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When the materials move into the zone
beyond it's yield strengths, it no longer
behaves in a linear fashion.
Types of non-linearity
Material non-linearity
If the material does not obey Hookes law then
the structural response is non linear even
though strains and displacements are small. This
is known as material non linearity.

Geometric non-linearity
When a structure undergoes large displacement
geometric non-linearity occurs in structure .
Even when material behavior is linear large
displacement cause non-linear response of the
Incremental load method

This approach is in application. But it gives

the least accurate results. The idea of this
approach is to apply loads in small steps
and proceeds from one step to another
without introducing the correction in
equilibrium equations.

Initially we calculate tangent stiffness matrix [ST0]of the

structure corresponding to
{D}= {0}.

For the first step , incremental relation is

or {Dt}={Rt}[ST0]

For the first step, tangent matrix [ST1] using displacement {Dt}
is calculate and is used to find incremental displacement as-
[ST1]{dD} = {R2}-{R1}
The net displacement is found as

This process is continued till the final load level is reached .

Direct iteration method
It is assumed that the total loads {R} are applied in a single step.

1) Assume {D}={0}

2) Form secant matrix [S0] using assumed zero d

3) Solve [S0] {Dt} = {R}

4)Form secant stiffness matrix [St] using displacement matrix [Dt].

5) Solve [St] {D2} = {R}

6)Continue iteration till convergence is achieved. Suitable convergence

criteria can be used.
Newton-Raphson method

Newton-Raphson method
evaluates the out-of-
balance load vector, which
is the difference between
the restoring forces (the
loads corresponding to the
element stresses) and the
applied loads.
The program then
performs a linear solution,
using the out-of-balance
loads, and checks for
If convergence criteria are not satisfied, the out-of-balance load
vector is re-evaluated, the stiffness matrix is updated, and a new
solution is obtained.
This iterative procedure continues until the problem converges.
A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features,
such as line search, automatic load stepping, and bisection, can be
activated to help the problem to converge. If convergence cannot
be achieved, then the program attempts to solve with a smaller
load increment.
In some nonlinear static analyses, if you use the Newton-Raphson
method alone, the tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or
non-unique), causing severe convergence difficulties.
Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in which the
structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to
another stable configuration.
For such situations, you can activate an alternative iteration
scheme, the arc-length method, to help avoid bifurcation
points and track unloading.
The arc-length method causes the Newton-Raphson
equilibrium iterations to converge along an arc, thereby
often preventing divergence, even when the slope of the
load vs. deflection curve becomes zero or negative.