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The Teacher as a Knower of Curriculum

Jundelle Marie S. Bagioen / jmbagioen@gmail.com / February 2017


THE TEACHER AS A KNOWER OF
CURRICULUM

1 The School Curriculum: Definition, Nature and Scope


2 Approaches to School Curriculum
3 Curriculum Development: Processes and Models
4 Foundations of Curriculum Development
Curriculum is a planned and guided set of
learning experiences and intended outcomes,
Daniel Tanner, 1980
It is a written document that
systematically describes goals
planned, objectives, content, learning
objectives, evaluation procedures and
so forth.
- Pratt, 1980
The contents of a subject, concepts and
tasks to be acquired, planned activities,
the desired learning outcomes and
experiences, product of culture and an
agenda to reform society make up a
curriculum.

-Schubert, 1987
... includes all of the experiences that
individual learners have in a program of
education whose purpose is to achieve
broad goals and related specific
objectives, which is planned in terms of a
framework of theory and research or past
and present professional practice.

-Hass, 1987
It is a programme of activities (by teachers
and pupils) designed so that pupils will
attain so far as possible certain educational
and other schooling ends or objectives.

-Grundy, 1987
It is a plan that consists of learning
opportunities for a specific time frame and place,
a tool that aims to bring about behaviour
changes in students as a result of planned
activities and includes all learning experiences
received by students with the guidance of the
school.

_Goodland and Su,1992


It provides answers to three (3) questions:

1. What knowledge, skills and values are most


worthwhile?
2. Why are they most worthwhile?
3. How should the young acquire them?

- Cronbeth, 1992
TRADITIONAL PROGRESSIVE
TRADITIONAL
Joseph Schwab
(19091988)

Robert M. Arthur Bestor Joseph Schwab Philip Phenix


Hutchins
PERMANENT STUDIES where
rules of grammar. Reading,
rhetoric, logic and mathematics
for basic education are
emphasized

3Rs
Robert M. Reading, Writing, Rithmetic
Hutchins
The mission of the school should
be intellectual training, hence
curriculum focus on the
fundamental intellectual
disciplines of grammar,
literature and writing.
(Math, Science, History and
Arthur foreign language)
Bestor
The sole source of curriculum is a
Joseph Schwab discipline (a ruling doctrine for
(19091988) curriculum development.)

English, Math, Social Studies, English and


many more

Humanities, Sciences, Languages,


Joseph Mathematics (College)
Schwab
Curriculum should consist
entirely of knowledge
which comes from
various disciplines.
Philip
Phenix
PROGRESSIVE
John Dewey William Stanley
Holin Caswell Halan Shore
Kenn Caswell Colin Marsh
Othaniel Smith George Willis
EDUCATION IS EXPERIENCING.
Reflective Thinking is a means that unifies
John Dewey curricular elements that are tested by
application.

Holin Curriculum as ALL experiences children


Caswell have under the guidance of teachers.
Kenn
Caswell
Curriculum as a sequence of potential
Othaniel Smith experiences, set up in schools for the
William Stanley purpose of disciplining children and
Halan Shore youth in group ways of thinking and
acting.
Curriculum as all the experiences in
Colin Marsh the classroom which are planned and
George Willis enacted by the teacher and also
learned by the students.
SUMMARY
Curriculum is what is taught in school, a set of subjects, a
content, a program of studies, a set of materials, a
sequences of courses, a set of performance objectives,
everything that goes within the school. It is what is taught
inside and outside of school directed by the teacher,
everything planned by school, a series of experiences
undergone by learners in school or what individual
learner experiences as a result of school. In short,
Curriculum is the total learning experiences of the
learner, under the guidance of the teacher.
Approaches to School
Curriculum
THREE WAYS OF APPROACHING
THE CURRICULUM

1 Curriculum as a Content
2 Curriculum as a Process
3 Curriculum as a Product
Topical approach -content is based on knowledge and
experience
Concept approach - with fewer topic in cluster
Thematic approach - combination of concepts
Modular approach - completes unit of instruction
commonly used in daily life
appropriate to the maturity levels and the abilities of
learners
valuable in meeting the needs and competencies of the
future career
related to other subject field or discipline for
complementation and integration
important in the transfer of learning in other disciplines
Balance- content should be fairly distributed in depth and
breadth.
Articulation- assure no gaps in content
Sequence - arrangement of content
Integration - content does not stand alone or in isolation
Continuity - content when viewed should continuously
flow as it was before
CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF CONTENTS

Significance Learnability

Validity Feasibility

Utility Interest
Significance

Should contribute to ideas, concepts,


principles and generalization that should
attain the overall purpose of the curriculum

Cognitive, Affective or Psychomotor Skills


Validity

Authenticity
Need for validity check and verification
Utility
Relative to the learners, time
Will I use this in my future job?
Will it add meaning to my life as a lifelong learner?
Will the subject matter be useful in solving current
concerns?
Learnability

Should be within the range of experiences of


the learners
Content standards and Sequencing of
Contents
Feasibility

Can the content be learned within the time allowed,


resource available, expertise of the teachers and the
nature of the learners?
Are there contents of learning which can be learned
beyond the formal teaching-learning engagement?
Are there opportunities provided to learn these?
Interest ( DRIVING FORCE of the Students)

Will the learners take interest in the content? Why?


Are the contents MEANINGFUL?
What VALUE will the contents have in the present and
future life of the learners?
Curriculum process:
the form of teaching methods or strategies are means to
achieve the end.
There is NO SOUND BEST PROCESS or method
should stimulate the learners desire to develop the cognitive,
affective and psychomotor domains in each individual
Every methods or prices should result to learning
outcomes
Flexibility in the use of prices or method should be considered.
Both teaching and learning are the two important process in the
implementation
Product is what the students desire to
achieve as a learning outcomes.
(Product/Performance)