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# Chapter 35

## Serway & Jewett 6th Ed.

How to View Light
As a Ray As a Wave

As a Particle
What happens to a plane wave passing through an aperture?

Point Source
Generates spherical
Waves
The limit of geometric (ray) optics, valid for lenses, mirrors, etc.
y

{ } Eo
Bo
cos (kx - t)
E

x
B

## Surface of constant phase

For fixed t, when kx = constant
z
Index of Refraction

n
o

vac
medium
n

1 n1 = 2 n2
When
Whenmaterial
materialabsorbs
absorbslight
lightatataaparticular
particularfrequency,
frequency,
the
theindex
indexof
ofrefraction
refractioncan
canbecome
becomesmaller
smallerthan
than1!
1!
Reflection and Refraction
Oct. 18, 2004
Fundamental
Fundamental Rules
Rules for
for
Reflection
Reflection and
and Refraction
Refraction
in
in the
the limit
limit of
of Ray
Ray Optics
Optics

1.
1. Huygenss
Huygenss Principle
Principle
2.
2. Fermats
Fermats Principle
Principle
3.
3. Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic Wave
Wave Boundary
Boundary
Conditions
Conditions
Huygenss
Huygenss Principle
Principle
Huygenss
Huygenss Principle
Principle
All
Allpoints
pointson
onaawave
wavefront
frontact
actas
asnew
newsources
sources
for
forthe
theproduction
productionof
ofspherical
sphericalsecondary
secondarywaves
waves

## Fig 35-17a, p.1108

Reflection
ReflectionAccording
According
to
toHuygens
Huygens

## Incoming ray Outgoing ray

Side-Side-Side
1 = 1
Refraction
Fig 35-19, p.1109
Show via Huygenss Principle Snells Law

v1=cinmediumn1=1
and
v2=c/n2inmediumn2>1.
Fundamental
Fundamental Rules
Rules for
for
Reflection
Reflection and
and Refraction
Refraction
in
in the
the limit
limit of
of Ray
Ray Optics
Optics

Huygenss
Huygenss Principle
Principle
2.
2. Fermats
Fermats Principle
Principle
3.
3. Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic Wave
Wave Boundary
Boundary
Conditions
Conditions
Fermats
FermatsPrinciple
Principleand
andReflection
Reflection

A light ray traveling from one fixed point to another will follow
a path such that the time required is an extreme point either a
maximum or a minimum.
Fig 35-31, p.1115
Rules
Rules for
for Reflection
Reflection and
and Refraction
Refraction

sin11==nn22sin
nn11sin sin22
Snells
SnellsLawLaw
Optical Path Length (OPL)
n=1 n>1
L L

vac vac

n
For
Fornn==1.5,
1.5,
S P
OPL
OPLisis
P
OPL n( x)dx 50%
50%larger
larger
S
than
thanLL
When n constant, OPL = n geometric length.
Fermats Principle, Revisited

## A ray of light in going from point S to point P

will travel an optical path (OPL) that minimizes
the OPL. That is, it is stationary with respect to
variations in the OPL.
Fundamental
Fundamental Rules
Rules for
for
Reflection
Reflection and
and Refraction
Refraction
in
in the
the limit
limit of
of Ray
Ray Optics
Optics

Huygenss
Huygenss Principle
Principle

Fermats
Fermats Principle
Principle
3.
3. Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic Wave
Wave Boundary
Boundary
Conditions
Conditions
ki = (ki,x,ki,y) kr = (kr,x,kr,y) kt = (kt,x,kt,y)
Fig 35-22, p.1110
Fig 35-25, p.1111
Fig 35-24, p.1110
Fig 35-23, p.1110
Total Internal Reflection

## Slide 56 Fig 35-27, p.1113

Total
Internal
Reflection
p.1114
p.1114
Fig 35-30, p.1114
Fig 35-29, p.1114