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By: Group IV

Leader: Aliah Lexi Pocsidio
Assistant: Carl Jasper Baraoed
Members: Bernadette Rhaine Dalida
Keira Delos Reyes
Trish Vandeihl Dilag
Venz Ydrian Duclayan
Veronica Faye Miranda

Biological techniques
are methods or procedures that are used
to study living things. They include
experimental and computational methods,
approaches, protocols and tools
for biological research

 Cell Fractionation  DNA Extraction  RNA Extraction  Agarose Gel Electrophoresis  Polyacrilimide Gel Electrophoresis  Western Blot  Northern Blot  Southern Blot .

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.Aseptic technique is a method designed to prevent contamination from microorganisms. and outpatient care centers. Common settings where the aseptic technique is used include surgery rooms. It involves applying the strictest rules and utilizing what is known about infection prevention to minimize the risks that you’ll experience an infection. clinics.

Aseptic technique is commonly used in the following situations:  handling surgery equipment  accessing dialysis catheters  performing dialysis  inserting a chest tube  inserting a urinary catheter  inserting central intravenous (IV) or arterial lines  inserting other draining devices  performing various surgical techniques .

 While vessels are open.  Make transfers over a disinfected surface. Ethanol disinfection is recommended because of its rapid action. If the bench surface is difficult to clean. all work must be done close to a Bunsen burner flame where air currents are drawn upwards.  Vessels must be open for the minimum amount of time possible.  Start the operations only when all apparatus and materials are within immediate reach. Close windows and doors to reduce draughts and prevent sudden movements which might disturb the air. .  Complete all operations as quickly as possible. cover the bench with a sheet of tough material which is more easily disinfected. but without any hurry.

This could be either by the technical team preparing for and clearing up after a piece of practical work (for example. or (Continued). in the case of glassware to be used).  During manipulations involving a Petri dish.  All items which come into contact with microorganisms must be sterilised before and after each such exposure.  The parts of sterile pipettes which will be put into cultures or sterile vessels must not be touched or allowed to come into contact with other non-sterile surfaces.. the surface of the working area. limit exposure of the sterile inner surfaces to contamination from the air.. or the outside of bottles/ test tubes. by the worker during the course of the practical (for example. such as clothing. the neck must be immediately warmed by flaming (see below) with the vessel held as near to horizontal as possible and so that any movement of air is outwards from the vessel. in flaming a wire loop) . On opening a test tube or bottle.

Each plays an important role in infection prevention and includes:  Barrier  Patient and Equipment Preparation  Environmental Controls  Contact Guidelines .According to The Joint Commission. there are four chief aspects of the aseptic technique.

Barriers are used during medical procedures to protect the patient from contamination that can come from a healthcare worker. They’re specially packaged and cleaned items that are put on in a way that minimizes exposure to germs. Some examples of barriers used in aseptic technique include:  sterile gloves Aseptic Technique  sterile gowns Aspects  sterile drapes  masks  Sterile materials are those that have not touched a contaminated surface. . the environment. or both.

Cleansing and bacteria-killing preparations are also applied to the skin before a procedure.Not only do healthcare providers use sterile barriers. but they also use sterile equipment. . This Aseptic Technique includes sterile instruments Aspects and equipment.

. Aspects The more people present. Only necessary health personnel Aseptic Technique should be at the procedure.Maintaining a sterile environment requires keeping doors closed during an operation. the more opportunities for harmful bacteria to cause contamination.

Once healthcare providers have on their sterile equipment. They should avoid touching nonsterile items at all costs. . they Aseptic Technique should only touch other Aspects sterile items.

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. You may decide not to invert agar plates immediately in case the transferred culture falls off the agar. an inoculation wire with the end bent into a small hook is better than a loop.For transferring fungal cultures which grow by producing a mycelium of hyphae. and invert the piece of fungus agar so that the fungus is in contact with the agar in the dish or tube. Ensure that the culture adheres firmly to the new agar. Transfer this to agar plate or slope. Use the hook to gouge into the agar at the edge of the culture and pick up a small piece of agar plus hyphae.

. A dropping (Pasteur) pipette can be converted to deliver measured volumes by attaching it by rubber tubing to a non- sterile syringe barrel.A leaking pipette is caused either by a faulty or ill- fitting teat or by fibres from the cotton wool plug between the teat and the pipette.

not by blowing or soaking in water. If a plug accidentally catches fire. . douse the flames immediately by covering with a dry cloth.Cotton wool stoppers are easier for students to handle than screw caps – this makes complex manipulations more straightforward.

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and consider inoculating plates from below with the agar surface facing downwards.  d If you experience frequent contamination of plates with fungal spores.  c In instances when the lid of the Petri dish may be removed for longer periods than normal. with tubes and plates open to the air for the minimum length of time. work very close to the Bunsen burner flame to reduce the chances of contamination. In this way there is perhaps less chance of spores settling onto the plate from the air . reduce the chance of draughts further. a Carry out the transfer of cultures as quickly as possible.  b Normal practice is to open agar plates away from the body and without removing the lid completely from the base.

as you would hold a pen. This is because after use it will contain culture. then reshape with forceps before beginning again.  c Sterilise a wire loop by heating to red hot in a roaring blue Bunsen burner flame before and after use. Clean the loop by heating to red hot as described below. . It also ensures that any liquid culture on the loop will run down into the flame.  d The flaming procedure should heat the tip of the loop gradually. which may splutter on rapid heating and possibly release small particles of culture. This leaves the little finger free to take hold of the screw cap/ cotton wool plug of the bottle/ test tube. a If the loop will not hold any liquid. the wire has not formed a complete circle.  b Hold the handle of the wire loop close to the top. Do not use your fingers because of the possibility of puncturing your skin. This ensures that contaminating bacterial spores are destroyed. allow to cool. at an angle that is almost vertical. forming an aerosol.

This is the coolest area of the flame.  ii Draw the rest of the wire upwards slowly into the hottest region of the flame – immediately above the blue cone. then use immediately.  vii Re-sterilise the loop immediately after use . or wave it around.i Position the handle end of the wire in the light blue cone of the flame.  vi Do not put the loop down.  v Allow to cool for a few seconds in the air.  iv Ensure the full length of the wire receives adequate heating.  iii Hold there until it is red hot.

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but does not reach and wet the cotton wool plug. consequently.  a Remove the pipette from its container/ wrapper by the end containing a cotton wool plug. aerosol formation. but do not grasp the teat. and lift the pipette tip out of the liquid.Sterile graduated or dropping (Pasteur) pipettes are used to transfer cultures. Then gently release the pressure until the required amount of liquid is drawn up. taking care to touch as little of the pipette as you need to take a firm hold. sterile media and sterile solutions. It is sometimes helpful to dip the teat first in sterile liquid to lubricate it.  d Depress the teat cautiously and take up an amount of fluid which is adequate for the amount required. This leaves your little finger free to take hold of the cap/ cotton wool plug of a bottle/ test tube and your thumb free to control the teat.  c Hold the pipette barrel as you would a pen. . Squeezing the teat with the pipette tip beneath the liquid surface introduces air bubbles which may cause ‘spitting’ and.  b Fit the teat. Avoid this by squeezing the teat before placing the tip into the liquid.

 e Return any excess gently.  g Remove the teat only once the pipette is within the discard pot otherwise drops of culture will contaminate the working surface. .  f Immediately after use put the contaminated pipette into a nearby discard pot of disinfectant.

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and helps to prevent contamination. This ensures that no microorganisms enter the mouth of the vessel to contaminate the culture or the medium. . not held in place. The hot part of the flame is above the inner bright blue ‘cone’ and the vessel needs to be moved through the flame. Passing the mouth of the bottle through a flame produces a convection current away from the opening.

 f After carrying out the procedure required. (Turn the bottle. a Loosen the cap of the bottle so that it can be removed easily.  e Flame the neck of the bottle/ test tube by passing the neck forwards and back through a hot Bunsen burner flame.  b Lift the bottle/ test tube with your left hand. Take care! The bottle will be hot.)  g If cotton wool plugs have partly lost their shape. . not the cap. for example. they can be more easily guided back into the neck of the vessel by slowly twisting the mouth of the vessel as the plug is pushed down.  c Remove the cap/ cotton wool plug of the bottle/ test tube with the little finger curled towards the palm of your right hand. not the cap. (Turn the bottle. withdrawing culture.)  d Do not put down the cap/ cotton wool plug. replace the cap/ cotton wool plug on the bottle/ test tube using your little finger.

but the surface must be left wet for 10 minutes. a For technicians. Technicians will be more experienced and able to deal with the associated fire hazards of working with ethanol. ethanol disinfection is recommended because of its rapid action (around 5 minutes). . 1% Virkon solution is safer and cheaper.  b For disinfection by students.

. but “sterile” items or techniques aren’t being used. A person’s surroundings are kept as clean as possible.Keeping the environment as clean as possible is always important in preventing infections. Clean techniques are important for all healthcare providers and their patients because they prevent infections on a daily basis. Examples of clean techniques include washing hands and applying clean gloves when needed. some situations call for aseptic technique while others call for clean techniques. However.

Clean techniques are commonly used in the following situations:  administering an injection  emptying a urinary catheter drainage bag  giving a bed bath  inserting a peripheral IV (an IV in a smaller vein)  removing a peripheral IV line  removing an indwelling urinary catheter .

The goal of the aseptic technique is to eliminate germs entirely. . The goal of the clean technique is to reduce the number of germs whenever possible.Healthcare providers learn both aseptic and clean techniques as part of their training.

While your home isn’t likely a surgery center. . a healthcare specialist should demonstrate the techniques and have you practice them before doing them at home. there may be a time when you or a loved one may require aseptic technique. An example of this could be a sterile dressing change for a wound. It’s important to note that proper aseptic techniques require training. If you or a loved one requires a sterile dressing change.

The way healthcare providers use aseptic techniques can determine whether or not you’ll develop an infection from your procedure. They need their immune system to be at its strongest to heal the body. such as in surgery. If the exposure is intentional. Patients needing surgery or other procedures that require aseptic technique are already vulnerable to infections.Whenever your skin is opened. This is why prompt treatment for burns and wounds is so critical. . you’re also at risk for infection. you’re vulnerable to infection. A person has a better chance of a recovery if they don’t have to fight off an acquired infection.

These include:  CAUTIs (pronounced caught-EASE)  central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs.There are several common kinds of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that healthcare workers try to minimize by using aseptic techniques. diff) infections  surgical site infections . pronounced clab-SEES)  Clostridium difficile (C.

. an estimated 37. more importantly. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). they can face disciplinary action. This patient population often has multiple chronic conditions that can make getting over an infection even harder to do. Preventing the infection in the first place saves lives and money.000.Each of these infections represents a major healthcare concern. patients. HAIs cost healthcare facilities and. If their infection rates are too high.000 CLABSIs happen each year in people who get dialysis. Medical facilities are required to report their infection rates to the federal government. Treating these infections costs an average of $23.

If you notice that a healthcare provider fails to wash hands or sterilize equipment.The outcome of aseptic technique depends on whether all procedures are thoroughly followed. Doing so can help save you or a loved one from potentially fatal side effects. don’t be afraid to speak up. Medical professionals are responsible for following clean and aseptic techniques. 50 percent of HAIs are preventable. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Internal Medicine. .

com/subjects/bi ological-techniques  https://en.nature.nuffieldfoundation.wikibooks.org/wiki/Biolog y_Laboratory_Techniques .com/health/a septic-technique#complications7  http://www. http://www.healthline.org/p ractical-biology/aseptic-techniques  https://www.

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