You are on page 1of 87

W E L C O M E

Field Trip of
Regional Kutai Basin
And Mahakam Delta

Instructor: Dr. Ir. Andang Bachtiar, MSc.

1
2. HYDRODYNAMICS

2
Sediment
transport type

Gravity Traction
Flow current

Turbidity Debris flow or Upper Flow Lower Flow


current mass flow Regime Regime

3
TYPE OF FLOW:
LAMINAR VS TURBULENT FLOW
A B C
Water surface Water surface Water surface

Stream Stream Stream


bed bed bed

(Boggs, 1995)

Schematic representation of laminar vs. turbulent fluid flow:


A. Laminar flow over a smooth stream bed.
B. Laminar flow over a spherical particle on a smooth bed.
C. Turbulent flow over a smooth bed. The arrows indicate flow
paths of the fluid
4
TYPE OF FLUID

Newtonian :
Have no strength and do not undergo change of
viscosity as the shear rate increase

Non-Newtonian :
Have no strength, but show variable viscosity with
change in shear or strain rate. Water containing
dispersion of sand in concentration greater than
about 30% by volume-or even lower concentration
of cohesive clay.

5
TRACTION
CURRENT

6
Traction Current
Character: the movement of water which cause
the sediments to be carried at the bottom of the
water.

Traction current clear water, only shear


stress between H20 molecules so moving the
sands below it.

7
Traction Current
Hjulstrom Diagram

TRANSPORTATION

8
Chutes & pools

= sand waves

9
Diagram of Median fall diameter-Stream Power T.V (Harms et al, 1982)
Traction Current
Bedforms Ripple / Dune Terminology

Flow direction

15o

34o

Internal character of ripples. Note dominance of forset over single bottom set laminae
and a stoss side laminae

10
Traction Current
Processes in beaches
VERTICAL SCALE GREATLY EXAGGERATED

WAVES BEGIN TO BUILD UP


SPILLING BREAKERS
SHOALING WAVES
L = 30 m
HIGH TIDE

SURF
SURF
ZONE
ZONE LOW

L
5 15 M
2 FORESHORE
FORESHORE
LONGSHORE BARS
FAIRWEATHER WAVE BASE
LOWER MIDDLE UPPER

SHOREFACE

STORM WAVE BASE OFFSHORE

MUDDY
MUDDYSUBSTRATE
SUBSTRATE SANDY
SANDYSUBSTRATE
SUBSTRATE

Skolithos
Skolithos
Cruziana
Cruziana Ichnofacies
Zoophycos
Zoophycos

11
Ripple cross-lamination from Bayah Formation (Cihara Beach) 12
Traction Current
Bedforms Antidune Genetic
Water surface

Scheme showing three modes


of deposition in antidunes.
A
A. Poorly defined low-angled
laminae on the down-stream
slope;
Water surface B. Lamine draping over the
complete antidune;
C. low-angled inclined laminae,
B
dipping upstream. Type C is
most common & originates
when antidunes move upstream
& break. (Kennedy, 1961)

Water surface

13
Traction Current
Bedforms Parallel Structure

14
Bayah Formation, Cihara Beach
GRAVITY
FLOW

15
Gravity Flow

Gravity flow is another type of sediment which


due primarily to the difference in density
between water with suspended sediments and
clear water outside the suspension.
It can take place in otherwise still water.
The water contain suspended grains grains
move with water and deposited

16
Gravity Flow
Turbidity current

Turbidity current: sediment which is carried in


suspension by turbulent current is borne out onto a
slope gain a gravitational component become
suspension is heavier than the surrounding clear
water turn into a density current (turbidity current)

Turbidity current consist of suspensions of sediment


in water.

17
Gravity Flow
Turbidity current

Postulated structure of head


& body of a turbidity current
advancing into deep water.
The tail is not shown. (After
Allen, J.R.L., 1985)

18
Gravity Flow
Turbidity current

General term SEDIMENT GRAVITY FLOWS

TURBIDITY FLUIDIZED GRAIN DEBRIS


Specific term
CURRENT SEDIMENT FLOW FLOW FLOW

UPWARD
Sediment INTERGRANULAR GRAIN MATRIX
support TURBULENCE FLOW INTERACTION STRENGTH
mechanism

C. Grain Flow D. Debris Flow


A. Turbidity current B. Fluidized flow

Rippled or flat top Flat top Irregular top


Sand volcanoes or flat top
Ripple drift micro- (large grains projecting
Convolute lamination No grading
Cross-lamination
Fluid escape pipes Massive Massive
Grain orientation Poor sorting
Lamination
Dish structure Parallel to flow Random fabric
Good grading Poor grading, if any
(distribution grading) Poor grading (coarse tail)
(coarse tail grading) Reverse grading
Near base Basal zone of
Flutes, tool marks Grooves, Flame & load shearing
Scours, injection
On base strations structures Broad cours
structures
?Strations at base

19
Gravity Flow
Submarine Canyons & Deep Sea Fans

20
Gravity Flow
Bouma Sequence: Graded Beds

Grain

CURRENT !
TRACTION
Size
Fines
up

Scour base 21
3. SEDIMENTARY
STRUCTURES
A key to the interpretation of the
Depositional Setting of
sedimentary rocks

22
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES
Primary Bedforms (formed DURING deposition)

Bed form 1. Internal Structures Variant :


1A-Plane Beds Planar laminations Swaley
1B-Ripples Ripples cross-lamination & Hummocky
Small-scale cross-lamination Herringbone
1C-Dunes Large-scale cross-stratifications Flaser-wavy-lenticular
(cross bedding)
1D Convolute lamination
1E Graded Bedding

2. Erosion Structures on 3. Erosion Structures on


the UNDER side the UPPER side
of beds (sole markings) of beds (sole markings)

2A-Flute casts 3A-Rill marks


2B-Tool Marks 3B-Wind erosion
Groove casts 3C-Raindrop imprints
Prod marks, bounce marks
Chevron marks
After Bjorlykke (1984) 23
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES
Secondary Bedforms (formed AFTER deposition)

4. Water Escape 6. Cracks


4A Dish structures 6A-Dessication mudcraks
(immediately after deposition) 6B-Shrinkage cracks, synaeresis
4B Sandstone dykes 6C-Frost cracks (polygons)
4C Sand volcanoes

5. Load Structures 7. Deformation Structures


(inverse density gradient) (due to gravity)
5A-Load casts 7A-Slumping
5B-Ball & pillow structures Growth faults
5C-Clay diapirs

After Bjorlykke (1984)

24
1.a. Primary Bedform:
Cross Stratification

25
Cross Stratification
Bedform Hierarchy
Cross lamination
/ ripple cross -lamination
/ small-scale cross-lamination

Cross lamination
= Mega ripples

Cross bedding
/ Large scale cross-stratification

Parallel lamination /
Parallel bedding

Cross bedding

26
Cross Stratification
Variant 1: Hummocky Cross Stratification

STORM SURGE

MEAN SEA LEVEL


FAIRWEATHER WAVE BASE
HUMMOCKY DEPOSITION
STORM WAVE BASE

TURBIDITE DEPOSITION
GRADED RHYTHMITE DEPOSITION
(SIMPLE FALLOUT)

27
Cross Stratification
Variant 1: Hummocky Cross Stratification

28
Cross Stratification
Variant 2: Swalle Cross Stratification

29
Cross Stratification
Variant 3: Herringbone

Tide in and Tide out are in opposite direction

Wave & beach profile are in upright position

30
Cross Stratification
supratidal Variant 4: Structure caused by tidal
High tide level
T
I
D supratidal
(Flaser-Wavy-Lenticular)
A
L
intertidal
R
A
N
SALT
G
MARSH
E
Low tide level
subtidal MUD
intertidal FLATS Roofed
muds
MIXED
High tide
FLATS
level Lenticular
subtidal
bedding
SAND
FLATS Wavy bedding

TIDAL
CHANNEL
Low tide
Lateral
level
accretion
bedding

Fioser
bedding

Location of Formation
flaser bedding - commonly forms in relatively high energy environments (sand flats)
wavy bedding - commonly forms in environments that alternate frequently from higher to lower
energies (mixed flats)
lenticular bedding - commonly forms in relatively low energy environments (mud flats) 31
1.b. Primary Bedform:
Non-Cross Stratification

32
Traction Current
Bedforms Parallel Structure

Note High Energy Planar Beds

Photo: G. Voulgaris
Beach Face - South Carolina Foreshore 33
Gravity Flow
Bouma Sequence: Graded Beds

Grain
Size
Fines
up

34
2. Primary Bedform:
Erosion Structures on
the UNDER side
of beds (sole markings)

Flute casts, Tool Marks, Groove casts,


Crescent, Prod marks, bounce marks,
Chevron marks
35
Erosion Structure on UNDER SIDE of BED
Sole Marking: Formation of Flute Cast

Erosion of bed Deposition Burial and


lithification

Tectonic Subaerial Tectonic Subaerial


tilting erosion overturning erosion

36
Erosion Structure on UNDER SIDE of BED
Sole Marking: Flute Cast

37
Erosion Structure on UNDER SIDE of BED
Sole Marking: Groove Cast

Straight ridges the result of objects being dragged on surface

38
Erosion Structure on UNDER SIDE of BED
Sole Marking: Crescent

39
3. Primary Bedform:
Erosion Structures on
the UPPER side
of beds (sole markings)

Rill marks, Wind erosion,


Raindrop imprints

40
Erosion Structure on the UPPER SIDE of BED
Sole Marking: Rain Drops

41
GRAVITY
FLOW

53
Gravity Flow
The Bouma Sequence
Grain Size Fines up

54
Where does turbidite happen?

Turbidite: High energy, suspension mixed


(mud, mass flow), and there is SLOPE
alluvial fan, crevasse splay, submarine fan,
thalweg (lag deposit), pro delta, continental
shelf.

55
Some Clues
Normal & Abnormal Process
FLUVIAL TIDAL WAVE
Climbing Ripple a. Flaser-Wavy-Lenticular a. Hummocky (HCS) Swale
(ripple bed form) b. Wave Ripple interference
ripple

Through cross-bed b. Clay doublete / couplette Low angle cross stratification


(foreshore sandstone)

c. Clay drapes (should be on


fore set)
Rare burrow d. Lots burrow Fair burrow

FLUVIAL TIDAL WAVE


FLOOD TSUNAMI STORM
Graded bedding (turbidite) distal Hummocky (HCS) Swale (?)
floodplain climbing ripple on
???
flood plain (covered by
suspension ?)

56
Some Clues
Tidal Process Clues: clay doublette / couplette
5 10 cm

57
Some Clues
Tidal Process Clues: Mud drapes
1m

Mud drapes typical of tidal channel deposit

58
Some Clues
Climbing Ripple on Flood Plain

Flood
A B
Climbing ripple
normal

59
The Genetic of Sand-Shale Striping Form

1. Clay drape caused by tide ripple & clay


2. Classical flysch graded bedding in
mudstone
3. Big Lake algal blooming and siltstone
when lake level rise & down
4. Flood Plain deposit rooted, oxidized

60
Three Types of
Sediment
Accumulations
Fining upward
Coarsening upward
Blocky

61
Fining upward
Due to Lateral Accretion processes A B
Due to normal waning energy processes
Due to retrogradation

A B
1
.. .. . .
. ...... . Lag Deposit
. . ..
..
.

A B
1
..2.. . . ..3.. . . .. .. . .
Lateral Accretion
. ...... . . ...... . . ...... .
. . .

62
Lateral accretion indicate meandering (subaerial & / subaquaeous)
Sedimentation Proces Lateral Accretion Surfaces

Lateral
Accretion

63
Fining upward

Due to Retrogradation
Fining upward

The movement of coastline land-ward in response to a transgression. This


can occur during a sea-level rise with low sediment flux.

Example where f/u happen (winning current normal process):


Channel fill to be abandonment

64
Coarsening upward

Due to Progradation
Coarsening
upward

Lateral outbuilding, or progradation, of strata in a sea-ward direction. Progradation


can occur as a result of a sea-level rise accompanied by a high sediment flux
(causing a regression).

Example where c/u happen:


Delta (in general), Delta front (mouth bar), Bar (open
marine), alluvial fan, crevasse splay, submarine fan

65
Blocky

Due to Aggradation

Blocky

Vertical build up of a sedimentary sequence. Usually occurs when there is a relative rise in sea
level produced by subsidence and/or eustatic sea-level rise, and the rate of sediment influx is
sufficient to maintain the depositional surface at or near sea level.

Massive, no structure: turbid / mass flow (sediment grain size are all
the same) all to be sedimentation directly 1m

66
FLUVIAL DELTAIC
SEDIMENTATION

74
FLUVIAL
SYSTEM

75
Fluvial Characterization SEDIMENT
Mud rich Sand - rich

Straight

HIGH
LOW

RELATIVESTABILITY
SINUOSITY

Meandering
HIGH

Channel Boundary
LOW
Braided

Flow

LOW
Bars

( 3%>) Low Bed load/Total load ratio High (>11%)


Small Sediment size Large
Small Sediment load Large
Low Flow velocity High
Low Gradient High

Channel patterns displayed by dingle-channel segments and the spectrum


of associated variables. (modified from Schumm, 1981)
76
GRADIENT
CHANNEL
$L
DELTA FLUVIAL SYSTEM FAN
Suspended Load Mixed Load Suspended Load Mixed Load Bed Load
Contact Plain Piedmont Riverine Plain Montane Plain
Distributaries Distributaries
Tributaries
Continous CHANNEL FLOW Flashy
Shallow Intermediate WATER TADLE Shallow Deep

Hypothetical fluvial system traversing a montane basin and associated riverine plain, and then debouching onto a
prograding, deltaic coastal plain. The trunk channel evolves through bed-load, mixed-load suspended-load styles
77
as sediment-load, gradient, and discharge vary along the system.
1. Braided channels system

2M

Abandoned Sand deposite in


Channel active braided channels Mudy deposition in
sequence abandoned channels

Active
Channel
sequence

Physiography and facies of a braided alluvial channel system 78


2. Meandering channels architecture

79
DELTA
SYSTEM

80
Delta
Why Delta is unique ?

Delta contains all the petroleum system


components from Source Rock to Trap.

Processes in Delta are composed of


terrestrial processes & marine processes
marine

81
When Delta Formed ?:
Prerequirement:
1. There is a fluvial/river.

2. Standing body of water. Fan shaped of deltas of the Mississippi river at Gulf of Mexico

3. Posirive feature.

Sediment influx from aerial


(aerial processes) is bigger then
sea processes.
Fan shaped of Mahakam Deltas 82
Why Delta Formed ?

Standing Create
Fluvial /
river
Body of Positif RESULT
Water feature
Component

Estuarine
Alluvial Fan
Tombolo, Barrier
Bar, Spit bar
DELTA

83
Why Delta Formed ?

Alluvial Fan Estuarine

Spit

Tombolo
Estuarine 84
Delta
Where is Delta forming ?

It is form from Terrestrial to Sea


Fan Delta (delta on terrestrial)

Alluvial Fan enter to the lake Called Fan Delta 85


MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONTMENT OF DELTA

- Delta Plain
Dominated by Fluvial Processes ALLUVIAL PLAIN
& all terrestrial characters MEANDERING
/ TRIBUTARY
(Subaerial Delta) / FLUVIAL
HEAD OF PASSES

- Delta Front INTER DISTRIBUTARY

DISTRIBUTARY
Indicated by Fluvial & Marine
Processes (Subaerial &
Subaquaeous Delta) DELTA PLAIN

- Pro Delta
DELTA FRONT
Dominated by Marine
Processes (Subaquaeous Delta)
PRODELTA

Morphology and environment of delta (Allen, GP 1998) 86


MISSISSIPPI

Delta
Classification SEDIMENT INPUT

Praquemines
Modern Miss

Si Bernard
(Miss)
Pa

Danube

FLIVIAL
Lefourch
(Miss)
DOMINATED Yukon?
DANUBA
Mahakam
MAHAKAM
Ebra

Nile

WAVE Niger TIDE


DOMINATED Mekang DOMINATED
Rhane Burdenia
Talu
Kelantan
Calorado Fly

Brotos Cooper Ganges - Brahmaputra


Sao Fransisco Klang - Langor

WAVE ENERGY FLUX TIDAL ENERGY FLUX

SAO FRANSISCO FLY


COPPER

Morphologic and stratigraphic classification of delta system based on relative


intensity of fluvial and marine processes. (Modified from Galloway, 1975) 87
FLUVIAL-DOMINATED DELTA
(FLUVIAL INFLUENCE)

88
River-Dominated
Delta
Inter-distributary Bay

Mississippi Delta
crevasse onto the
sea (not onto flood
plain) also called
Crevasse Delta /
Splay Delta
(indicate by many
marine organism)

89
River-Dominated Delta
Mississipi Delta

90
River-Dominated Delta
Sedimentation Character

10 2 - 24
3 10 EACH
SEQUENCE

8
3 - 24
COMPOSITE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN
MISSISSIPPI DELTA

7
3 - 10

6
2-6
12 21 (>90)

Channel deposite
Sand ridge
10 - 24

4 Swamp

0 10 20 30 40 50

Kilometers
18 - 44

2
RIVER DOMINATED DELTA
3 - 15

Elongate shape
Larga-scale, gradational C.U.S.
18 - 120

Clean, moderately sorted sands 91


River-Dominated Delta
Progradation
Fluvial
Sedimentology Supply

10s 100s km
Prograding
Delta

Coastal Marsh Coastal Marsh


or lagoon
or lagoon
Beach

Fluvial Distribury
Channel-Fill Shorelance Sand

Upward-Coarsening
Mouth Bar Sand
Offshore Marine Mudstone
Offshore Marine Mudstone

Schematic illustration of progradation in deltaic and non deltaic coasts. On deltaic coasts,
progradation is due to a local source of fluvial sediment, whereas on non deltaic coasts the
92
sediment is transported along the coast from a distant fluvial source. (Adapted from Allen, 1996).
WAVE-DOMINATED DELTA
(TIDE INFLUENCE)

93
Wave-Dominated Delta
Nile Delta - Egypt

94
Source: Worldwind NASA
Wave-Dominated Delta
Sedimentation Characteristic

SAO FRANCISCO DELTA


COMPOSITE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN


0 5 10
| | |

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

WAVE DOMINATED DELTA


Cuspate shape
Large-scale, often top-heavy C.U.S.
Clean, well sorted sands 95
Wave-Dominated Delta
Prodelta Turbidit model in Kutai Basin

96
Prodelta turbidite model @ Kutei Basin
TIDE-DOMINATED DELTA
(TIDE INFLUENCE)

97
Tide-Dominated Delta
Brahmaputra Delta - India

98
Tide-Dominated Delta
Sedimentation Character
KLANG DELTA
COMPOSITE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN

THICKNESS (m)
0 5

miles

LITHOLOGY
T. KARANG

UNIT

9
3 18

JERAM

8
3-6

7
2-5

6
3-8

P. SWET-
5 - 24

5 TENHAM

4
6 - 12

<3
3-5
5 - 10
10 - 18

3 10 - 20 K. MORIB
20 - 60

TIDE-DOMINATED DELTA
10 - 24

Estuarine/linear shape
1 Large-scale, often disjointed C.U.S.
> 12

Clean, well sorted sands


99
RIVER & TIDE-DOMINATED DELTA
(MAHAKAM DELTA)

100
River & Tide-Dominated Delta
Delta Mahakam

Note: Delta Plain is shown, while Delta Front and


Pro Delta is below the sea level.
101
SOME CLUES

102
Which one is ?
MISSISSIPPI DELTA
COMPOSITE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN
KLANG DELTA SAO FRANCISCO DELTA
COMPOSITE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN COMPOSITE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN

2 - 24
10
THICKNESS (m)
LITHOLOGY

3 10 EACH
SEQUENCE
9
UNIT

9 8

3 - 24
3 18

3 - 10
8
3-6

2-6
7
2-5

12 21 (>90)
5
6
3-8
5 - 24

10 - 24
4 4
6 - 12
10 - 18

18 - 44
3
10 - 24

2
2

3 - 15
1
> 12

18 - 120
1
Can you show where is The River,
103
Wave, & Tide-Dominated Delta?
Core Identification
The core character which likely indicate Wave, Fluvial & Tide-
Dominated Delta are:

Wave-dominated Delta abundant wave processes:


wave ripple, swalley, HCS, beach deposit (low angle cross
lamination), biogenic structure,
Tide-dominated Delta abundant tide processes:
Herringbone cross sratification, mud drapes / clay drape on
foreset, flaser-wavy-lenticular, clay doublet, biogenic
structure.
Fluvial-dominated Delta Fluvial character:
Climbing ripple, graded bedding, burrowing

104
117