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A set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object
in its own right. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts
in mathematics Developed at the end of the 19th century, set
theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be
used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can
be derived. In mathematics education, elementary topics such
as Venn diagram are taught at a young age, while more
advanced concepts are taught as part of a university degree.
 
ï              

    

    
 
 
 

  

 
O          

             

!
"#\$% 
&! 

'
(  

&  )* \$ +  
, 
)  

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,    
)-    . 
, 
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/ 
 ,, 
)  

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)* \$ +  ,   

, 
)
á á
O    
A  
A ?      
B  
B  

 
AA ?  ?   
subset
  
subset  
B ? 

A
? 

A  B    A B?    
? 
B
A is contained in B?    
? 
B
Î A   B
 B is a superset of A 
A B A B
B includes A  A
? ?
B contains A
? ?  


 
?    ?   inclusion
inclusion 
containment
containment
O A
A ?     
     

B
     

B  

 
AA ?    
 proper
proper subset  B
B ? 

BB
A å B  A is a proper subset of B B ü A  B is proper superset of A A     

?      

? A A  B  B B * A    ?  
?    

   
     

 A  

   
     

    
? B Î A 
A  B   
? B 

 
    

 A 
 
    

 A å B   
?  B ü A) 
? p p M v

  

 M  ?  M    M  
 M M 
å  
 
 
 ?    M        ?    M ?   
  
   
M?M    ? ? 
?  
M    M
M  
M
? ?       
v ?  M ?   v  v  
á
÷ ï        
÷ ï Y Y      !   "
# # \$  \$ \$ % \$ 
\$!\$ %\$   
÷
Y Ú %\$&  & 
Ú   \$ \$  \$
÷ 
%  
`   
  ?       
 

?  ? 
 
 ?    ?  ? 

 

ß?
            ?     
  !?
"   
# A  x \$ x ?     
# B  x \$ x ?   ? 

á 


ï   
  A 
B 
 
     "?

?     
# A      
# B   
2? %   

ð &  
'     ?    
  ?

' ?      
?
'   
?

( \$ 
 
á   
 
K K K 
K K  K 

  

      









 





 




 


 
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



 
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
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K 

K  
K 

 K 

    

   

ë?  
ð  
!"      

ð  
#!\$  ?  
ð  
\$!    ? 

   ?
     
A   


?

C
  
B
 

ã% &' &  

()"      
*  

#()\$  ?  *  

\$()    ? 
*
Operations On Sets

1)Intersection
ð For sets A and B, the intersection of this two sets are
written as ³A n B´
Examples:
ð Intersection of two sets 
O 

?  


O    

A B C

ë) *) ? 
*
ð  ()*

ã 
!)   
+  
?  
*
) +  ?  
*
ð  () ?  
*
(

    
  
 , ?  ? 
?
, ?
-  ?  ?
#  ?
./ , ?
\$ 
?
,  
?  ?

O??    
  ? 

 ?  0
??? 
?
?
?
??

??

i)Abung : region (iv)
ii)Kelly : region (iii)
iii)Brenda : region (i)
iv)Bobby : region (vi)
ã'?1 

ð ?  
   #?   

? ?

? ? #   

(
ð !)ë ã ( 2* #!)3 4 5 6*
#!)ë ã ( 2 3 4 5 6*
ë)   +*') ? 
*
ð  ()   +  ? 
*

ã
 
()  7*
 
#()   *
 
\$() ?  7*
8 '# ??     0
?? ?
?
???

?

??

ð  ( ?  
??
( |%% \$  \$'  
÷ ï %% \$  %Ú A (  %
  \$ A B
÷ ï Ú\$ A  B \$  A \ (.
O  O  
no no i
yes no ii
yes yes iii
no yes iv

÷ ïhe elements in the difference, then, are the ones that
answer 'Yes' to the first question ³Are you in A?´, but
'No' to the second ³Are you in B?´. ïhis combination of
answers is on row 2 of the above table, and
corresponds to region  ii) in the figure above
%)**ïï&+ ,-

ï   
   
    
 
        

 
    !"!  
   
#\$ %"%\$ #
÷ ï & 
! Ú&   ) \$ Ú
\$  \$Ú \$Ú 


*  \$Ú\$ ) \$Ú   %\$

+ ,*-./ .01-.*/.0 
(  2.01-.3144

+ ,*(5 / 5 01(5 */5 0 
4-5 01(5 -6126
Distribution Law
ð ? 
?
?%       


 
?      

   
? ?
?    

  ( ã92: 3!ã:392:3
   
?4: 3!(   ë 9ã !(

  
;ã92; ; ? 
? 
;   
;
? 3;? 
ã
? 3  2
? 3
De Morgan·s Law 
" < %  
 
?  

? ?
? ? 

?     

O    #   
 = 
 
? 


  (
A UB)C AC BC
#\$ \$ '#\$

U   
 
 
 
? 

?
\$ ð 
 
 

  
 ?=
ð \$ !=>
Statement Verification Using Venn Diagram
ð ?   ?  


  ? ?
?  ? 

 

?       
?    


8 

 #  \$  
?  ?    
 


  
? ? 
?   
 

?  ??  ???
  ?
?

??  ???