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Dengue Fever

Dr KABERA Ren
Medical Officer-UNSOS
Beledweyne-Somalia
Plan

Introduction

Presentation

Diagnosis

Treatment

References

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Introduction
Definition

Etymology: Spanish dengue fastidiousness, a corruption of Swahili kidenga


pepo, meaning "cramp-like seizure

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by Dengue fever virus


(DENV)-Serotypes DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4

The infection causes flu-like illness, and occasionally develops into a potentially
lethal complication called severe dengue.

The global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades.


About half of the world's population is now at risk.

Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in


urban and semi-urban areas.
Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017
Introduction
Transmission

Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes


aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

This mosquito also transmits chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika infection.

Dengue is widespread throughout the tropics.

Blood transfusion: contaminated blood can transmits the disease

During birth: Mother to child

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Introduction
Epidemiology

Uncomplicated Dengue fever is typically a self-limiting disease with a mortality rate of less than 1%.

Severe Dengue fever (DHF)When treated has a mortality rate of 2-5%, but when left untreated, the
mortality rate is as high as 50%.

Today about 2.5 billion people, or 40% of the worlds population, live in areas where there is a risk of
dengue transmission.

Dengue is endemic in at least 100 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the
Caribbean.

WHO estimates that 50 to 100 million infections occur yearly, including 500,000 DHF cases and
22,000 deaths, mostly among children.

Africa : All serotypes present - 19 countries

Somalia: Peaks in AU troops during the first deployments of AMISOM

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Introduction

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Presentation
Uncomplicated

Fever and chills

Aching of the head, back, and extremities

Severe Dengue Fever

Headache, Retro-orbital pain, Sore throat, General body pain (arthralgias, myalgias),

Weakness

Anorexia, Nausea and vomiting (however, diarrhea is rare)

Rash

Mild hemorrhagic manifestations (eg, petechiae, bleeding gums, epistaxis, menorrhagia, hematuria)

Lymphadenopathy
Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017
Diagnosis

Clinical
Rapid test
Different blood tests : Complete blood count, Liver tests ,CXR,

Differentials
Malaria, Meningitis, Hepatitis, Ebola, Yellow fever

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Treatment

Preventive
Avoid the bite by the vector mosquitos : Spraying insecticides ,mosquito repellent,
Mosquito net, avoid travelling in endemic areas

Remove small accumulations of stagnant water around human habitats

Egg predators: fish ,frogs and toads

Dengvaxia: Dengue Vaccine from Sanofi Pasteur Institute was approved by WHO for trials
but not yet prequalified by WHO.

Dengvaxia: Approved in 10 countries. Mexico, The Philippines, Brazil, El Salvador, Costa


Rica, Paraguay, Guatemala, Peru, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore.

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Treatment

Beledweyne UN Camp : Spraying outdoor and indoor on regular basis

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Treatment

Symptomatic (Curative)

Dengue fever is usually a self-limited illness.

There is no specific antiviral treatment currently available for dengue fever.

Supportive care with analgesics, fluid replacement, and bed rest is usually
sufficient.

Acetaminophen - to treat fever and relieve other symptoms.

Avoid - Aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and


corticosteroids

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


References

1. Dengue fever outbreak in Mogadishu, Somalia 2011: Co-circulation of three


dengue virus serotypes April 2014 International Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Henry Kyobe Bosa J.M. Montgomery ;I. Kimuli; Julius Lutwama

2. First dengue vaccine approved in more than 10 countries. Sanofi Pasteur.


Oct/2016

3. Medscape. Dengue Fever . 2017

4. WHO. Dengue control. 2017

5. Data Records. Beledweyne Medical Reports /UNSOS. 2017

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017


Thank you

Dr Kabera R/Dengue fever 8/6/2017