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# 10 kg #1

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

Youden Analysis
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10 kg #2
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G

B H

-5

-10

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Youden Analysis

Introduction to W. J. Youden
Components of the Youden Graph
Calculations
Getting the Circle
What to do with the results.
W. J. Youden 1900-1971

Born in Australia
1921 B.S. in Chemical Engineering
1924 Ph.D. Analytical Chemistry
1924-1948 Plant Research
1942-1945 World War II
1948 NBS Statistical Consultant
Components of Youden Graph

10
9 Y Axis
8
7
6
5
4 2sd limit of
3 the random
2
1 components
0
-1
-2
-3
-4 X Axis
-5
-6
-7 Origin (0,0)
-8 Median(x,y)
-9 45 degree
-10 Known(x,y)
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0
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2
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-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
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-2
-1
-10
Line Graphs to Youden Graphs

10 kg #1
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
15

10

10 kg #2
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G

B H

-5

-10

-15
Systematic and Random Components

Total magnitude of
10 Error = 7.28
9
Intercept Point8 Calculated by using the
( x y) / 2 formula for the distance
(2 7) / 2
7 between two points (x1,y1)
4.5
6 and (x2,y2):
5
4 d ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2
(4.5,4.5)
3
d (2 0) 2 (7 0) 2
2
1 d 4 49 53
0 d 7.28
-1
-2 Draw a line from
-3 the Point to the 45
-4 degree line
-5 (Perpendicular)
-6
-7
-8
-9 Plot the Point (-2,-7)
-10 X-axis = -2 Y-

10
0
1
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-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
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-2
-1
-10

axis = -7
Systematic and Random Components
Systematic Distance
from Origin to Intercept
10 Calculated by using a variation
9 of the Pythagorean formula for
45o right triangles:
8
7 Origin=(x1,y1)
6 Point = (x2,y2)
5 d [( x 2 x1 ) ( y 2 y1 )] / 2
4 d [( 4.5 0) (4.5 0)] / 2
3 d [4.5 4.5] / 2
2 d  / 2
1 d 6.364
0
-1
-2 Random Distance from
-3 Point to Intercept
-4 Calculated using the formula for the
-5 distance between two points:
-6
-7 d ( x 2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2

-8 d [( 2) (4.5)] 2 [( 7) (4.5)] 2
-9 d [2.5]2 [2.5]2
-10 d 6.25 6.25

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-8
-7
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-5
-4
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-2
-1
-10

d 3.536
Fitting the Ratio of Systematic & Random Errors
to the Total Error

## Systematic Component = -6.364 (negative or positive)

Random Component = 3.536 (always positive)
Sum Random & Systematic = 9.900
Total Error = 7.280

6.364
Systematic (7.280) 4.680
9.900

3.536
Random (7.280) 2.600
9.900
Where do we get the Circle?

## 10 Each Point will

9
8 have a Random
7 Error
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4 Random Error
-5 =2.60
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10

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(modified) Calculating the radius of the Circle
Each participants point provides a random error (ran).
Each random error is squared.
These squares are then summed and divided by n-1.
The square root of this result is an indication of the
standard deviation based only on the random
components of each point.

s
ran 2

n 1
Multiplying the standard deviation by 2.45 gives the
value for the radius of the circle. (95% of the points
should fall within this circle if all systematic errors
could be eliminated.)
Getting the Circle on the Graph

Formula of a Circle
r x y (r radius of circle)
2 2 2

## Formula rewritten in terms of y

y x r 2 2
Rules of Youden Analysis

## Requires Two Artifacts

Must have two values to plot a point
Artifacts must be same Nominal Value
Cannot compare Apples & Oranges
Same procedure must be used to test both Artifacts
SOP - Restraint - Equipment - Metrologist
Artifacts should not be Tested at Same Time
Random errors appear to become more systematic when tested at the same time
Participants should be working at the same precision level

Dont Over-Analyze
A point that lies outside the circle doesnt necessarily mean that there is a
problem (although it is never a good thing)
Lets take a look
at the
Spreadsheet