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components forming a system configuration

that will provide a desired system response.

The basis for analysis of a system is the

foundation provided by linear system theory,

which assumes a causeeffect relationship

for the components of a system.

Two Types of Control System

Open-Loop control system utilizes an

actuating device to control the process

directly without using feedback.

Closed-Loop control system uses a

measurement of the output and

feedback of this signal to compare it with

the desired output (reference or

command).

Open Loop

Close Loop

The measure of the output is called the feedback signal.

A feedback control system is a control system that tends

to maintain a prescribed relationship of one system

variable to another by comparing functions of these

variables and using the difference as a means of control.

The introduction of feedback enables us to control a

desired output and can improve accuracy, but it requires

attention to the issue of stability of response.

Example of Modern Control System

Another Example

The PID controller is by far the most common

control algorithm. Most practical feedback

loops are based on PID control or some minor

variations of it. Many controllers do not even

use derivative action. The PID controllers

appear in many different forms, as a stand-

alone controllers, they can also be part of a

DDC (Direct Digital Control) package or a

hierarchical distributed process control system

or they are built into embedded systems.

The Proportional Term

error signal multiplied with a gain (Kp).

The result will be the output signal.

therefore output_signal = Kp x Error_signal

error signal is written as e(T)

The Integral Term

the integral term makes the current error

signal value and duration multiplied with

a Gain (Ki). the result will be the output

signal

therefore output_signal =

where ki is the integral gain

t is the instantaneus time.

e( ) is the error signal

The integral of a signal is the sum of all the

instantaneous values that the signal has been,

from whenever you started counting until you

stop counting.

proportional term) accelerates the movement of

the process toward set point and estimates the

residual steady- state error that occurs with a

proportional only controller.

The Derivative Term

The Derivative term makes the rate of a

change of the error signal multiplied with a

gain(KD). The result will be the output signal

value.

Therefore Output_Signal =

Where KD is the Derivative Gain

e() is the error signal

Control System

The set point is the value that we want the

process to be.

The output must be equal to the set point, else

the error signal will not be zero

The error signal will be the (set point

measured)

The 3 gain (P, I & D) will be summed together to

output 1 signal that will get the output equal to

the set point.

The process is the plant/model of the system.

Ex. Room or DC motor

A disturbance is added to the system. Ex. A

window in a room, or friction to the shaft of the

motor.

Sample of Control System

Heres a sample control system. Using previous block diagram, with the labels

changes to represent the car-on-windy-freeway control loop.

This system represent a Driver changing

lanes on a freeway on a windy day. We are

the driver, and therefore the controller of the

process of changing the cars position.

Notice how important closing the loop is. If

we remove the feedback loop we would be in

open loop control, and would have to

control the cars position with our eyes closed!

Thankfully we are under closed loop control

using our eyes for position feedback.

PID Controller Block Diagram

Subtract Sum up

Set point from all three

Measured output

Simplified

block

diagram of

what PID

controller

does

Set point is subtracted from the measured to

create the error

The error is simply multiplied by one, two or all

of the calculated P, I & D actions (Depending

which ones are turned on).

Then the resulting error x control action are

added together and sent to the controller

output.

These 3 modes are used in different

combinations:

P Sometimes used

PI Most often used

PID Sometimes used

PD rare, can be useful for controlling servo motors.

P Controller

Enable only P control

In Proportional Only mode, the controller

simply multiplies the Error by the

Proportional Gain (Kp) to get the controller

output.

Small proportional gain (Kp) is the safest

way to set point, but your controller

performance will be slow. If the Kp is

increased, Overshoot in the signal will be

present.

PI Controller

Enable Only PI Control

In Proportional Integral mode, the

controller make the following:

Multiplies the error by the Proportional Gain (Kp) and added to

the Integral error multiplied by Ki, to get the controller output.

The integral term(when added to the proportional term)

accelerates the movement of the process towards set point

and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with

a proportional only controller.

However, since the integral term is responding to accumulated

errors from the past, it can cause the present value to

overshoot the set point value (cross over the set point and then

create a deviation in the other direction).

PD Controller

Enable Only PD Control

In Proportional Differential mode, the

controller make the following:

Multiplies the Error by the proportional Gain (Kp) and added to

the derivative error multiplied by Kd, to get the controller output.

The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller

output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller

set point. Hence, derivative control is used to reduce the

magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component

and improve the stability.

However, differentiation of an signal amplifies noise and thus this

is highly sensitive to noise in the error term, and cause a process

to become unstable.

PID Controller

Enable PID Control

In Proportional Integral Differential mode,

the controller make the following:

Gain (Kp), added to the Derivative error

multiplied by (Kd) and added to the

Integral error multiplied by (Ki), to get the

controller output.

PI, PD, PID Summary Characteristics

PD

Compensator is anticipatory; it response to the error and its derivative.

Phase lead is provided starting one decade below the zero.

Generally, increases damping and reduces %OS.

Generally, reduces rise and setting times.

Increases bandwidth.

Increases phase and gain margins.

May render a system susceptible to high frequency noise.

Acts as a high-pass filter.

PI

Compensator increases the system type by one, which helps with error control.

Increases phase-lag at low frequencies.

Generally, increases damping, rise times, and setting times and reduces overshoot.

Decreases bandwidth.

Not sensitive to high frequency noise.

Acts as a low-pass filter.

PID

Combined effects of PI and PD compensation.

Cascade of a PI and PD compensator.

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