Newton's 2nd law

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Newton's 2nd law

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THE LAW

OF

ACCELERATION

Linear Air Track Experiment

Airholes

a1 F1

m

To

blower

m

m

Observations

The acceleration of the given body is directly

proportional to the applied force. This means that

the ratio of the acceleration is always constant.

F1 F2 F3

a1 = =

a2 a3 = constant

The constant is a measure of how effective is the

given force in producing acceleration. This ratio is the

property of the body called mass.

A force of 1 newton (1N) is that

F resultant force that will give a 1-kg

m=

a mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2. The

newton (N) is the SI unit of force.

How is acceleration affected by increasing mass?

a1 F1

m

a2 = a1 F2 = F1

m m

a3 = 1/3a1 F3 = F1

m m m

Newtons 2nd Law of Motion

Applying a constant force of 12 N in

succession to 1-, 2- and 3-kg masses will

produce accelerations of 12 m/s2, 6 m/s2 and

4m/s2, respectively.

F 12N

a = = = 12 m/s2

m1 1kg

F 12N

a = = = 6 m/s 2

m2 2 kg

F 12N

a = = = 4 m/s2

m3 3kg

Newtons Second Law of Motion:

Whenever an unbalanced force acts on

a body, it produces in the direction of the

force an acceleration that is directly

proportional to the force and inversely

proportional to the mass of the body.

Fnet = ma F = + F1 + F2 + F3 +

Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s2)

Force (lb) = mass (slug) x acceleration (ft/s2)

1 lb = 4.448 N 1 slug = 14.59 kg

Illustrative Example 1

A constant force of 20 N acts on a mass of

(a) 2 kg, (b) 4 kg and (c) 6 kg. What are the

resulting accelerations?

F 20N

a = = = 10 m/s2

m1 2kg

F 20N

a = = = 5 m/s 2

m2 4 kg

F 20N

a = = = 3.3 m/s2

m3 6kg

Illustrative Example 2

It is determined that a resultant force of 60

N will give a wagon an acceleration of 10

m/s2. What force is required to give the

wagon an acceleration of 2 m/s2?

F 60N

m = = 2 = 6 kg

a 10m/s

F = ma = (6kg)(2 2

m/s )

F = 12 N

Illustrative Example 3

A 1000kg car moving north at 100 km/h

brakes to a stop in 50 m. What are the

magnitude and direction of the force?

Given: m = 1000kg; vi = 100 km/h = 27.8 m/s;

vf = 0 Find: Fnet = ? Formula: Fnet = ma

vf vi X

a = 50 m

t = =

t v 13.9 m/s

0 27.8 m/s

a= t = 3.6 s

3.6 s

a = 7.72 m/s2

F = ma = (1000kg)(- 7.72 2

m/s )

F = 7720 N, South

Relationship Between Mass and Weight

MASS is a universal constant equal to the ratio of the

bodys weight to the gravitational acceleration due to

gravity.

WEIGHT is the force of gravitational attraction and

varies depending of the acceleration due to gravity.

W

W = mg or m =

g

Therefore,

(1)The mass of we canissummarize

a particle as divided

equal to its weight follows:

by the

acceleration due to gravity.

SI: W(N) = m(kg) x g(9.8m/s2)

(2)Weight has the same units as the unit of force.

English: W(lb) = m(slug) x g(32 ft/s 2)

(3)The acceleration of gravity has the same units as acceleration.

Illustrative Examples

What is the weight of a 4.8-kg mailbox?

What is the mass of a 40-N tank?

What is the mass of a 60-lb child?

What is the weight of a 7-slug man?

W = mg = (4.8kg)(9.8 m/s2)= 47N

m = F/g = (40N)/(9.8 m/s2)= 4.08 kg

m = F/g = (60lb)/(32 ft/s2)= 1.9 slug

W = mg = (7slug)(32 m/s2)= 224 lb

Illustrative Example 2

Find the weight of the body whose weight

on Earth is 100 N. If this mass were

taken to a distant planet where g = 2.0

m/s2, what would be its weight on that

planet?

Given: WE = 100N; gE = 9.80 m/s2

gP = 2.0 m/s2

Find: WP = ?

Solution

Mass on Earth:

WE 100 N

m=

gE

=

9.80 m/s2

= 10.2 kg

Weight on the planet:

WP = 20.4 N

Try this!

A woman weighs 800 N on

When she 2

Ans.: a = 1.63 m/s ; on the

Earth. walks

moon,mshe weighs

= 81.6 only

kg on 133 N.

both

What is the acceleration

places due

to gravity on the Moon, and

what is her mass on the

Moon? On the Earth?

Practice Exercise (p.61-62)

1. A ball is accelerated from rest at a rate of

1.20 m/s2 after a force of 20.0 n is applied.

What is the mass of the ball? Solution

2. A 15.0-kg box is pushed by two boys with

forces of 15.0 N and 18.0 toward the right.

What is the magnitude and direction of the

acceleration of the box? Solution

3. If the forces in number 2 are applied

opposite each other, what is the magnitude

and direction of the acceleration? Solution

The Atwood Machine

T T

a M T T m a

M m mg

Mg

The Atwood Machine

T T

For mass M:

T Mg = - Ma

a M Mg - T = -Ma Eq. 1 m a

For mass m:

Mg mg

T mg = ma Eq. 2

Example

Conbining eq.1 & eq. 2:

Mg - T = Ma Mm

+

T mg = ma a = g

M+m

Mg - mg = (M + m)a

Vertical and horizontal problems

m1

3.00-kg block along a

frictionless table. Calculate for m2

the acceleration of the system

and the tension on the cord.

Vertical and horizontal problems

T T

m1

T m2 a

m1 T

a

m2

Fnet = T = m1a - eq.1 w2

Fnet = T- w2 = -m2a

or w2 T = m2a - eq.2

Since the blocks are connected by a single cord, the

tension T of the cord for both blocks is the same,

thus similar rate of motion for both.

w2 T = m2a ---- Eq. 2

w2 = m1a + m2a

w2 = (m1 + m2)a

w2

a = Working equation

(m1 + m2)

For acceleration:

w2

a =

(m1 + m2)

(2.00kg)(9.80 m/s2)

a =

(3.0 kg + 2.0 kg)

a = 3.92 m/s2

For the tension: from eq.1

Another Example

Vertical and horizontal problems

T2 T1

m1

T2 T1

m2 m3

left side of m1 which is 300 g, and a 200-g

mass on the right, what would be the

acceleration of the system and the tensions

on the left and right cords?

Free-body Diagrams m1 = 300 g

m2 = 100g

T2 m1 T1 m3 = 200 g

Fnet = T1 T2 = m1a

T2 T1

m2 a a m3

w3 w3

Fnet = T2 W2 = m2a Fnet = T1 W3 = -m3a

Combining the 3 equations yields:

T1 T2 = m1a Fnet1 = T1 T2 = m1a

+

T2 W2 = m2a Fnet2 = T2 W2 = m2a

+

W3 T1 = m3a Fnet3 = T1 W3 = -m3a

W3 W2 = (m1 + m2 + m3)a

W3 W2

a = Working equation

m1 + m2 + m3

W3 W2 m1 = 300 g

a =

m1 + m2 + m3 m2 = 100g

m3 = 200 g

(0.2kg)(9.8m/s2) (0.1kg)(9.8m/s2)

=

0.3 kg + 0.2 kg + 0.1 kg

a = 1.63 m/s 2

T1 T2 = m1a Eq.1 m1 = 300 g

T2 W2 = m2a Eq.2 m2 = 100g

m3 = 200 g

W3 T1 = m3a Eq.3

For Tensions, T1 and T2 Using Equation 3

W3 T1 = m3a

m3g T1 = m3a

T1 = m3g m3a

T1 = m3(g a)

T1 = 0.2kg(9.8m/s2 1.63m/s2)

T1 = 1.63 N

Using Equation 2

T2 W2 = m2a

T2 m2g = m2a

T2 = m2a + m2g

T2 = m2(g a)

T2 = 0.1kg(9.8m/s2 + 1.63m/s2)

T2 = 1.14 N

Using Equation 1

T1 = 1.63 N

T1 T2 = m1a

1.63N T2 = 0.3kg(1.63m/s2)

1.63N T2 = 0.489 N

T2 = 1.63N 0.489 N

T2 = 1.14 N

Solution:

1. A ball is accelerated from rest at a rate of 1.20 m/s2 after a

force of 20.0 n is applied. What is the mass of the ball?

a = 1.20m/s2

F = ma

F 20.0 N

m = = 2 = 16.7 kg

a 1.20 m/s

Solution:

2. A 15.0kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15.0 N

and 18.0 toward the right. What is the magnitude and

direction of the acceleration of the box?

Given: m = 15.0 kg; F1 = +15.0 N; F2 = +18.0 N

Find: a = ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma

Fnet 15.0 N + 18.0 N

a = =

m 15.0 kg

a = 2.20 m/s2

Solution:

2. A 15.0kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15.0 N

and 18.0 toward the right. What is the magnitude and

direction of the acceleration of the box?

Given: m = 15.0 kg; F1 = +15.0 N; F2 = +18.0 N

Find: a = ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma

Fnet 15.0 N + 18.0 N

a = =

m 15.0 kg

Solution:

3. If the forces in number 2 are applied opposite each other,

what is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration?

Find: a = ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma

Fnet 15.0 N - 18.0 N

a = =

m 15.0 kg

Example: Atwood Machine

5.0-kg body are each

suspended at the end

of a cord that passes

over a frictionless T T

pulley. (a) What is the

acceleration of the

system? (b) What is a 2.0 kg 5.0 kg a

the tension on the

cord?

Solution

Mm

a = g

M+m

5kg 2kg

a = (9.8m/s2)

5kg + 2kg

a = 4.2 m/s2

Another Solution

F = ma

Unbalanced force F:

F = W2 + W1 = 5kg(9.8m/s2) 2kg(9.8m/s2)

T = 49 N 19.6 N = 29.4N

T

The moving masses:

m = 2kg + 5kg = 7kg

a 2.0 kg 5.0 kg a The acceleration:

F = ma

w1 29.4N = 7kg (a)

w2 a = 29.4 N / 7kg = 4.2 m/s2

Solution: The tension on the cord

Consider the 2.0-kg body as the T

moving part of the system. We can a

isolate it as shown in the free-body

diagram on the right. Let T be the 2.0 kg

tension on the cord. The unbalanced

force is T W1. The acceleration is 4.2

m/s2.

F = ma

T 19.6N = (2.0kg)(4.2m/s2)

T = 8.4 N + 19.6 N = 28.0 N

Example: Horizontal and Vertical motion

A 100-g mass lies on a frictionless table

and a cord is attached to it. The cord

passes over a pulley at the edge of the

table and at the free end, a 10-g mass is

hung. Find the acceleration of the system

and the tension on the cord.

100 g

10 g

A 100-g mass lies on a frictionless table and a cord is attached to it.

Solution

The cord passes over a pulley at the edge of the table and at the

free end, a 10-g mass is hung. Find the acceleration of the system

and the tension on the cord.

w2 Isolating the 10-g mass, the tension T

a = acts upward and the acceleration

(m1 + m2) downward. The unbalanced force F =

(9800 T)dynes. Applying the second

law:

10g (980cm/s2)

a = F = ma

(100g + 10g) 9800-T = 10g(89.1cm/s2)

T = 9800dy 891dy

a = 89.1 cm/s2

T = 8910 dynes

Solve the following:

1. Assume that the masses m1 = 2kg and m2 = 8kg

are connected by a cord that passes a light

frictionless pulley. What are the acceleration of

the system and the tension in the cord?

2. What are the acceleration and the tension in the

cord given the arrangement in the figure below?

4 kg

6 kg

3. Three masses m1=10kg, m2=8kg and

m3=6kg, are connected as shown below.

Neglecting friction, what is the acceleration

of the system? What are the tensions in

the cord on the left and in the right?

m2

m1 m3

Assignment

Answer and numbers 14

and 15 letter a and c on

page 74.

1. Assume that the masses m1 = 2kg and

m2 = 8kg are connected by a cord that

passes a light frictionless pulley. What

are the acceleration of the system and

the tension in the cord?

Mm

a = g T T

M+m a a

8kg 2kg 2.0 kg 8.0 kg

a = (9.8m/s2)

8kg + 2kg

F = T m1g = m1a

a = 5.9 m/s2 T 19.6N = (2.0kg)(5.9m/s2)

T = 11.8 N + 19.6 N

T = 31.4 N

2. What are the acceleration and the tension in the

cord got the arrangement in the figure below?

m1 4 kg

The acceleration:

6 kg

w2 The tension: m 2

a =

(m1 + m2) F = T m2g = ma

6kg (9.8m/s2) T = m2a + m2g

a =

(4kg + 6kg) T = 6kg(5.9 m/s2 + 9.8m/s2)

3. Three masses m1=10kg, m2=8kg and m3=6kg, are connected as shown below.

Neglecting friction, what is the acceleration of the system? What are the tensions

in the cord on the left and in the right?

T1 m2 T2

a T1 T2

T1- W1 = -m1a

T1 - 98N = -10kg(1.63m/sa2)

m1 T1 = 98N -16.3Nm3 W3

W1

T1 = 82N

W1 W 3 W3 = +m

T2 10kg(9.8 m/s32a) 6kg(9.8m/s2)

a= =T = m g + m a = m (a + g)

m1 + m2 + m3 2 3 10kg +

3 8kg + 36kg

T2 = 6kg(1.63m/s2+9.8m/s2)

a = 1.63 m/s2 T2 = 69 N

T1 m2 T2

a T1 T2

m3 a

W1 m1 W3

T1 T2 = m2a

81.7N T2 = 8kg(1.63m/s2)

T2 = 82N 8kg(1.63m/s2)

= 82N 13N

T2 = 69 N

angela_villaruel06@yahoo.com

ish.shadow@ymail.com

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