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King Saud University, Sports Campus, B70

By Eng Nihal Premachandra

Project Manager
Saudi Binaldin Group
EN 1990:2002, Eurocode, Basis of structural design

SBC 301, Saudi code for Structural loading and forces

EN 1991-1-1-4, 2005, Eurocode1, Wind loading

EN 1993-1-1:2005, Eurocode3, Structural Steel design

Arena roof consists of
Arch truss spanning 145m between end buttresses
46 secondary trusses supported by main Arch & Column
Braced ring to stabilize columns on perimeter anchored
to end Buttresses

Arena roof consists of
secondary truss bracing divided to avoid lock in stresses

Each part of tubular bracing connected to end buttress

Tubular bracing is subjected to tension & compression

Perimeter canopy with a cantilever beam

Tubular bracing discontinued here

Top chord braced by Dia 140x6 tube

Bot. chord by Double angles at 1/3
tube length on both sides of truss
Secondary truss static system
Bottom and upper chords are continuous

Truss diagonals are force only members

Wind uplift & lighter dead load induce compression on

lower chord

Upper chord is also in compression

Both chords turned 90to keep
minor axis bending in the
plane of truss

Minor axis of chords are

stabilized by vertical elements
of the truss
Secondary truss static system
Major axis bending of upper chord is braced by tubes

Lower chord braced with angles connected to upper

bracing tubes
Main Arch truss static system
Main Arch truss transfers loads on roof to end buttresses
It is a self stable element fabricated as a 3D truss with 3
No K bracings at 1/4th span to improve rigidity
Bottom & upper chords continuous, diagonals are force
only beams
Upper chord is also in compression
y Rx=1001kN Rz=17637kN
supported by
buttress in X,
1.6x1.6m pot bearing Y, Z
base plate anchored to directions, but
concrete free to rotate

Rotation 0.0025 rad(UF)

Pot Bearings of the buttresses
Elastomer is inside the pot between piston and pot base

Piston welded to Ear plate

1.6x1.6m pot bearing

base plate anchored to 60mm thick cylinder
concrete pot welded to base
Bolt connect to truss plate
mating plate & hold Ear
plate against uplift
Main Arch truss static system

Continuous beam
Fx only Flange splice
transfer BM Web
splice transfer shear
Fx only
K bracing


Continuous beams of Main Arch truss
Top and bottom chords of the main Arch truss modeled as
continuous beams

Hence all joints of these chords are welded with full penetration

Additional cleats to hold the Hole at the ends of full

joint in position before welding penetration welds to ensure
weld is continuous
Splice provided to transfer BM & SF
Flange splice transfer BM, Web splice transfer


Canopy frame static system
Top end of Top end of Canopy frame is
inner outer column made with IPE
column and canopy beams
with 2ndry beam is a
truss upper moment
chord is a connection

X, Y,Z reactions & Z rotn fixed Outer column X, Z reactions

Fx=+602/-194 fixed but Y displacement free

My=0 Fy=17/ Mx=0
Mz -29
My=0 Fy=0
Fz=3/-1 Mz=0
Foundation adequacy verified
with these reactions Fz

Inner column base Fx, Fy & Fz restrained
Joint free to rotate, no moment transfer

Outer column base Fx, & Fz restrained Fy free
Joint free to slide in Y direction, no moment


Canopy ring static system
Out of plane deformation is Middle bracing is a truss beam
only 5mm for middle truss with chords rotated 90

Vertical deflection of middle Internal and External bracing

truss=0, good for glazing form a full elliptical ring

Canopy ring has 3 beams

bracing the canopy framing
back to end buttresses
Canopy ring static system

Wind load on middle truss Rigid connection

resisted by major axis M+V+N

UPN to column
Simple shear
Minor axis bending of connection
chords will be resisted by My=Mz=0
Canopy ring static system
Middle truss anchored to buttress providing more rigidity

Middle truss anchored

to buttress providing
more rigidity
Bolt pre-installation verification
Calibrated wrench pre-tensioning test shall be performed daily for
calibration of the installation wrench
Tv=db*Tm*coeff. Factor where Tv=Torque Value, Tm=Pretension
Tension calibrator dial gage tension value shall be 5% more than
recommended bolt pre-tensin in RCSC, table 8.1
Calibrated and torque
Tension calibrator records tension set wrench
in the bolt
4G, 3G & 2G welding tests
6G, 5G welding ??
6G & 5G applicable for
welding pipes
Get your welders tested at site
even if they are certified!


SMAW-Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(Stick welding)
Joint metals by heating them with an Arc between coated metal
electrode and the work piece.
The electrode outer coating assists creating arc and provide the
shielding gas and slag covering to protect the weld from contamination
Welding transformer provides constant current (CC) either AC or DC
depending on the electrode being used
Best welding characteristics can be obtained using DC power sources.
WPS- Welding Procedure Specification will provide proposed weld
parameters for the given weld
WPQR- Welding Procedure Qualification Record will provide test results
of the weld carried out as per WPS to confirm acceptance of test weld
Certified welders to be tested with weld samples as per above WPS, for
2G,3G & 4G welded joint configurations at site after testing such
samples by an independent testing laboratory.

Then use these certified welders to carry out actual welded joints at site
To minimize Risks associated with site

Wear appropriate protective clothing

Work piece must be cleaned well
Place earthling clamp close to the weld
Never use damp electrodes. Use portable ovens as electrode holders
Use chipping hammer and wire brush to remove slag on the each weld
bead after welding
Check the weld bead with a weld test to ensure no cavities or slag hiding
inside the weld bead.


Wet clothes and fire blanket used to wrap gasket between base plate
and the piston plate of pot bearing to prevent welding heat transfer to
After every weld run, weld bead was tested with an ultra sound weld
test, when cavities or slag found trap in the weld affected weld area
grinded and re-welded
Roof bracing static system
Roof bracing separated into 2 parts to avoid arch action

X or K bracing not allowed by the Architect

Top chord buckling resistance by tube bracing on trusses

Tube bracings will give vertical support if not SEPERATED

Secondary trusses are restrained from one side only

Hence bracing tubes carry both tension & compression

Bracings ends near buttress provide more rigidity

Hence bracing tubes carry both tension & compression
To accommodate changes in orientation of the purling and
bracing tubes we used bolted end plates
All pipe Bracing ends tie back to buttress at each end to
provide more rigidity on each side
All purling simply supported with slotted hole to
accommodate thermal movement
Dead Load (kg/m2)

Structure self wt = As reqd

Structure is designed with 1.25xDead load
Load factor of 1.25 chosen instead of 1.05 recommended in
Eurocode 3, Table A2.4(A) in-order to compensate for the
wind load absence in the analysis.

Temperature Load (kg/m2)

Indoor structure +50k

Exterior Canopy +50k
Since execution work is likely to be started in Summer and
extended into the Winter at completion DeltaT considered
for the whole year instead of semester or daily situation
Load combinations are as per Eurocode EN 1991, Part 1-2