# CPM/ PERT

Critical Path Method/ Program
Evaluation and Review Technique

Operation Research II
Prepared By:
Jomari Gingo
BSIE 4-1

CPM/ PERT
• Network-based methods design to assist
planning, scheduling and control of time
consuming project.
• Provides analytic mean for scheduling the
activities.
• Use to know bottlenecks and critical activities

Phases for Project Planning with CPM/PERT Define Network Network Time Project Scheduling Calculation Activities .

The time to perform each activities appears uncertain and as such thru time estimate is needed as (optimistic. • PERT – Assumes probabilistic duration. Defining Project Activities • CPM – Assumes deterministic activity duration. . pessimistic and most likely) are used.

Defining Project Activities • PERT – Optimistic time.denoted as a. . which occurs when execution is done under normal condition. – Pessimistic time.denoted as m. – Most Likely time. which occurs when execution goes extremely poorly. which occurs when execution goes extremely well.denoted as b.

Defining Project Activities • PERT – Expected time • “average” of the time (optimistic. pessimistic. and most likely Expected time= (a+4m+b)/6 .

Latest Finish Time (LF). 6. 2. 4. Bottleneck activities-any delay in the completion of one or more of these activities will cause delay in the completion of the activity. Defining Project Activities Other Concept 1. Latest Start Time (LS).is the difference between the latest finished time and the estimated time for the activity to be performed.Sum of the earliest start time and estimated time to perform the concerned activity.an activity that can finish without delaying the project beyond its deadline on the assumption that all subsequent activities are performed as planned. 3. 5. It is critical because it control the completion date of the project. Critical Path.Beginning of the activity. Earlier Start Time (ES).consist of the sequence of those events and connected activities that require maximum time in the completion of the project it is that path that takes the longest time. Earlier Finish Time (EF). .

Network Legend for making Network: Event Activity ES and EF Dummy LF and LS .

Network Network Representation Rule: Rule 1: Each activity is represented by one. What activities must occur concurrently with the current activity? . Rule 2: Each activity must be identified by two distinct end nodes. the following questions must be answered as each activity is added to network. What activities must follow the current activity? 3. and only one arc. Rule 3: To maintain the correct precedence relationship. What activities must immediately precede the current activity? 2. 1.

Network Using Dummy: 2 A C A 1 2 B B 1 3 A A B C 1 1 D C E B 2 E .

Network Important note: In case of multiple activity In ES and EF Choose the largest value In LS and LF Choose the smallest value .

Example 1: Activity Project Activity a b m (a+4m+b)/6 A 1 2 3 2 B 1 2 3 2 C 1 2 3 2 D 1 2 9 3 E 2 3 10 4 F DUMMY 0 G 3 6 15 7 H 2 5 14 6 I 1 4 7 4 J 4 9 20 10 K 1 2 9 3 L 4 4 4 4 .

Example 1: Network 8 11 2 5 11 7 3 D=3 6 6 2 7 2 11 11 E=4 6 6 I=4 A=2 F=0 5 11 6 5 15 15 0 10 4 15 15 B=2 6 6 G=7 0 15 1 2 4 2 8 9 15 0 L=4 9 0 6 15 2 15 C=2 H=6 K=3 12 2 8 2 12 2 J=10 12 2 2 7 12 12 .

Critical ES or LF. Example 1: Network Calculation Activity ES LS EF LF Slack (LS. Path EF) A 0 5 2 7 5 B 0 4 2 6 4 C 0 0 2 2 0 YES D 2 8 5 11 6 E 2 7 6 11 5 F DUMMY G 2 8 9 15 6 H 2 6 8 12 4 I 6 11 10 15 5 J 2 2 12 12 0 YES K 12 12 15 15 0 YES L 15 15 19 19 0 YES .

Example 1: Network Calculation Note: LS-ES and LF-EF are always equal and is called “slack” Slack with zero values are the critical path .

. Example 2: Problem A publisher has a contract with an author to publish a textbook. The author is required to submit to the publisher a hard copy and a computer file of the manuscript. The simplified activities associated with the production of the text book are given below. Develop the associated network for the project.

Example 2: Project Activities Activity Predecessor(s) Duration (weeks) A: Manuscript proofreading by editor None 3 B: Sample pages preparation None 2 C: Book cover design None 4 D: Artwork preparation None 3 E: Author’s approval of edited manuscript A.H 2 J: Book production and binding C.I 4 .B 2 and sample pages F: Book formatting E 4 G: Author’s review of formatted pages F 2 H: Author’s review of artwork D 1 I: Production of printed plates G.

Example 1: Network 7 5 5 3 3 3 7 5 5 7 3 3 3 2 K=0 3 4 6 7 3 E=2 F=2 7 3 3 2 G=2 9 9 A=3 B=2 8 2 5 7 9 8 H=1 9 9 1 0 2 3 0 6 11 15 0 D=2 I=2 0 11 15 J=4 1 C=4 8 9 11 11 7 4 11 0 .

Example 2: Network Calculation Activity ES LS EF LF Slack (LS. Critical ES or LF. Path EF) A 0 0 3 3 0 YES B 0 1 2 3 1 C 0 7 4 11 7 D 0 7 2 8 6 E 3 3 5 5 0 YES F 5 5 7 7 0 YES G 7 7 9 9 0 YES H 2 8 3 9 6 I 9 9 11 11 0 YES J 11 11 15 15 0 YES DUMMY K 0 0 0 0 0 YES .

ADDITIONAL TOPIC: BASIC TIME SCHEDULING (CONSTRUCTING TIME SCHEDULE) .

(In problem 2. Time Scheduling Constructing Time Schedule Table 1. . The non critical activities (shown by dashed lines) have time spans that are larger than their respective durations.The critical activities (shown by solid lines) must be stacked one right after the another to ensure that the project is completed within its maximum duration. its 15 days) 2. thus allowing slack ( or “leeway”) in scheduling them with in their allotted time intervals.

D and H. Example 3: Network Findings: The critical path is A. The maximum time is 25 .

Time Scheduling Note: Consider time duration and activity predecessor(s). .

THANK YOU! .