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Microbes and Genetic

Engineering
Dr. Sherri Clark / The National
Biotechnology Information Facility

The World of Microbes


on the Internet
This presentation 1998 by the Regents of New Mexico State University
Topi cs of Discussion
DNA
History
What is it?
Genetic Engineering?
Examples of uses for animals.
Examples of uses for humans.
Examples of uses for plants.
Cloning
Ethical Questions
DNA History
Until early to mid 1900s a majority of
biologists believed that proteins had to be
the genetic material.
1928 - Griffith showed evidence of
bacterial transformation (uptake of genetic
material).
1944 - Avery and coworkers showed that
this transforming agent was DNA.
DNA History 2
1952 - Hershey and Chase determined that
DNA was also the agent that viruses like T4
injected into host cells for reproduction.
DNA History 3
1953 - Watson and Crick described the
structure of DNA.
1961 - Crick described the genetic code as
triplet codons.
What is DNA?
Macromolecule
Polymer
Phosphate, ribose sugars,
with purine and
pyrimidine bases.
Anti-parallel strands.
What is DNA? 2
Double helix.

Copyright 1994-1998 Institute for Molecular Virology.


University of Wisconsin - Madison.
What is DNA? 3
Carries genetic information.
The information language is made up of
words called genes and letters called
codons.
Genetic Engineering
Also known as recombinant DNA
technology.
The manipulation of an organisms genetic
material, DNA or sometimes RNA, to
produce a desired gene product or
characteristic.
The end product of these techniques is often
a chimeric organism.
Definitions
Chimera
Cloning
Vector
Restriction Endonuclease
Methylase
Sticky Ends
Blunt Ends
Cloning a Gene Into E. coli
Cloning a Gene Into E. coli 2
Examples of Uses for Animals
Cows and Pigs.
Bovine Somatotropin
Porcine Somatotropin
Examples of Uses for Humans
Humans
insulin and growth hormone.
-lactamases and antibiotics.
gene therapy.
Examples of Uses for Plants
Examples of Uses for Plants 2
Potato
Examples of Uses for Plants 3
Tomato

Corn and Cotton.


Cloning
Making an organism with a genetic makeup
that is identical to another organism.

Copyright 1995 Roslin Institute


http://www.ri.bbsrc.ac.uk/
Ethical Questions
Dangers
Privacy
Morality