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By-Renu Bala Central University of Rajasthan

Chi Square

2

Goodness of Fit Test 2 Test for Independence

Overview

Chi Square Test: Used where researcher has questions about the proportion or relative frequency for a distribution. E.g., Soft Drink Preference, Number of women compared to men who are lawyers, To what extent are different racial or ethnic groups represented on campus.

Overview

Chi Square Test: Uses sample data to test hypotheses about the shape or proportions of a sample distribution. Test determines how well the obtained sample fits the population proportions specified by the null hypothesis.

Chi Square Analysis

The chi square analysis allows you to use statistics to determine if your data ³good´ or not. In our fruit fly labs we are using laws of probability to determine possible outcomes for genetic crosses. How will we know if our fruit fly data is ³good´?

The following formula is used

If your hypothesis is supported by data you are claiming that something is random and and independent assortment. If your hypothesis is not supported by data you are seeing that the deviation between observed and expected is very far apart«something non-random must be occurring«.

The test statistic is compared to a theoretical probability distribution In order to use this distribution properly you need to determine the degrees of freedom Degrees of freedom is the number of phenotypic possibilities in your cross minus one. If the level of significance read from the table is greater than .05 or 5% then your hypothesis is accepted and the data is useful

The hypothesis is termed the null hypothesis which states that there is no substantial statistical deviation between observed and expected data.

Let¶s look at a fruit fly cross

Analysis of the results

Once the numbers are in, you have to determine the cross that you were using. What is the expected outcome of this cross? 9/16 wild type: 3/16 normal body eyeless: 3/16 black body wild eyes: 1/16 black body eyeless.

**Now Conduct the Analysis:
**

henotype bser ed ypothesis

Wild yeless lac body yeless, blac body otal

5610 1881 1896 622 10009

To compute the hypothesis value take 10009/16 = 626

**Now Conduct the Analysis:
**

henoty e se ed y othe si s

ild yeless lac ody ody

3 77 77

yeless, lac otal

To compute the hypothesis value take 10009/16 = 626

Using the chi square formula compute the chi square total for this cross: (5610 - 5630)2/ 5630 = .07 (1881 - 1877)2/ 1877 = .01 (1896 - 1877 )2/ 1877 = .20 (622 - 626) 2/ 626 = .02 G 2= .30 How many degrees of freedom?

Using the chi square formula compute the chi square total for this cross: (5610 - 5630)2/ 5630 = .07 (1881 - 1877)2/ 1877 = .01 (1896 - 1877 )2/ 1877 = .20 (622 - 626) 2/ 626 = .02 G 2= .30 How many degrees of freedom? 3

CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION TABLE

Accept Hypothesis

Probability (p) Degrees of Freedom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.95 0.004 0.10 0.35 0.71 1.14 1.63 2.17 2.73 3.32 3.94 0.90 0.02 0.21 0.58 1.06 1.61 2.20 2.83 3.49 4.17 4.86 0.80 0.06 0.45 1.01 1.65 2.34 3.07 3.82 4.59 5.38 6.18 0.70 0.15 0.71 1.42 2.20 3.00 3.83 4.67 5.53 6.39 7.27 0.50 0.46 1.39 2.37 3.36 4.35 5.35 6.35 7.34 8.34 9.34 0.30 1.07 2.41 3.66 4.88 6.06 7.23 8.38 9.52 10.66 11.78 0.20 1.64 3.22 4.64 5.99 7.29 8.56 9.80 11.03 12.24 13.44 0.10 2.71 4.60 6.25 7.78 9.24 10.64 12.02 13.36 14.68 15.99

Reject Hypothesis

0.05 3.84 5.99 7.82 9.49 11.07 12.59 14.07 15.51 16.92 18.31

0.01 6.64 9.21 11.34 13.38 15.09 16.81 18.48 20.09 21.67 23.21

0.001 10.83 13.82 16.27 18.47 20.52 22.46 24.32 26.12 27.88 29.59

Looking this statistic up on the chi square distribution table tells us the following: the P value read off the table places our chi square number of .30 close to .95 or 95% This means that 95% of the time when our observed data is this close to our expected data, this deviation is due to random chance. We therefore accept our null hypothesis.

What is the critical value at which we would reject the null hypothesis? For three degrees of freedom this value for our chi square is <7.815. So we accept the hypothesis.

How can we use the chi square test in a different sort of lab? If we were testing the effect of light on plant growth, how could the chi square analysis be used? In this case our experimental group is plants grown in the dark and the control plants are grown in the light.

What would your expected data be? Control plants grown in the light. What would your observed data be? Plants grown in the dark. Do you expect to accept or reject the null hypothesis? reject

Chi Square Test for Independence :-

Exam le: The data

Cialdini Study: 0 or 1 17 102 2 or 4 28 91 8 or 16 49 71

Littering Not Littering

When 0 or 1: 17/119 or 14% litter 2 or 4: 28/119 or 24% litter 8 or 16: 49/120 or 41% litter

**Exam le: Setting the hy othesis
**

Littering Not Littering 0 or 1 17 102 2 or 4 28 91 8 or 16 49 71

Ho: No relationship between amount of litter strewn about and people¶s tendency to litter (ie, the variables are independent). H1: The variables are not independent

**Exam le: Frequency Ex ected
**

Frequency Ex ected (fe)

If Ho is correct, how should a random sam le of 4 distri uted?

e

fc * fr fe ! N

where:

fc = frequency total for the column fr = frequency total for the row N= Size of entire sam le

**Exam le: Marginal Totals
**

0 or 1 Littering Not Littering 102 119 2 or 4 91 119 8 or 16 4 94 71 264 120 358

**Exam le: Marginal Totals
**

0 or 1 2 or 4 8 or 16 Littering 94

Not Littering

264

119

119

120

N=358

**Note: fe values are given in red
**

fe ! fc * fr N

Exam le: Determine Critical Values

**For the chi square test for independence: df = (c-1)(r-1)
**

For the present example: df = (3-1)(2-1) = 2 For df=2 and = .05, 2 crit = 5.99

**Exam le: Com ute test statistic
**

G

2

!

§

( fo fe ) 2 fe

(17 31.25) 2 ( 28 31.25) 2 ( 49 31.51) 2 ! 31.25 31.25 31.51 (102 87.75) 2 (91 87.75) 2 (71 88.49) 2 87.75 87.75 88.49 ! 22.43

Reject Ho since obtained > critical value

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