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Thermodynamics

Presented by:

Engr. Jefril M. Amboy

Part I

Basic Concepts,

Temperature and Heat

What is Thermodynamics?

THERMODYNAMICS

is the science of energy!

Thermodynamics is the study of the

transformation of heat, mechanical work

and other forms of energy and how these

transformations relate to properties of

matter.

Etymology

Thermodynamics

therme dynamis

heat power

Divisions of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

classical statistical

macroscopic microscopic

The System and Its Surroundings

matter or a region in space to be studied.

is called the surroundings.

separates the system from its

surroundings is called the boundary.

System, Surroundings and Boundary

Types of Systems

A closed system is composed of a fixed

amount of mass and no mass can cross

its boundary.

to cross the boundary, the system is said

to be isolated.

both mass and energy across a boundary.

A Closed System (Control Mass)

a closed system, but energy can.

An Open System (Control Volume)

fixed boundaries.

Properties of a System

property. Properties can be intensive or

extensive.

of the system, it is an intensive property.

Otherwise, it is extensive.

called specific properties.

The State of a System

conditions which can be described

completely by its properties.

equilibrium if maintains thermal,

mechanical, phase and chemical

equilibrium.

What is a Process?

state of a system. A process that starts

and ends with the same state is called a

cycle or cyclic process.

equilibrium if maintains thermal,

mechanical, phase and chemical

equilibrium.

Processes and Cycles

system undergoes from one equilibrium

state to another.

undergone during a process is called the

path of the process.

Temperature

quantitative measure of the hotness or

coldness of a body.

the measure of the average kinetic

energy of all the molecules that make up

a material.

Thermal equilibrium

a system is the same and equal to the

temperature of its surroundings is called

thermal equilibrium.

they are at the same temperature,

whether or not they are in physical

contact.

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

that if two bodies are in thermal

equilibrium with a third body, they are

also in thermal equilibrium with each

other.

with each other even if they are not in

physical contact with each other.

Temperature Scales

for measuring temperature.

Celsius Kelvin

Fahrenheit Rankine

Temperature Conversions

TC 100 5

= =

TF 180 9

9

TF = TC + 32

5

5

TC = (TF 32)

9

The Thermodynamic Temperature

Scale

of the properties of any materials is

called a thermodynamic temperature

scale.

the SI system is the Kelvin scale. In the

English system, it is Rankine scale.

The Ideal Gas Temperature Scale

identical to the Kelvin scale is the ideal-

gas temperature scale.

using a constant-volume gas

thermometer.

The Development of the Kelvin Scale

TK = TC + 273.15

Absolute

zero!

The Kelvin Scale

absolute

One temperature

kelvin scale.

is defined as It is based

1/273.16 of theon

two fixed temperatures

difference namely

between the triple the of

point

absolute

water andzero and the

absolute triple point of

zero.

water.

Triple point (H2O): 0.01C = 273.16

K

Thermal Expansion

applied is called thermal expansion.

Properties like length and volume are

affected by temperature changes.

LL

= To

= 3

VV

= To

Example:

exactly 50.000 m long at an ordinary

temperature of 25C. What is the length

of the steel tape on a hot summer day

when the temperature gets 35C?

Ans: 50.006 m

Thermal Stress

materials due to temperature changes

may result to thermal stress , which is

analogous to pressure (force per unit

area).

= ET

Example:

2.5 cm is used as a spacer between two

steel walls such that the two bases of the

cylinder are touching the walls. At 17C,

the cylinder just slips in between the

walls. When it warms to 25C, calculate

the stress in the cylinder and the force

that it exerts on each wall, Assuming that

Ans:

the 26.4

walls arekNperfectly rigid.

Heat

transfer of thermal

energy across a

boundary or from one

body to another due to

temperature difference

between them.

The Unit of Heat

the same unit as energy.

joule

calorie

1 BTU = 1055 J

BTU

The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

1 cal = 4.186 J

Unit Conversions for Heat

1 cal = 4.186 J

1 BTU = 1055 J

Sensible Heat

the temperature of a given mass of a

pure substance is called sensible heat.

This amount of heat Q is directly

proportional to the mass m of the

substance and to the change in

temperature T.

Q = mcT

Specific Heat

amount of energy transferred by heat

necessary to change temperature of a

given unit of mass by 1 C.

Q

c=

mT

( J/kg K )

Specific Heat of water

c 4.186= J/g C

c = 4,186 J/kg

K

c 1 cal/g

= C

c 1 BTU/lb

= F

Heat Capacity

amount of energy needed to raise the

temperature of a given sample by 1C.

Q

C=

T

( J/K )

Molar Heat Capacity

the product of its specific heat and molar

mass.

water.

Dulong-Petit Law

the molar heat capacities of most

elemental solids approach the value 3R,

which is approximately 25 J/molK.

Phase Changes

another is called a phase change. At a

given pressure, a substance changes from

one phase to another at a definite

temperature. More importantly, the

phase change is always accompanied by

the absorption or release of energy,

usually by heat.

Latent Heat

transfer needed to change the phase of a

given mass of substance without

changing its temperature.

Lf = 80 cal/g

Q = mLv

Lv = 540 cal/g

Calorimetry

involved in various physical changes.

between two bodies, the heat lost by one

body equals the heat gained by the

other.

Qlost = Qgained

Example:

200.0C and then dropped into a

calorimeter containing 0.400 kg of water

initially at 20.0C. The final equilibrium

temperature of the mixed system is

22.4C. Find the specific heat of the

metal.

Example:

muzzle speed of 200 m/s into the pine

wall of a saloon. Assume all the internal

energy generated by the impact remains

with the bullet. What is the temperature

change of the bullet? For silver c = 234

J/kgC

Ans: 85.5C

Example:

needed to convert 250 g of ice at a

temperature of 10C to steam at 120C.

Ans: 769 kJ

Example:

needed to warm 200 g of water in a 100

g glass container from 20.0C to 50.0C?

Ans: 10.9 g

Energy Transfer Mechanisms

energy can be transferred by heat in

thermal processes:

conduction

convection

radiation

Thermal conduction

energy is transferred by heat as a result

of interaction among particles. The

transfer of energy occurs when the

particles gain kinetic energy in collision

with more energetic particles. The gain

in KE results to a change in temperature.

Law of Thermal Conduction

The rate at which energy is transferred by

thermal conduction is proportional to the

temperature gradient.

dQ T

H= = kA

dt x

Law of Thermal Conduction

dQ Th - Tc

H= = kA

dt L

Example:

wall area of 1.2 m2 including the lids and a

wall thickness of 1 inch. The cooler is

filled with lots of ice and bottled beers.

What is the rate of heat flow into the

cooler if the air outside has a temperature

of 27C? How much ice melts in one day?

Convection

mechanism which involves the combined

effects of conduction and fluid motion.

In convection, there is a transfer of fluid

mass from one region of space to

another.

Convection

determined from Newtons law of

cooling.

dQ

H= = hAT

dt

Example:

room at 20C. Determine the total rate of

heat transfer from this person if the

exposed surface area and the average

outer surface temperature of the person

are 1.6 m2 and 29C, respectively, and the

convection heat transfer coefficient is 6

W/m2 C

Ans: 168.1 W

Radiation

means of electromagnetic waves. It does

not require any physical contact or

medium, and thus, radiation can take

place even in a vacuum.

emitted by bodies because of their

temperature.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

thermal radiation is proportional to the

fourth power of the absolute

temperature of the radiating body.

P = eAT4 (W)

Example:

is heated in a black smiths forge to a

temperature of 800C. If the emissivity of

the body is 0.6, what is the total rate of

radiation of energy?

Ans: 900 W

Part II

Thermal Properties of

Matter

State Variables

used to describe the state of a system.

and final state of the system.

pressure, volume, temperature and

internal energy.

Equation of State of an Ideal Gas

At constant n and P, V T

At constant n and V, P T

At constant P and T, V n

PV = nRT

R = 8.314 J/molK

R = 0.0821 Latm/(molK)

Example:

mole of an ideal gas at STP.

Ans: 22.4 L

Example:

and gasoline is compressed in the

cylinders before ignited. A typical engine

has a compression ratio of 9:1. The initial

pressure is 27C. If the pressure after

compression is 21.7 atm, find the

temperature of the compressed gas.

Ans: 450C

Kinetic Molecular Theory

The separation between individual gas

molecules is way too large compared to

their own individual sizes

The molecules move randomly obeying

Newtons law.

There is no force of attraction or

repulsion between individual gas

molecules.

The collision of molecules to the wall of

the container is a perfect collision.

Kinetic energy and velocity of gas

molecules

The average translational kinetic energy

of a gas molecule is given by

3 3

K av = kT K t = nRT

2 2

The rms speed of a gas molecule is

3RT

v rms =

M

Cp, Cv and R

and CP respectively are

3 5

CV = CP =

2 2

CP - CV = R

CP 5 2 R 5

g = = = = 1.67

CV 3 2R 3

Part III

The First Law of

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic System and Process

collection of object that can be regarded

as a unit and has the potential to

exchange energy with its surroundings

state of a system is called a

thermodynamic process.

Microscopic and Macroscopic forms of

Energy

those a system possesses as a whole with

respect to some outside reference frame.

those related to the molecular structure

of a system.

Introduction to the First law

systems in which the only energy change

is that of internal energy, and the only

energy transfer involved is by means of

heat and work.

Internal Energy

energy possessed by a system is called

the internal energy, U.

well as potential energy of atoms and

molecules.

Thermal Energy

sum of the kinetic energies of all the

molecules in a system, including both the

sensible and latent forms of internal

energy.

Adiabatic Process

transfer of energy by heat.

of the system can also be changed by

other means such as by doing work.

Energy Transfer by Work

with a force acting to a system creating a

displacement.

called power. Since work can be used to

transfer energy, power maybe defined

specifically as the rate of doing work.

The work done in a quasi-static process

by a gas from an

initial to final state

depends on the path

between these states. Vf

w = - PdV

Vi

(

w = -P Vf - Vi )

Heat and Work

phenomena

A system may posses energy but not

heat or work.

Both heat and work are associated with

a process, not a state.

Both heat and work are path functions.

The First Law of Thermodynamics

created nor destroyed; it can only be

converted from one form to another.

system during a process is equal to the

difference between the total energy

entering and the total energy leaving the

system.

The Energy Balance Equation

system during a process is equal to the

difference between the total energy

entering and the total energy leaving the

system.

E = Ein Eout

The First Law of Thermodynamics

be changed by heat or work. Thus, the

change in the total energy of the system

is simply equal to the sum of the energy

transferred by heat and the net work

done.

E = Q + W

The First Law of Thermodynamics

be changed by heat or work. Thus, the

change in the total energy of the system

is simply equal to the sum of the energy

transferred by heat and the net work

done.

E = Q + W

The First Law of Thermodynamics

E = Q + W

Process Sign

Heat is absorbed by the system +

Heat is gained by the system

Work is done on the system +

Work is done by the system

E in a Stationary System

closed system is equal to the change in

its internal energy.

E = U

U = Q + W

The First Law of Thermodynamics

system is equal to the sum of the energy

transfer by heat and work.

U = Q + W

applied to a closed system.

The First Law of Thermodynamics

U = Q + W change in internal energy

depends only on the initial

and states of the system.

Process Sign

Heat absorbed by the system +

Heat gained by the system

Work done on the system +

Work done by the system

State Variables

describe the state of a system.

and final state of the system.

pressure, volume and internal energy.

Transfer Variables

of the conservation of energy equation.

Examples are heat and work.

state of the system but rather, with a

change in the system.

Cyclic Process

states of the system are identical, and

thus, the change in internal energy must

be zero.

U = 0

The internal energy in a cyclic process

remains constant.

Isolated System

transferred between the system and

surroundings either by heat or by work.

U = 0

remains constant.

E in an Adiabatic Process

transferred by heat, thus, the change in

the change in the energy of the system

equal the net work done.

E = W (adiabatic process)

Adiabatic Process

TV-1 = constant

PV = constant

Adiabatic Free Expansion

change in the internal energy of the

system is zero.

U = 0

Isobaric Process (constant pressure)

W = P(Vf Vi)

For expansion, work is negative

For compression, work is positive

Q = mCpT

U = Q + W

Isovolumetric Process

W=0

Q = mCVT

U = Q

Isothermal Process

ideal gas, the change in internal energy is

zero.

U = 0

Q = W

Isothermal Expansion

done is

W = nRT ln (Vi/Vf)

Example:

Calories. He wishes to do an equivalent

amount of work in the gymnasium by

lifting a 50.0-kg barbell. How many times

must he raise the barbell to expend this

much energy? Assume he raises the

barbell 2.00 m each time he lifts it and he

regains no energy when he lowers the

Ans: 8540 times

barbell.

Example:

cooled while being stirred by a paddle

wheel. Initially, the internal energy of the

fluid is 800 kJ. During the cooling

process, the fluid loses 500 kJ of heat,

and the paddle wheel does 100 kJ of

work on the fluid. Determine the final

internal energy of the fluid. Neglect the

Ans: 400

energy kJ in the paddle wheel.

stored

Example:

isobarically at atmospheric pressure. Its

volume in the liquid state is Vi = Vliquid

1.00 cm3, and its volume in the vapor

state is Vf = Vvapor = 1 671 cm3. Find the

work done in the expansion and the

change in internal energy of the system.

Example:

atmospheric pressure so that its

temperature increases from 20C to 50C.

(A) What is the work done on the copper

bar by the surrounding atmosphere? (B)

How much energy is transferred to the

copper bar by heat? (C) What is the

increase in internal energy of the copper

Ans:

bar? W = 1.7 10 2

J,

Q = 1.2 104 J, U = 1.2 104 J

Part IV

The Second Law of

Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Process

one direction but not the other is called

an irreversible process. All processes that

occur in nature are irreversible.

process in which the system is always in

thermodynamic equilibrium with its

surroundings. Thus, a reversible process

is an equilibrium process.

Quasi-equilibrium process

system remains very close to an

equilibrium state, which makes the

process nearly reversible, the process is

called quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium

process.

Heat Engines

into work or mechanical energy is called

a heat engine.

working substance.

that involve a cyclic process.

How a Heat Engine Works

absorbs energy by heat

from a high

temperature reservoir

Work is done by the

engine

Energy is expelled by

heat to a lower

temperature reservoir

Work done by a heat engine

equals the net energy transferred by heat.

W = |Qh| |Qc|

Thermal Efficiency of a Heat Engine

the ratio of the work done by the engine

during one cycle to the energy input at

higher temperature.

W Qh - Qc Qc

E= = =1-

Qh Qh Qh

Kelvin-Planck Statement

engine operating in a cycle that will

produce an amount of work equal to the

amount of input energy by heat.

Heat Pumps and Refrigerators

cold to hot reservoir is called a heat

pump or a refrigerator.

reservoir can only be achieved if work is

done on the engine.

Clausius statement

It is impossible to

construct a machine

that can transfer

energy by heat from

a lower to higher

temperature without

the input energy by

work.

The Coefficient of Performance

effectiveness of a heat pump.

Qc

COP = cooling mode

W

Qh

COP = heating mode

W

Carnot Engine

A Carnot engine is a

theoretical engine that

operates in an ideal, reversible

cycle called Carnot cycle, and

is the most efficient engine

possible.

Sadi Carnot

Carnots Theorem

two energy reservoirs can be more

efficient than a Carnot engine operating

between the same two reservoirs.

Carnot Cycle

Carnot Engine Efficiency

is given by the formula

Tc

eC = 1 -

Th

Entropy

measures the degree of disorder in a

system.

all real processes.

Entropy

depends only on the initial and final

states, and thus, independent of the path

dQ f

dQ

dS = S =

T

T i

Example:

500 g of ice melts into liquid water.

Ans:

Entropy Change in a Reversible and

Irreversible Process

process is zero and greater than zero in

an irreversible process.

S = 0 (reversible process)

The Entropy of an isolated system

always increases for an irreversible

process. For a reversible process, the

total entropy of the isolated system

remains constant.

Entropy Change in a free expansion

adiabatic expansion.

Vf

S = nRln

Vi

Example:

2.4 kg of air expands adiabatically to

four times its initial value.

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