rate The respiratory rate is the rate at which an organism converts glucose to CO2 and water. Potassium hydroxide or soda lime is used to absorb the carbon dioxide produced. Any change is due to the respiratory activity of the study organisms. 30 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . It can be calculated by measuring an organism’s rate of oxygen consumption. meaning any changes in volume are due to oxygen consumption. Respirometers measure the change in gas volume in a closed system.

The respirometer 31 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

Respirometer experiments 32 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

8 lipid 39. Different respiratory substrates release different amounts of energy. 33 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 . more energy can subsequently be generated in the electron transport chain. If more hydrogen atoms are available to reduce coenzymes.Respiratory substrates Other substances as well as glucose can be respired.0 The difference in the relative energy values of these respiratory substrates is due to the amount of hydrogen atoms present in each one. Respiratory substrate Mean energy value (kJ g-1) carbohydrate 15.4 protein 17.

0.0 protein approx.9 lipid approx. Type of respiration Substrate RQ anaerobic glucose >1 aerobic carbohydrate 1. volume of CO2 given out RQ = volume of O2 taken in RQ gives an indication of the respiratory substrate being respired and whether respiration is aerobic or anaerobic.7 34 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .Respiratory quotient Respiratory quotient (RQ) is the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide produced to the volume of oxygen used in the same period of time. 0.

Respiration calculations 35 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

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Glossary 37 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .

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Multiple-choice quiz 39 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 .