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MMSA PPT

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LINEAR ANALYSIS

CHANDRAKANT SHARDA

M.E. SEM 1ST

(STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING)

160280720021

Introduction

When the materials move into the zone

beyond it's yield strengths, it no longer

behaves in a linear fashion.

Types of non-linearity

Material non-linearity

If the material does not obey Hookes law then

the structural response is non linear even

though strains and displacements are small. This

is known as material non linearity.

Geometric non-linearity

When a structure undergoes large displacement

geometric non-linearity occurs in structure .

Even when material behavior is linear large

displacement cause non-linear response of the

structure.

NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS

Incremental load method

the least accurate results. The idea of this

approach is to apply loads in small steps

and proceeds from one step to another

without introducing the correction in

equilibrium equations.

Methodology

structure corresponding to

{D}= {0}.

[ST0]{Dt}={Rt}

or {Dt}={Rt}[ST0]

For the first step, tangent matrix [ST1] using displacement {Dt}

is calculate and is used to find incremental displacement as-

[ST1]{dD} = {R2}-{R1}

The net displacement is found as

{D2}={D1}+{dD}.

Direct iteration method

It is assumed that the total loads {R} are applied in a single step.

Steps-

1) Assume {D}={0}

criteria can be used.

Newton-Raphson method

Newton-Raphson method

evaluates the out-of-

balance load vector, which

is the difference between

the restoring forces (the

loads corresponding to the

element stresses) and the

applied loads.

The program then

performs a linear solution,

using the out-of-balance

loads, and checks for

convergence.

If convergence criteria are not satisfied, the out-of-balance load

vector is re-evaluated, the stiffness matrix is updated, and a new

solution is obtained.

This iterative procedure continues until the problem converges.

A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features,

such as line search, automatic load stepping, and bisection, can be

activated to help the problem to converge. If convergence cannot

be achieved, then the program attempts to solve with a smaller

load increment.

In some nonlinear static analyses, if you use the Newton-Raphson

method alone, the tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or

non-unique), causing severe convergence difficulties.

Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in which the

structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to

another stable configuration.

For such situations, you can activate an alternative iteration

scheme, the arc-length method, to help avoid bifurcation

points and track unloading.

The arc-length method causes the Newton-Raphson

equilibrium iterations to converge along an arc, thereby

often preventing divergence, even when the slope of the

load vs. deflection curve becomes zero or negative.

THANK YOU

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