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# INTRODUCTION TO NON-

LINEAR ANALYSIS

CHANDRAKANT SHARDA
M.E. SEM 1ST
(STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING)
160280720021
Introduction
When the materials move into the zone
beyond it's yield strengths, it no longer
behaves in a linear fashion.
Types of non-linearity
Material non-linearity
If the material does not obey Hookes law then
the structural response is non linear even
though strains and displacements are small. This
is known as material non linearity.

Geometric non-linearity
When a structure undergoes large displacement
geometric non-linearity occurs in structure .
Even when material behavior is linear large
displacement cause non-linear response of the
structure.
NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS

## This approach is in application. But it gives

the least accurate results. The idea of this
approach is to apply loads in small steps
and proceeds from one step to another
without introducing the correction in
equilibrium equations.
Methodology

## Initially we calculate tangent stiffness matrix [ST0]of the

structure corresponding to
{D}= {0}.

## For the first step , incremental relation is

[ST0]{Dt}={Rt}
or {Dt}={Rt}[ST0]

For the first step, tangent matrix [ST1] using displacement {Dt}
is calculate and is used to find incremental displacement as-
[ST1]{dD} = {R2}-{R1}
The net displacement is found as
{D2}={D1}+{dD}.

## This process is continued till the final load level is reached .

Direct iteration method
It is assumed that the total loads {R} are applied in a single step.

Steps-
1) Assume {D}={0}

## 6)Continue iteration till convergence is achieved. Suitable convergence

criteria can be used.
Newton-Raphson method

Newton-Raphson method
evaluates the out-of-
is the difference between
the restoring forces (the
element stresses) and the
The program then
performs a linear solution,
using the out-of-balance
convergence.
If convergence criteria are not satisfied, the out-of-balance load
vector is re-evaluated, the stiffness matrix is updated, and a new
solution is obtained.
This iterative procedure continues until the problem converges.
A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features,
such as line search, automatic load stepping, and bisection, can be
activated to help the problem to converge. If convergence cannot
be achieved, then the program attempts to solve with a smaller
In some nonlinear static analyses, if you use the Newton-Raphson
method alone, the tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or
non-unique), causing severe convergence difficulties.
Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in which the
structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to
another stable configuration.
For such situations, you can activate an alternative iteration
scheme, the arc-length method, to help avoid bifurcation