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Aerodynamics II

Getting to the Point

Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!

More on Stability
Tendency of aircraft
to return to original
pitch attitude
CG set forward of
center of lift
To balance,
horizontal stabilizer
downward lift
Image courtesy FAA-H-8083-25A
More on Stability
Effect of CG
Forward CG
Stronger tail load
Less efficient
Outside limits
May not be able to
land aircraft properly
Aft CG
Lighter tail load
Decreases stability
Stall recovery

Image courtesy FAA-H-8083-25A

More on Stability
Aircraft Control Surfaces
Control roll about
longitudinal axis
Control pitch
about lateral axis
Control yaw about
vertical axis
Aircraft Control Surfaces
Move in opposite
Increase or
decrease camber
Changes AoA
Produce differential
Adverse yaw
Result of differential
induced drag
Aircraft Control Surfaces

Increases or
decreases camber
of horizontal
Produces change
in downward lift
More effective at
high power due to
Aircraft Control Surfaces

Creates sideward
Also more
effective at high
power due to
Airplane Turn

The horizontal
component of lift
causes airplanes to
Bank angle
controlled by ailerons
The rudder controls
the yaw
Rudder used to
coordinate turn
Slips and Skids

Normal turn
Horizontal lift equal centrifugal force
Slipping turn
Horizontal lift greater than centrifugal force
Need more rudder
Skidding turn
Horizontal lift greater than centrifugal force
Need less rudder
Airplane Turn

The greater the angle of bank, the greater the

load placed on the aircraft
Load Factor

Gs increase with bank angle Stall speed increases as the

60 degree turn yields 2Gs square root of the load factor
Load Factor

Load Factor the ratio of load supported by wings to

aircraft weight
Airplane in unaccelerated flight has a load factor = 1.
The airplanes wings are supporting only the weight
of the plane
Turning increases load factor (Gs) b/c you are
accelerating around a corner
Load Factor
Load factor
requirements vary by
aircraft mission
B-2 vs. F-16
FAA certifies different
categories of aircraft
Normal: +3.8, -1.52 G
Utility: +4.4, -1.76 G
Extra 300S, +10, -10 G
Aerobatic: +6, -3 G
Occurs when critical angle of attack is

Can occur at any airspeed in any flight

50 kts, straight-and-level, max. gross weight.
45 kts, straight-and-level, light.
70 kts, 60 degree banked turn.
Stall: Background

Stall: significant decrease in lift

Stall: Background
Boundary layer:

Stall: Progression
Stall: Progression
Stall: Progression
= 4 = 11

= 24
Stall: Is turbulent a bad word?

Discussion on Monday about laminar

versus turbulent boundary layers:

Laminar boundary layers separate easily.

Turbulent boundary layers separate later

than laminar boundary layers.
Aerodynamic Surfaces - VGs
Aerodynamic Surfaces - VGs

F-16 Speed Brakes

Stall Recognition & Recovery
Recognize a stall:
Low speed, high angle of attack
Ineffective controls due to low airflow over
Stall horn
Buffeting caused by separated flow from wing

Recover from a stall:

Decrease angle of attack increases
airspeed and flow over wings
Smoothly apply power minimizes altitude
loss and increases airspeed
Adjust power as required maintain
coordinated flight
Airplane must be stalled before a spin can occur

Occurs when one wing is less stalled than the

other wing
Spin Development & Recovery
Spin development:
Incipient Spin lasts 4-6 seconds in light aircraft, ~ 2 turns
Fully Developed Spin airspeed, vertical speed and rate of
rotation are stabilized, 500 ft loss per 3 second turn
Recovery wings regain lift, recovery usually - of a turn
after anti-spin inputs are applied
Recover from a spin:
Move throttle to idle
Neutralize ailerons
Determine direction of rotation (reference turn coordinator)
Apply full rudder in opposite direction of rotation
Apply elevator to neutral position
As rotation stops, neutralize rudder. Otherwise, you may enter
spin in opposite direction
Apply elevator to return to level flight
Remember PARE (power-idle, aileron neutral, rudder
opposite, elevator - recover