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# Control System

## A control system is an interconnection of

components forming a system configuration
that will provide a desired system response.
The basis for analysis of a system is the
foundation provided by linear system theory,
which assumes a causeeffect relationship
for the components of a system.
Two Types of Control System
Open-Loop control system utilizes an
actuating device to control the process
directly without using feedback.
Closed-Loop control system uses a
measurement of the output and
feedback of this signal to compare it with
the desired output (reference or
command).
Open Loop

Close Loop
The measure of the output is called the feedback signal.
A feedback control system is a control system that tends
to maintain a prescribed relationship of one system
variable to another by comparing functions of these
variables and using the difference as a means of control.
The introduction of feedback enables us to control a
desired output and can improve accuracy, but it requires
attention to the issue of stability of response.
Example of Modern Control System
Another Example
The PID controller is by far the most common
control algorithm. Most practical feedback
loops are based on PID control or some minor
variations of it. Many controllers do not even
use derivative action. The PID controllers
appear in many different forms, as a stand-
alone controllers, they can also be part of a
DDC (Direct Digital Control) package or a
hierarchical distributed process control system
or they are built into embedded systems.
The Proportional Term

## the proportional term makes the current

error signal multiplied with a gain (Kp).
The result will be the output signal.
therefore output_signal = Kp x Error_signal
error signal is written as e(T)
The Integral Term
the integral term makes the current error
signal value and duration multiplied with
a Gain (Ki). the result will be the output
signal
therefore output_signal =
where ki is the integral gain
t is the instantaneus time.
e( ) is the error signal
The integral of a signal is the sum of all the
instantaneous values that the signal has been,
from whenever you started counting until you
stop counting.

## The integral term (when added to the

proportional term) accelerates the movement of
the process toward set point and estimates the
residual steady- state error that occurs with a
proportional only controller.
The Derivative Term
The Derivative term makes the rate of a
change of the error signal multiplied with a
gain(KD). The result will be the output signal
value.
Therefore Output_Signal =
Where KD is the Derivative Gain
e() is the error signal
Control System
The set point is the value that we want the
process to be.
The output must be equal to the set point, else
the error signal will not be zero
The error signal will be the (set point
measured)
The 3 gain (P, I & D) will be summed together to
output 1 signal that will get the output equal to
the set point.
The process is the plant/model of the system.
Ex. Room or DC motor
A disturbance is added to the system. Ex. A
window in a room, or friction to the shaft of the
motor.
Sample of Control System
Heres a sample control system. Using previous block diagram, with the labels
changes to represent the car-on-windy-freeway control loop.
This system represent a Driver changing
lanes on a freeway on a windy day. We are
the driver, and therefore the controller of the
process of changing the cars position.
Notice how important closing the loop is. If
we remove the feedback loop we would be in
open loop control, and would have to
control the cars position with our eyes closed!
Thankfully we are under closed loop control
using our eyes for position feedback.
PID Controller Block Diagram
Subtract Sum up
Set point from all three
Measured output

Simplified
block
diagram of
what PID
controller
does
Set point is subtracted from the measured to
create the error
The error is simply multiplied by one, two or all
of the calculated P, I & D actions (Depending
which ones are turned on).
Then the resulting error x control action are
added together and sent to the controller
output.
These 3 modes are used in different
combinations:
P Sometimes used
PI Most often used
PID Sometimes used
PD rare, can be useful for controlling servo motors.
P Controller
Enable only P control
In Proportional Only mode, the controller
simply multiplies the Error by the
Proportional Gain (Kp) to get the controller
output.
Small proportional gain (Kp) is the safest
way to set point, but your controller
performance will be slow. If the Kp is
increased, Overshoot in the signal will be
present.
PI Controller
Enable Only PI Control
In Proportional Integral mode, the
controller make the following:
Multiplies the error by the Proportional Gain (Kp) and added to
the Integral error multiplied by Ki, to get the controller output.
The integral term(when added to the proportional term)
accelerates the movement of the process towards set point
and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with
a proportional only controller.
However, since the integral term is responding to accumulated
errors from the past, it can cause the present value to
overshoot the set point value (cross over the set point and then
create a deviation in the other direction).
PD Controller
Enable Only PD Control
In Proportional Differential mode, the
controller make the following:
Multiplies the Error by the proportional Gain (Kp) and added to
the derivative error multiplied by Kd, to get the controller output.
The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller
output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller
set point. Hence, derivative control is used to reduce the
magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component
and improve the stability.
However, differentiation of an signal amplifies noise and thus this
is highly sensitive to noise in the error term, and cause a process
to become unstable.
PID Controller
Enable PID Control
In Proportional Integral Differential mode,
the controller make the following:

## Multiplies the Error by the Proportional

Gain (Kp), added to the Derivative error
multiplied by (Kd) and added to the
Integral error multiplied by (Ki), to get the
controller output.
PI, PD, PID Summary Characteristics
PD
Compensator is anticipatory; it response to the error and its derivative.
Phase lead is provided starting one decade below the zero.
Generally, increases damping and reduces %OS.
Generally, reduces rise and setting times.
Increases bandwidth.
Increases phase and gain margins.
May render a system susceptible to high frequency noise.
Acts as a high-pass filter.
PI
Compensator increases the system type by one, which helps with error control.
Increases phase-lag at low frequencies.
Generally, increases damping, rise times, and setting times and reduces overshoot.
Decreases bandwidth.
Not sensitive to high frequency noise.
Acts as a low-pass filter.
PID
Combined effects of PI and PD compensation.
Cascade of a PI and PD compensator.