You are on page 1of 61

Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics
• Learning Outcomes:
13.Appreciate that, in a simple model of band theory, there are energy
bands in solids.
14.Understand the terms valence band, conduction and forbidden band
(band gap)
15.Use simple band theory to explain the temperature dependence of
the resistance of metals and of intrinsic semiconductors
16.Use simple band theory to explain the dependence on light intensity
of the resistance of an LDR
17.Explain the principles of the production of X-rays by electron
bombardment of a metal target.
18.Describe the main features of a modern X-ray tube, including control
of the intensity and hardness of the X-ray beam.

Recall and solve problems by using the equation for the attenuation of X-rays and of ultrasound in matter. 21.Show an understanding of the use of X-rays in imaging internal body structures.Show an understanding of the principles of CT scanning. 20. .Show an understanding of how the image of an 8-voxel cube can be developed using CT scanning.Show an understanding of the purpose of computed tomography or CT scanning. 22. Quantum Physics •• Learning Outcomes: 19. including a simple analysis of the causes of sharpness and contrast in X-ray imaging. 23.

• We can conclude that gamma rays behave like particles when they interact with a Geiger counter. • The counter is detecting gamma rays which is a electromagnetic spectrum. irregular series of clicks can be heard. Particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation • If a source of gamma radiation is placed near a Geiger counter. .

Energy of photon • .

2. Calculate the energy of a photon of red light and a photon of violet light. A 1. Examples 1. 3. Calculate the energy of a high-energy γ- photon.48 x 10-7 m.0 mW laser produces red light of wavelength 6. Visible light has wavelengths in the range 400 nm (violet) to 700 nm (red). frequency 1026 Hz. Calculate how many photons the laser produces per second. .

This time is required for the electron to absorb the incident radiation before it acquires enough energy to escape from the metal. The kinetic energy should be related to the Click Click to to Video Video intensity of the light. • The classical wave theory predicts that : 1. 3. because energy is being transferred to the metal regardless of the frequency. For very weak light.Photoelectric emission of electrons • Photoelectric emission is the release of electrons from the surface of a solid when electromagnetic radiation is incident on its surface. a measurable time interval should pass between the incidence of the light and the ejection of an electron. 4. Electrons should be absorb energy continuously form the electromagnetic waves. . as long as the intensity is high enough. Electrons should be ejected at any frequency of the incident light. No relationship should exist between the frequency of the light and electron kinetic energy. A more intense light should transfer energy into the metal faster. 2. and the electrons should be ejected with more kinetic energy.

• This means that electrons are being emitted from the zinc plate. proving that the zinc plate is charged. the leaf does not move.• A clean zinc plate is placed on the cap of a gold-leaf electroscope. • But when ultra-violet radiation is shone on the plate the leaf falls. and the gold leaf deflects. • The electroscope is then charged negatively. showing that the rate if emission of electrons has increased. the leaf falls more quickly. • If visible light of any colour is shone on to the plate. • If the intensity of uv radiation is increased. showing that it is losing negative charge. • These are called photoelectrons. .

. 3. it does so instantaneously. If photoemission takes place. Different metals have different threshold frequencies. There is no delay between illumination and emission. 5. It does not depend on the intensity of the radiation. Photoemission takes place only if the frequency of the incident radiation is above a certain minimum value called the threshold frequency f0 (Minimum frequency required to release electrons from the surface of a metal). For a given frequency . 2. the rate of emission of photoelectrons is proportional to the intensity of the radiation.• Conclusions 1. 4. Whether or not emission takes place depends only on whether the frequency of radiation used is above the threshold for that surface.

• .

• The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is plotted against the frequency of the radiation. • There is current in the micrometer at voltage less than the stopping potential indicates that there is a range of kinetic energies for these electrons. • The experiment can be repeated using ultra-violet radiation of different frequencies. the maximum current in the microammeter increases. Click Click to to Applet Applet .• If the voltage between A and B is gradually increased. • It measures the maximum kinetic energy with which the photoelectrons are emitted. measuring the stopping potential for each frequency. • If the experiment is repeated with radiation of greater intensity but the same frequency. the current registered on the micrometer decreases and falls to zero. but the value of stopping potential is unchanged. • The minimum value of the potential difference necessary to stop the electron flow is known as the stopping potential.

• Conclusion 1. 2. from zero up to some maximum value. The photoelectrons have a range of kinetic energies. do not match the observations!! . If the graph is extrapolated to the point where the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is zero. the minimum frequency required to cause emission from the surface (the threshold frequency) may be found. • But. If the frequency of the incident radiation is increased the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons also increases. For constant frequency of the incident radiation. the maximum kinetic energy is unaffected by the intensity of radiation. 3. based on wave theory.

• Time between incidence of light and ejection of photoelectrons – Classical prediction: For very weak light. . Comparison • Dependence of photoelectron kinetic energy on light intensity – Classical prediction: Electrons should be absorb energy continuously form the electromagnetic waves. This time is required for the electron to absorb the incident radiation before it acquires enough energy to escape from the metal. A more intense light should transfer energy into the metal faster. – Experimental result: Electrons are emitted from the surface almost instantaneously. and the electrons should be ejected with more kinetic energy. a measurable time interval should pass between the incidence of the light and the ejection of an electron. – Experimental result: The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is independent of light intensity. even at very low intensities.

– Experimental Result: No electrons are emitted if the incident light frequency falls below some threshold frequency. – Experimental result: The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons increases with increasing light frequency. – Classical prediction: No relationship should exist between the frequency of the light and electron kinetic energy. because energy is being transferred to the metal regardless of the frequency. . No electrons are ejected below this threshold frequency regardless of how intense the light is. as long as the intensity is high enough. The kinetic energy should be related to the intensity of the light. – Classical prediction: Electrons should be ejected at any frequency of the incident light. • Dependence of photoelectron kinetic energy on light frequency.• Dependence of ejection of electrons on light frequency. which is characteristic of the material being illuminated.

Einstein’s theory of photoelectric emission • In 1905. – A photon is the special name given to a quantum of energy when the energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation. • The photon cannot share its energy between several electrons. • This transfer of energy is instantaneous. • When a photon interacts with an electron. • It is only possible for a single photon to interact with a single electron. . • He proposed that light radiation consists of a stream of energy packets called photons. Albert Einstein developed the theory of quantised energy to explain all the observations associated with photoelectric emission. it transfer all its energy to the electron.

• .

• .

2. Give your answer in eV and in J. b. Examples 1. .0 eV strike a metal surface whose work function is 1. Photons of energies 1.8 eV. a. Calculate the maximum kinetic energies of the electrons released in each case.0 eV. State which of these photons could cause the release of an electron from the metal.0 eV and 3.

Wave-particle duality • X.ray Electron .

.

. • Electromagnetic radiation or particles will travels as particles which will have effect of photoelectric. Evidence of duality • Electromagnetic radiation or particles will travels in waves form which will have effect of diffraction and interference.

• These energies are called the electron energy level of the atom. • The energy levels represented as a series of lines against a vertical scale of energy.Energy levels in atoms • Electron in an atom can have only certain specific energies. .

• Every atom has a characteristic set of energy levels whose values can be found experimentally or calculated using wave equations. • All levels have negative energy values because the energy of an atom is taken as zero and when the electron ‘falls’ into the atom energy is lost as electromagnetic radiation. . but cannot have energies between them. • The electron in the hydrogen atom can have any of these energy values.

it may be Ground state promoted to a higher energy level. • Under these conditions the atom is being in an excited state. • The energy absorbed is exactly equal to the difference in energy of the two levels. • Electron normally occupies the lowest energy levels. Excited state . • If electron absorbs energy. – ground state. maybe by being heated or collision with another electron.

• .

Emission lines .Composition of light emitted by hot gases Absorption lines – When white light is passed through cool gases .

Band Theory • Why certain of materials can conduct better? • Why some of materials cannot conduct at all? .

• So. • An electron can have an energy at any level in one of the bands. . • In a solid or liquid.Band Theory • Gas atoms that exert negligible electrical force on each other are known as isolated atoms. • It cannot have an energy value which lies in the forbidden gap between bands. the electron energy levels are very close together. they give simple line spectra.

Band Theory • In a metal. known as the valence band. • An electron whose energy lies in the valence band is bound to an individual atom. • In an insulator. . is fully occupied. • The electrons in the conduction band are the conduction or free electrons which give the metal its conductivity. one band. is only partially filled. • The band below this. the conduction band is unoccupied. known as conduction band.

the electrons gain energy. Band Theory .Conductor • When a piece of metal connected to a cell. and so there is a current. • It so happen that there is a empty energy levels higher in the band into which these electrons can move. • When they have moved upwards they are free to move through the metal. .

Insulator • In an insulator. there is a large energy gap between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. . Band Theory . • This means that the electrons are not free to move through the material. • The voltage of a cell is insufficient to lift even the most energetic across the gap and into the conduction band.

a few electrons have enough energy to jump across the gap into the conduction band.Semiconductor • A semiconductor is a material which conducts very slightly electric current. • This is intrinsic semiconductor. • The band diagram is similar to an insulator. • But the gap between the two is very small. • These electrons are ‘free’ and can form a current. • Semiconductor can conduct better if heated because more electrons will gain energy to jump over into conduction band. • At room temperature.Band Theory . Example: silicon and germanium . • The resistance of semiconductor will be decreased and opposite the resistance of metal. • Its valence band is full and its conduction band is empty.

. photons of light are absorbed by electrons in the valence band.LDR • In a Light Dependent Resistance (LDR). • High resistance in dark and low resistance in bright. • So that they jump the gap and enter the conduction band. Band Theory .

• Wavelengths in the range of m to m and are effectively the same as gamma-rays. • They belong to the short-wavelength. Production and use of X-rays • X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. beyond ultraviolet radiation. . high- frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Production and use of X-rays • X-rays are produced when fast-moving electrons are rapidly decelerated. • As the electrons slow down. • X-rays used in medical applications are usually as soft X-rays. their kinetic energy is transformed to photons of electromagnetic radiation. . because their energy is not great which usually less than the energies of gamma-rays.

.

• Anode – the rotating anode (positive) is made of a hard metal such as tungsten. (target metal) .X-ray tube • Cathode – the heated filament acts as the cathode (negative) from which electrons are emitted.

• An external power supply produces a voltage of up
to 200kV between the two electrodes.
• This accelerates a beam of electrons across the gap
between the cathode and the anode.
• The kinetic energy of an electron arriving at the
anode is 200 keV.
• When the electrons strike the anode at high speed,
they lose some of their kinetic energy in the form of
X-ray photons which emerge in all directions.
• Part of the outer casing, the windows, is thinner
than the rest and allows X-rays to emerge into the
space outside the tube.

• Part of the outer casing, the windows, is thinner than the rest and
allows X-rays to emerge into the space outside the tube.
• The width of the X-ray beam can be controlled using metal tubes
beyond the window to absorb X-rays.
• This produces a parallel-sided beam called a collimated beam.
• About 1%, of the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted to X-
rays.
• Most of the incident energy is transferred to the anode which
becomes hot.
• So, the anode rotates so that it can cool down by radiating heat to
its surroundings. Some X-ray tube have water circulating to remove
heat.

X-ray spectrum
• The X-rays that emerge from an X-ray have a
range of energies.
• The spectrum has two components, the broad
background ‘hump’ of braking radiation
(Bremsstrahlung radiation) and few sharp
‘lines’ of characteristic radiation.
• These arise from the different ways in which
an individual electron loses its energy when it
crashes into the anode.

.• X-ray spectra for a tungsten target with accelerating voltages of 60 kV. 90 kV and 120 kV. • The continuous curve shows the braking radiation while the sharp spikes are the characteristic X-rays.

so will have no effect on the resulting image. and so the maximum X-ray frequency that can be produced can be calculated from . Hence: • The X-rays of a whole range of energies are produced. they will contribute to the overall X-ray dose that the patient receives. • But. • The lowest energy X-rays will not have sufficient energy to penetrate through the body.•• The energy E gained by the electron when it is accelerated through a potential difference of V is given by • This is the maximum energy that an X-ray photon can have. . • These X-rays must be filtered out by using aluminium absorbers across the window of the tube.

X-ray attenuation • Bones look white in an X-ray photograph. • This is because they are good absorbers of X- rays. so the film is blackened. • X-rays are a form of ionising radiation. • Flesh and other soft tissues are less absorbing. • Beam of X-rays is gradually absorbed as it passes through material • The gradual decrease in the intensity of a beam of X-rays as it passes through matter is called attenuation. . so that little radiation arrives at the photographic film to cause blackening.

• Attenuation of X-rays as they pass through a uniform material as follows: where is the initial intensity. . Decreasing intensity •• Intensity is the power per unit cross-sectional area. is the thickness of the material. • The intensity of a collimated beam of X-rays decreases as it passes through matter. is the transmitted intensity and is the attenuation (absorption) coefficient of the material.

• An aluminium filter fitted across the window to absorb it. • But it would contribute to the total radiation dose without any useful purpose. Hardness • The hardness (penetration) of the X-ray beam is controlled by accelerating voltage between the cathode and anode. • More penetrating X-rays have higher photon energies and thus a larger accelerating potential is required • Longer wavelength X-rays (soft X-rays) are always produced and soft X-rays not be able to pass through patient. .

Improving X-ray images • Radiographers have three main aims: – to reduce as much as possible the patient’s exposure to harmful X-rays. so that the different tissues under investigation show up clearly in the image. so that finer details can be resolved. – to improve the sharpness of the images. – to improve the contrast of the image. .

causing mutations which can lead to the growth of cancerous tissue. • Historically. patients had to be exposed to long and intense doses of X-rays. Reducing dosage • X-rays like all ionising radiation. can damage living tissue. a substance that emits visible light when it absorbs X-ray photons are used. • Today. intensifier screen which are sheets of a material that contains phosphor. . • It is important that the dosage is kept to a minimum.

• The film is sandwiched between two intensifier screens. producing visible light photons. • In digital systems. . • The image can be viewed via a television or stored digitally. which then blacken the film. • The electrons are accelerated and focused by the positively charged anode so that they strike a screen which then gives out visible light. • The incoming X-rays strike a phosphor screen.150. image intensifiers are used. • Each X-ray photon absorbed results in several thousand light photons. • Image intensifiers are particularly useful in a technique called fluoroscopy which a continuous X-ray beam is passed through the patient onto a fluorescent screen. • This reduces the patients’ exposure by a factor of 100 .

ensuring that it is parallel sided beam and does not fan out. . Improving sharpness • The sharpness of the image is determined by the width of the X-ray beam. • Three factors determine the width of the beam: – the size of the anode  the larger the anode. – the size of the aperture at the exit window this can be reduced using adjustable lead plates – collimation of the beam  the beam is passed through lead slits. • A good X-ray source produce a narrow beam of parallel X-rays. the wider the beam.

.

• The contrast is largely determined by the hardness of the X-rays. so hard X-ray is used. • Bone is a good absorber of the radiation. • Tissue of the skin is a poor absorber. Improving contrast • Good contrast is said to be achieved if there is a clear difference in the blackening of the photographic film as the X-ray passes through different types of tissue. so softer (long –wavelength. . low frequency) X-rays is used.

containing liquid or have a similar liquid injected into the tissue of interest. .• Different tissues show up differently in X-ray images. • The patient may swallow a barium. • A contrast media is a substance such as iodine or barium which is a good absorber of X-rays. so they are more absorbing. • This means that their atoms have many electrons with which the X-rays interact. contrast media are used. • In order to control the hardness of the X-ray. • Contrast media are elements with high values of atomic number Z.

O (8) 7 bone H (1). Ca (20) Contrast media I (53).Substance Elements (Z Average Z values) soft tissue H (1). O (8). C (6). C (6). Ba (56) 55 . 14 P (15).

Barry Sheene (Moto GP champion) .

. organs etc at different depths within the body superimposed on each other. it shows the bones. • It is difficult to distinguish the bones of the front and back. Computerised axial tomography ( CAT/ CT) • A conventional X-ray image is only essentially two-dimesional shadow image. • But this can be overcome by taking several images at different angles.

• The radiographer can view images of ‘slices’ through the patient on the computer screen. . • The patients lies in a vertical ring of X- ray detectors. exposing the patient to a fan-shaped beam of X-rays from all directions. • The X-ray tube rotates around the ring. • Detectors opposite the tube send electronic records to a computer. • The computer software builds up a three-dimensional image of the patient.• CAT scanner or CT scanner was invented by Geoffrey Hounsfield and his colleagues at EMI in the UK in 1971.

• The tube thus traces out a spiral path around the patient. allowing information to be gathered about the whole body. the patient’s bed slides slowly through the ring of detectors as the X-ray tube rotates. . • This technique relies on a computer to control the scanning motion and to gather and manipulate the data to produce images.• In the latest generation (fifth- generation) scanner.

• Now. • Different parts of the body have different ‘densities’. . we simplify the procedure by considering 2 x 2 grid to a beam of X-rays from four different directions. Building up the image • We imagine the body as being divided up into a large number of tiny cubes called voxels.

• For a well defined image in a CAT scan. • Two things are needed to achieve this: – The X-ray beam must be well-collimated so that is consists of parallel rays  rays must not spread outwards. . the better the resolution. we need the voxels to be small. – The detector must consists of a regular array of tiny detecting elements  the smaller.

Advantages and disadvantages • Advantages: – Produce images that show three-dimensional relationship between different tissues. – Can distinguish tissues with quite similar densities. • Disadvantages: – Exposure to X-ray • Patient underlying health problems or pregnant woman is not encourage to undergo a CAT scan. .