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Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof

Craig Klauber, Markus Grfe, Greg Power

Presented by Peter Smith


Principal Bayer Technologist
Minerals Down Under (MDU)
ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean
Development and Climate
APP Publications and Reports:
http://www.asiapacificpartnership.org/english/publications_and_reports.aspx

Series of papers in Hydrometallurgy:


G. Power, M. Grfe and C. Klauber, Bauxite Residue Issues: I. Current
management, disposal and storage practices, Hydrometallurgy 108 (2011)
33-45.

C. Klauber, M. Grfe and G. Power, Bauxite Residue Issues: II. Options for
residue utilization Hydrometallurgy 108 (2011) 11-32.

M. Grfe, G. Power and C. Klauber, Bauxite Residue Issues: III. Alkalinity


and associated chemistry, Hydrometallurgy 108 (2011) 60-79.

M. Grfe and C. Klauber, Bauxite Residue Issues: IV. Old obstacles and new
pathways for in situ residue bioremediation. Hydrometallurgy 108 (2011) 46-
59.

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
2.7 billion tonnes in storage.

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Some 700+ patents.

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
A wide variety of patent categories.

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
No large scale utilization why?

Driver and enabler


2.7 billion tonnes of bauxite residue are stored globally
700+ patents have been filed on bauxite residue utilization
Yet no large scale utilization industry - Why?

Four (market place) criteria are:


Volume needs to be substantial to be worthwhile
Performance in product replacement terms must perform
equally well
Cost a strong economic case must exist
Risk needs to be well understood and offer a lower risk
than storage over the same time frame
Only non-market factor is regulation

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Metallurgical view implies intrinsic value

Pursuit of recoverable
value, e.g. Fe2O3 or
TiO2 is intensive (capex
and energy) and may
not lead to zero waste

Cost of energy will


continue to rise.

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Mineralogical view highlights the difficulty

Transforming or
adapting the existing
mineralogy to another
use is the most logical
path forward

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Regional context: capability and market

The world economy is increasingly linked but


successful solutions to bauxite residue are only likely
on a regional level:

Regional economics can vary considerably


What is a solution in India or China or not
necessarily a solution in Australia or Brazil
As a high volume waste with marginal economics it
will not generally be transported large distances

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Regional context: capability and market

For example:
Residue needs to be transformed for use, this requires:
Changes in refinery red mud practice(s)
Regional industry to finish the transformation

A regional market for the product is essential:


Lower value applications such as agricultural amendment
require suitable soil types within the regional area
Similarly civil construction fill type applications, bricks and
blocks need to be within the regional area
Higher value applications such as Portland cement can be
economic over a much wider area, subject to market
acceptance of the product

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Best options for regional utilization

Construction
Portland cement extender
Sand replacement
Bricks and blocks
Key questions:
Geopolymers
Agronomic (soil amendment) high volume?
Liming low risk?
Phosphorus lock-up low cost?
Environmental
Effluent treatment
Acid mine drainage/acid sulphate soils

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Best options in the absence of utilization

Residue management that is geared toward bioremediation is


the only option. This is not the same as conventional closure of a
disposal site.

Conventional closure
Continuous management residue
(high risk, high $, unknown T)

Do nothing Normal geological outcome


residue (high risk, low $, unknown T) in T~105 to 106 years

Bioremediation
Walk away option soil
(low risk, low $, low T)

Klauber et al, "Bauxite residue utilization and the lack thereof" - ICSOBA October 17th-19th 2011 - Goa, India
Minerals Down Under
Dr. Peter Smith
Principal Bayer Technologist

Phone: +61 8 9334 8030


Email: peter.smith@csiro.au
Web: www.csiro.au

Thank you
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