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Analisis de Youden

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-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

Youden Analysis

15

10

10 kg #2

0

G

B H

-5

-10

-15

Youden Analysis

Introduction to W. J. Youden

Components of the Youden Graph

Calculations

Getting the Circle

What to do with the results.

W. J. Youden 1900-1971

Born in Australia

1921 B.S. in Chemical Engineering

1924 Ph.D. Analytical Chemistry

1924-1948 Plant Research

1942-1945 World War II

1948 NBS Statistical Consultant

Components of Youden Graph

10

9 Y Axis

8

7

6

5

4 2sd limit of

3 the random

2

1 components

0

-1

-2

-3

-4 X Axis

-5

-6

-7 Origin (0,0)

-8 Median(x,y)

-9 45 degree

-10 Known(x,y)

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-10

Line Graphs to Youden Graphs

10 kg #1

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

15

10

10 kg #2

0

G

B H

-5

-10

-15

Systematic and Random Components

Total magnitude of

10 Error = 7.28

9

Intercept Point8 Calculated by using the

( x y) / 2 formula for the distance

(2 7) / 2

7 between two points (x1,y1)

4.5

6 and (x2,y2):

5

4 d ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2

(4.5,4.5)

3

d (2 0) 2 (7 0) 2

2

1 d 4 49 53

0 d 7.28

-1

-2 Draw a line from

-3 the Point to the 45

-4 degree line

-5 (Perpendicular)

-6

-7

-8

-9 Plot the Point (-2,-7)

-10 X-axis = -2 Y-

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-10

axis = -7

Systematic and Random Components

Systematic Distance

from Origin to Intercept

10 Calculated by using a variation

9 of the Pythagorean formula for

45o right triangles:

8

7 Origin=(x1,y1)

6 Point = (x2,y2)

5 d [( x 2 x1 ) ( y 2 y1 )] / 2

4 d [( 4.5 0) (4.5 0)] / 2

3 d [4.5 4.5] / 2

2 d [9] / 2

1 d 6.364

0

-1

-2 Random Distance from

-3 Point to Intercept

-4 Calculated using the formula for the

-5 distance between two points:

-6

-7 d ( x 2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2

-8 d [( 2) (4.5)] 2 [( 7) (4.5)] 2

-9 d [2.5]2 [2.5]2

-10 d 6.25 6.25

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-10

d 3.536

Fitting the Ratio of Systematic & Random Errors

to the Total Error

Random Component = 3.536 (always positive)

Sum Random & Systematic = 9.900

Total Error = 7.280

6.364

Systematic (7.280) 4.680

9.900

3.536

Random (7.280) 2.600

9.900

Where do we get the Circle?

9

8 have a Random

7 Error

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4 Random Error

-5 =2.60

-6

-7

-8

-9

-10

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-10

(modified) Calculating the radius of the Circle

Each participants point provides a random error (ran).

Each random error is squared.

These squares are then summed and divided by n-1.

The square root of this result is an indication of the

standard deviation based only on the random

components of each point.

s

ran 2

n 1

Multiplying the standard deviation by 2.45 gives the

value for the radius of the circle. (95% of the points

should fall within this circle if all systematic errors

could be eliminated.)

Getting the Circle on the Graph

Formula of a Circle

r x y (r radius of circle)

2 2 2

y x r 2 2

Rules of Youden Analysis

Must have two values to plot a point

Artifacts must be same Nominal Value

Cannot compare Apples & Oranges

Same procedure must be used to test both Artifacts

SOP - Restraint - Equipment - Metrologist

Artifacts should not be Tested at Same Time

Random errors appear to become more systematic when tested at the same time

Participants should be working at the same precision level

Dont Over-Analyze

A point that lies outside the circle doesnt necessarily mean that there is a

problem (although it is never a good thing)

Lets take a look

at the

Spreadsheet

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