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Acid Dye (Anionic Azo dyes)

Acid dye class is a water soluble class of dyes

with anionic properties. The textile acid dyes
are specially effective for protein fibers such as
silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylics.

These are applied from a strongly acidic to

neutral pH bath.

Acid dyes fix to the fibers by means of

Hydrogen bonding
Vander waals forces
Ionic Linkages 2
In Azo dyes the uptake rate of the dye is
controlled with the use of sodium chloride.

They are often applied from an acidic solution

in order to intensify the staining.

Note : The acid used in the dye bath is acetic

acid or citric acid.

These dyes have no affinity for cotton

celluloses , hence not suitable for cellulosic.

Mechanism of dyeing with acid dyes
Acid dyes in aqueous solvent, produces a colored
anion, which can be described as follows.

The protein and polyamide fibers produce

cationic sites in water under acidic conditions
and as the acidity of the solution is increased
more cationic sites are produced under these
strongly acidic conditions.
The above shown bonds have linkages which
are strong enough to break and thus dyeing
produced are fast and efficient in industry point
of view.

Reaction between an acid dye and wool can be

represented by following equation

When describing the detail in above equation in
Protein fibers contain amino and carboxyl
groups, ionized mostly to NH3+ and COO-

In the acid dye bath the carboxylate ions are

converted to undissociated carboxyl groups
owing to the addition of acid HX

It causes the positively charged wool

(H3N+.W.COOH) to take up an equivalent
amount of acid anions X hence build the bond in
between dye molecule and the fiber

The action of Retarding agents in Acidic
Dye bath
Electrolyte (Nacl) in the acid dye bath acts as
a retarding agent because of chlorides ions
attracted by the positive sites at the fiber and
in the competition between.

Addition of acid acts as an exhausting agent ,

because strongly acidic conditions makes
more cationic sites available and thus
available dye anions got combined with these.

Acid dyes are divided into three groups
based on their differences in
Based on the leveling properties
Economy of the dyeing and fastness

Leveling dyes
Highest level dyeing properties.
Quite combinable in trichromatic
Relatively small molecule therefore high
migration before fixation.
Low wet fastness therefore normally not
suited for apparel fabric.

Milling dyes
Medium to high wet fastness.
Some milling dyes have poor light fastness in
pale shades.
Generally not combinable. Used as self shades

Metal complex acid dyes
More recent chemistry combined transition
metals with dye precursors to produce metal
complex acid dyes with the highest light
fastness and wet fastness. These dyes are
Very good light fastness even in pale

Acid Dye

Dye Structures
Acid dyes usually have a sulfo or carboxy group
on the molecule making them soluble in water.
Most acid dyes are related in basic structure to
the following:

Many acid dyes are synthesized from chemical
intermediates which form anthraquinone-like
structures as their final state. Many blue dyes
have this structure as their basic shape.
The structure predominates in the levelling class
of acid dye.
Synthetic dyes are often derived from 9,10-
anthraquinone, such as alizarin. Important
derivatives are 1-nitroanthraquinone,
anthraquinone-1-sulfonic acid, and the

From the left:

C.I.Acid Blue 43 an "acid dye" for wool (also called "Acilan Saphirol
C.I. Vat Violet 1, which is applied by transfer printing using
a blue colorant commonly used in gasoline, and C.I. Disperse Red 60,
a so-called vat dye. 14
Azo dyes
The structure of azo dyes is based on
Although Azo dyes are a separate class of
dyesuff mainly used in the dyeing of cotton
(cellulose) fibers.
Many acid dyes have a similar structure, and
most are red in color.

Yellow azo dye 15

Acid dyes having structures related to
triphenylmethane predominate in the milling
class of dye.
There are many yellow and green dyes
commercially applied to fibers that are related
to triphenylmethane.

Bromocresol green
Acid Dyeing

Acid dyeing techniques
Textile Auxiliaries used in acid dyeing
Leveling agent - for levelness dyeing
Retarding agent - for inhibiting the dye not
attach to fibers too fast
Acid - adjust the dyeing condition and
make the fibers to show positive charges
Water - dyeing media
Dyeing temperature
The dyeing is generally carried out at boiling
temperature for 30- 60 minutes depending
upon the depth of the shade and dyestuffs
Dyeing leveling agents
In the case dyeing with acid dyes , mainly
cationic agents such as ethoxylated fatty
amines are used as leveling agents.
Heating rates
Heating rate is generally kept 1-30C/Min
Wool dyeing method with acid

Detail about the graph
At A set bath at 50 with: 2% Formic
Acid (85%) 5% Glaubers Salt
pH 3.5 to 4.5
At B add required amount of dye.
At C add 2% Sulphuric Acid (96%) or
2% Formic Acid (85%).
Thoroughly rinse after dyeing to
remove loose colour.

A dyeing cycle for Nylon filament dyeing

A textured yarn can achieve multicolor effects in

one dye bath. It is a combination of two modified
nylons 6,6. One nylon only accepts acid dye and
rejects cationic dye; the other one acts the
opposite way 22
Fastness properties of acid dyes
The wet and light fastness properties of the
acid dyes varies from poor to excellent ,
depending upon the molecular structure of
the dyes.

The fastness properties as per the category

are as follows

Level acid dyes: since these dyes have very

good leveling and migration properties ,and
have a low affinity for the fiber, therefore the
wet fastness properties of this class are
generally poor. 23
milling dyes :- These dyes have a medium to
good affinity for the fiber and are generally
applied in a weakly acidic bath, shows
medium to good wet fastness properties.

Metal complex acid dyes :-These dyes have

poor exhaustion properties, therefore
applied under very strong acidic condition ,
exhibit good fastness properties.

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From 061001P 061015L

including 051055A