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Multiple Access Techniques

for wireless communication


Multiple access schemes allow many mobile
users to share a finite amount of radio
spectrum

High quality of communications must be


maintained during the sharing process

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Multiple Access Techniques

Multiple Access Techniques

PR FDMA TDMA CDMA SDMA

Packet Radio (PR)


Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

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Multiple Access (MA) Technologies
Cellular System MA Technique
AMPS ( Advanced Mobile Phone FDMA / FDD
system )
GSM ( Global System for Mobile ) TDMA / FDD

US DC ( U. S Digital Cellular ) TDMA / FDD

JDC ( Japanese Digital Cellular ) TDMA / FDD

IS 95 ( U.S Narrowband Spread CDMA / FDD


Spectrum )
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Capacity of Cellular Systems

Channel capacity of a wireless system is the


maximum number of users possible in the
system
Channel capacity depends on:
Bandwidth available
Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) in the channel

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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

code C1 C2 CN

frequency

time frequency
C1 C2 CN
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Principle of FDMA Operation

Each user is allocated a unique frequency band


or channel. These channels are assigned on
demand to users who request service

In FDD, the channel has two frequencies


forward channel & reverse channel

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Cell capacity of FDMA System

Bg Bg

Bt
Capacity/cell N
Bt 2 Bg
N 2/ n
6 S
Bc n / 2
3 I min
where n is the path loss exponent
S
7 I is the minimum required Signal to Interferen ce ratio
min
Example
In the US, each cellular carrier has 416 channels
Assuming negligible noise input:

Bt 12.5MHz
Bg 10KHz
Bc 30KHz
(12.5 106 ) 2(10 103 )
N 416
30 10 3

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Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
code
C1
CN
frequency

time time
C1 C2 CN
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TDMA Operating principle
TDMA systems divide each FDMA channel into
time slots
Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time
slot.
TDMA can allow different number of time slots
for separate user

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TDMA Frame Structure
Preamble Information Trail Bits
message

Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot N

Trail Bit Sync Bit Information Guard Bits


Bit

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Components of TDMA Frame

Preamble Address and synchronization


information for base station and subscriber
identification

Guard times Synchronization of receivers


between different slots and frames

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TDMA properties
Data Transmission for user of TDMA system
occurs in discrete bursts
o The result is low battery consumption.
o Handoff process is simpler
Since different slots are used for T and R,
duplexers are not required.
Equalization is required, since transmission
rates are higher than FDMA channels
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Efficiency of TDMA
Frame Efficiency
No.ofbits / frame containingtransmitted data
f
Total Numberof bits / frame

(1 bOH / b T ) 100
(bT bOH )
100
bT

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Frame efficiency parameters
bT Total Number of bits per frame
=Tf R
Tf =Frame duration
R=Channel bit rate
bOH =Number of overhead bits /frame
=Nr br Nt bp Nt b g Nr b g
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Frame efficiency parameter definition

Nr Number of reference bits per frame


Nt Number of traffic bits per frame
br Number of overhead bits per reference burst
bp Number of overhead bits per preamble in each slots
b g Number of equivalent bits in each guard time interval

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Cell capacity in TDMA System
Bt 2 Bg
N m 2/ n
6 S
Bc n / 2
3 I min
where n is the path loss exponent
S
I is the minimum required Signal to Interferen ce ratio
min

m is the number of TDMA users in one channel

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Example

The GSM System uses a TDMA frame structure


where each frame consist of 8 time slots, and
each time slot contains 156.25 bits, and data is
transmitted at 270.833 kbps in the channel.

Time duration of a bit


Time duration of a slot
Time duration of a frame

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Solution
Time duration of a bit
1 1
=Tb = 3.692 s
bit-rate 270.833 10 3

Time duration of a slot


Tslot 156.25 Tb 0.577 s
ms
Time duration of a frame

8 Tslot 4.615ms

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Example
If a normal GSM timeslot consists of 6 trailing bits,
8.25 guard bits, 26 training bits, and 2 traffic bursts
of 58 bits of data, find the frame efficiency.
Solution
Time slot has 6+ 8.25+ 26 + 2(58) = 156.25 bits.

A frame has 8 * 156.25 = 1250 bits / frame.


The number of overhead bits per frame is:
bOH = 8(6) + 8(8.25) + 8(26) = 322 bits
Frame efficiency = (1250 322 )/1250 = 74.24 %
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Capacity of Digital Cellular CDMA

Capacity of FDMA and TDMA system is


bandwidth limited.
Capacity of CDMA system is interference
limited.
The link performance of CDMA increases as
the number of users decreases.

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Number of possible users in CDMA


WR
N 1 S
Eb

No
where W R Pr oces sing Gain
is the background thermal noise
S is the average user power
W is the total RF bandwidth
R is the information bit rate
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Techniques to improve capacity
Antenna Sectorization
Sectoral antennas at 120 degrees increases the
capacity by a factor of 3

Monitoring or Voice activity a


Each transmitter is switched off during period of
no voice activity

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Capacity Improvement

W

Ns 1 1 R
a Eb
,)0 a 1
(S a )
N
o

If a = 3/8 and number of sector is equal to 3 ,


SNR increases by a factor of 8.

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Example
If W = 1.25 MHz, R= 9600 bps, and a minimum
acceptable Eb/ No is 10 dB, determine the
maximum number of users that can be supported
in a single cell CDMA system using:
omni directional base station antennas and no
voice activity detection
3 sectors at base station and a = 3/8. Assume
the system is interference limited. = 0.

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Solution
(a)

WR
N 1
Eb

S
No
1.25 10
1 9600 0
10

1 13.02 14

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(b) Users per sector

W

Ns 1 1 R

a Eb
(S a
,)0 a 1
N
o

1 1.25 10
1 9600 0
3 10
8
35.7
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Total users N in 3 sectors
3Ns
3 35.7
107 users / cell

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