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Chapter 3

Market Segmentation

Consumer Behavior,
Ninth
Ninth Edition
Edition

Schiffman & Kanuk

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Chapter Outline
What Is Market Segmentation?
Bases for Segmentation
Criteria for Effective Targeting of
Segments
Implementing Segmentation Strategies

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Market Segmentation
The process of dividing a
potential market into
distinct subsets of
consumers and selecting
one or more segments as
a target market to be
reached with a distinct
marketing mix.

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Three Phases of Marketing
Strategy

Phase 3
Product/Brand Positioning

Phase 2
Target Market and Marketing Mix Selection

Phase 1
Market Segmentation

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Segmentation Studies
Discover the needs and wants of
groups of consumers to develop
specialized products to satisfy group
needs
Used to identify the most appropriate
media for advertising

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Ryka produces
sneakers that
meet the special
needs of
womens feet.

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Discussion Question
Considering the largest bank in your
colleges city or town:
How might consumers needs differ?
What types of products might meet their
needs?
What advertising media makes sense for
the different segments of consumers?

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Bases for Segmentation

Geographic Use-Related
Demographic Usage-Situation
Psychological Benefit Sought
Psychographic Hybrid
Sociocultural

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Table 3.1 Market Segmentation
SEGMENTATION BASE SELECTED SEGMENTATION VARIABLES
Geographic Segmentation
Region Southwest, Mountain States, Alaska, Hawaii
City Size Major metropolitan areas, small cities, towns
Density of area Urban, suburban, exurban, rural
Climate Temperate, hot, humid, rainy
Demographic Segmentation
Age Under 12, 12-17, 18-34, 35-49, 50-64, 65-74, 75-99, 100+
Sex Male, female
Marital status Single, married, divorced, living together, widowed
Income Under $25,000, $25,000-$34,999, $35,000-$49,999,
$50,000-$74,999, $75,000-$99,999, $100,000 and over
Education Some high school, high school graduate, some college,
college graduate, postgraduate
Occupation Professional, blue-collar, white-collar, agricultural,
military

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Table 3.1, continued
SEGMENTATION BASE SELECTED SEGMENTATION VARIABLES
Psychological Segmentation
Needs-motivation Shelter, safety, security, affection, sense of self-worth
Personality Extroverts, novelty seeker, aggressives, innovators
Perception Low-risk, moderate-risk, high-risk
Learning-involvement Low-involvement, high-involvement
Attitudes Positive attitude, negative attitude
Psychographic
(Lifestyle) Segmentation Economy-minded, couch potatoes, outdoors enthusiasts,
status seekers
Sociocultural Segmentation
Cultures American, Italian, Chinese, Mexican, French, Pakistani
Religion Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Moslem, other
Subcultures (Race/ethnic) African American, Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic
Social class Lower, middle, upper
Family life cycle Bachelors, young married, full nesters, empty nesters

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Table 3.1, continued
SEGMENTATION BASE SELECTED SEGMENTATION VARIABLES
Use-Related Segmentation
Usage rate Heavy users, medium users, light users, non users
Awareness status Unaware, aware, interested, enthusiastic
Brand loyalty None, some, strong
Use-Situation Segmentation
Time Leisure, work, rush, morning, night
Objective Personal, gift, snack, fun, achievement
Location Home, work, friends home, in-store
Person Self, family members, friends, boss, peers
Benefit Segmentation Convenience, social acceptance, long lasting, economy,
value-for-the-money
Hybrid Segmentation
Demographic/ Combination of demographic and psychographic profiles
Psychographics of consumer segments profiles
PRIZM NE Movers & Shakers, New Empty Nests, Boomtown
Geodemographics Singles, Bedrock America
SRI VALSTM Innovators, Thinkers, Believer, Achievers, Strivers,
Experiencer, Makers, Survivors

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Geographic Segmentation
The division of a total potential
market into smaller subgroups on
the basis of geographic variables
(e.g., region, state, or city)

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Demographic Segmentation
Age
Sex
Marital Status
Income, Education, and Occupation

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Web sites for Singles
Looking for a Match
weblink weblink

Match.com targets all The Right Stuff


singles targets only Ivy
League graduates
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Psychological Segmentation
Motivations
Personality
Perceptions
Learning
Attitudes
Harley-Davidson Video

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Two High-End Watches for Different
Psychological Segments

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Psychographic Segmentation

Also known as Lifestyle Analysis


Psychographic variables include
attitudes, interests, and opinions
(AIOs)

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Table 3.6 Excerpts from AIO Inventory
Instructions: Please read each statement and place an x in the box that best indicates how
strongly you agree or disagree with the statement.

I feel that my life is moving faster and faster, Agree Disagree


Completely Completely
sometimes just too fast.
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
If I could consider the pluses and minuses,
technology has been good for me.
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
I find that I have to pull myself away from e-mail.
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
Given my lifestyle, I have more of a shortage of
time than money. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

I like the benefits of the Internet, but I often dont


have the time to take advantage of them. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

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Opinions
and Attitudes

ADBUSTERS
Web site is
targeted to
consumers
with a certain
attitude toward
advertisers weblink

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Sociocultural Segmentation
Family Life Cycle
Social Class
Culture, Subculture, and Cross-Culture

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Family Life Cycle Advertising

Video cameras
are often
purchased by
young couples
with children.

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Target reaches
out to the
Latino
market.

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Discussion Questions
What types of marketers might
segment according to social class?
What ethical issues might marketers
have when marketing to different social
classes?

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Use-Related Segmentation
Rate of Usage
Heavy vs. Light
Awareness Status
Aware vs. Unaware
Brand Loyalty
Brand Loyal vs. Brand Switchers

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Segmenting Customers by Usage
Table 3-8

Current Share
High Low

High HiHighs LowHighs


(stroke) (chase)
Consumption

HiLows LoLows
Low (tickle) (starve)

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Usage-Situation Segmentation
Segmenting on the basis of special
occasions or situations
Example Statements:
Whenever our daughter Jamie gets a raise,
we always take her out to dinner.
When Im away on business, I try to stay at
a suites hotel.
I always buy my wife flowers on
Valentines Day.

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Benefit Segmentation

Segmenting on the basis of the most


important and meaningful benefit

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Band-aid
offers flex
as a
benefit to
consumers.

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Hybrid Segmentation
Approaches
Psychographic-Demographic Profiles
Geodemographic Segmentation
SRI Consultings VALS

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Selected Demographic Profile of
USA Today Excerpt from Table 3-10
USA TODAY USA USA TODAY
TODAY.COM NETWORK
Men 66% 70% 66%
Women 34% 30% 34%

Age 18-49 62% 73% 64%


Age 25-54 65% 78% 67%
Age 55+ 27% 18% 25%
Average Age 45 43 45

Attended college 77% 83% 77%


or beyond
College graduate 55% 65% 56%
or beyond

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Selected Lifestyle Profile of USA Today
Excerpt from Table 3-11
% Index
Comp
Tech Savvy Readers
Use Internet more than once a day 32% 174
Internet access at home 79% 128
Online purchase for business or personal use in past 40% 182
30 days
Household owns a PC 84% 119
Owns digital camera 22% 130
Leisure Activities
Attended movies in last 6 months 73% 120
Bought music CD/tapes in last 12 months 46% 126
Book reading 45% 120
Entertain friends or relatives at home in last 12 months 48% 123
Household subscribes to cable 69% 112

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VALS Framework
Figure 3-7

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Discussion Question
How would you classify
yourself according to
VALS? Your parents?
Do you think this
represents you as a
consumer?
If so, for what products
does this fit you as a
consumer?
Copy down the URL
below to take the VALS
survey tonight. See if you
were right in your weblink
classification
http://www.sric-
bi.com/VALS/presurvey.sh
tml

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Criteria for Effective Targeting of
Market Segments
Identification
Sufficiency
Stability
Accessibility

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Implementing Segmentation
Strategies
Concentrated Marketing
One segment
Differentiated
Several segments with individual
marketing mizes

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