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GeoExperts Week 2

Workflow Diary
Team Members:
Overview - Contents

Critical Thinking and Well Details


Learning Effect of Muscovite
What is a GeoExpert? Overview Shoreface sedimentology and log
How do we Learn? responses
Overview - Delta-Top - sedimentology and log
Petroleum Systems
responses
General What is a
petroleum system? Surface and Fault Picking
STOIIP Sea Bed How did we pick it? What does it
mean?
This Study What are the
main petroleum system Unconformity - How did we pick it? What does
elements in this study? it mean?
Clastic Depositional Systems Faults How did we pick them? What do they
tell us?
Carbonate Depositional
Systems Reservoir Picks Which stratigraphic horizons
can we pick?

Well Ties
Converting wells to time
Synthetic seismograms
Critical Thinking and
Learning
What is a Geoexpert

Someone who knows all the questions, and where to


find the answer
Petrowiki, sepmstrata.org, segwiki, AAPG wiki, Subsurfwiki, Virtual
seismic atlas (VSA)
Google earth: observe what is happening on the world
Other experts

The right questions:


What, Why, How
Who, When, Where

Critical thinking Think slow:


Define the problem, make the observations
Analyse all possible cases, and eliminate each possibility
How do we learn

Understand vs learning: can you repeat what you are


told days, weeks, or months later
Effective learning skill:
Reading, taking notes,
Drawing visualize what you have learnt
Teach/Present what you learned to others (The Feynman Technique)
The best way to learn!

Knowledge and Wisdom


Data Knowledge Wisdom
Collection and QC Publication What knowledge is useful
Analyze and interpret Wiki, website What works, doesnt work
Trend analysis Comes with experience,
Models, Prediction with experimentation, or
by asking the Expert
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Petroleum Systems
A petroleum system

Source rock:
organic rick rocks, often shale, that through maturation (increasing temperature) can
generate hydrocarbon
Formed in low energy, anoxic conditions (lacustrine, delta, swamp)

Reservoir:
porous rocks that can contain hydrocarbon, and allow HC to move
Often formed in higher energy conditions (channel, delta, turbidite), or formed by
tectonic (fracturing) and diagenesis processes (dissolution in carbonate)

Seal:
Low permeability rocks that can hold back HC
Top seal (cap) and lateral seal (fault seal)

Trap:
Structural trap
Stratigraphic trap
STOIIP equation

FVF
BRV (Formation
volume factor)
NTG
Porosity
Recovery
So factor

Spill point

STOIIP = BRV x NTG x Porosity x So / FVF


Reserve = BRV x NTG x Porosity x So / FVF x RF
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Clastic depositional system

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Carbonate depositional system
Each carbonate system is different from the other!
Grain size: fine/coarse

Biology Different depth: shallow/deep different biology

Composition: CaCO3 -> Calcite: stable


Aragonite: easy to be dissolved
Ca(Mg)CO3

Antecedent The topography exist before the biology growth


topography (rimmed platform, ramp)

Energy Wave/tide rework the biology


Well Data
Muscovite effect on log response

KAl3Si3O10(OH)1.8F0.2
Contain K -> higher Gamma ray values
High density (2.81 g/cc) -> higher density log values
Contain H -> higher neutron log values
Shoreface sedimentology and log response

Relatively high energy, influenced by wave and tidal


reworking
Wave dominated: Laterally continuous, parallel to coastline;
Log response: thick package of sand (low GR), blocky, coarsening
upward
Tidal dominated: tidal inlets with fining upward sequences, not
continuous
Log response: fining upward
Characterized by wavy bedding and hummocky cross-stratification
(HCS)
Bioturbation
Delta

Wave-Tide-River
dominated
Wave dominated: formations of
sand bars parallel to coastline
Tide dominated: tidal inlets and
sand bars perpendicular to
coastline
River dominated: lobe shape
sand bodies

Grain size influence:


coarser grain smaller
size
Progradation

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Seismic Surface and Fault
Picking
Seabed

Seabed: low (water) to high impedance (sediment).


Indicate polarity convention of the data
Unconformity picking

Unconformity: Low continuity, variable amplitude,


truncate dipping layers (angular unconf.).
Indicate change in geologic history, potential trap
Fault picking

Fault: discontinuity - offset of reflection.


Tell us about the structure of the area, reservoir
boundary (lateral seal), tectonic evolution, migration
pathways
Reservoir picking

Using well-tie.
Continuity of reflector depends on:
Characteristics of the reservoir (shorefaces have higher continuity than
channels)
Fault system.
Well Ties

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Time-depth conversion

Why we convert
We need to work with depth (well data, structural maps, BRV
calculation)
Seismic time data is distorted due to difference in seismic velocity

Checkshot (first arrival wave)


Vertical seismic profile
Offset
Walkaway
Borehole to borehole

Seismic while drilling

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Synthetic seismogram
To tie the well picks to the seismic
reflectors, and calibrate Time-Depth
Workflow
Calibrate and correct sonic and density
logs, and calculate the reflection coefficient
Extract wavelet for the interval of interest
Convolve the reflection coefficient with the
wavelet to get the synthetic seismogram
Calibrate the synthetic with the real data
(Bulk shift, interval shift)

Qualitative assessment: real data is


noisy cannot correlate every
events need to be iteratively done
to get the most reasonable result

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Backup

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Clastic depositional system

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