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# Learning outcome

## After the completion of this topic ,students will able to

General objectives:
Introduction to imapact of jet.
Force exerted on stationary plate held normal to jet.
Force exerted on fixed inclined flat plate to jet.
Force exerted on single curved plate.
Force exerted on series of curve blade.
Impact of jet

normal to jet.

## Consider a jet of water strike normally on the fixed plate

held perpendicular to flow direction of jet as shown in
fig.the jet after striking the plate will deflected through
90.so final velocity of fluid in the direction of the jet after
striking plate will be zero.
Force exerted on stationary plate held
normal to jet.

## Let, V = velocity of jet,

d = diameter of jet,
= density of fluid,
A = cross section area of jet,
m = mass flow rate of fluid,
Force exerted on stationary plate held
normal to jet.

plate to jet.

## Consider a jet striking on an incline fixed plate as shown

in fig.
Let , V = velocity of jet.
A = cross section area of jet.
= inclination of the plate with the jet.
Force exerted on fixed inclined flat
plate to jet.
Assuming no loss of energy due to impact of jet then jet
will move over the plate after striking with velocity
equal to initial velocity of jet.
Let Fn = force exerted by the jet on the plate in
direction normal to the plate.
Fx = force exerted by the jet on the plate in
direction to the jet
Fy = force exerted by the jet on the plate in
direction perpendicular to the jet.
Force exerted on fixed inclined flat
plate to jet.

## (1)When the jet strikes at the centre of the symmetrical

consider jet of the water striking on the curved
let V = velocity of liquid jet
A = area of cross section of jet
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## The plate is smooth and there is no loss of energy due

to impact of jet. Hence liquid leaving the plate with
velocity V in he tangential direction of the curved plate.
Force exerted by jet in the direction of jet,
Fx = (mass of water/sec) * (V1x - V2x)
where V1x =initial velocity of water jet in direction of jet = V
V2x =final velocity water in direction of jet = -Vcos

Fx = (AV)*[V-(-Vcos]
Fx = AV[1+cos]
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## Force exerted by jet on curved fixed plate in vertical direction

Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]
where V1y =initial velocity of water jet in vertical direction=0
V2y =final velocity water in vertical direction=Vsin
Fy = (AV)*[0 -Vsin ]
Fy = -AVsin
Angle of deflecton = 180-
(2) When jet strikes tangentially at one end of symmetrical
plate :
consider a water jet striking on symmetrical curved plate
tangentially at one end as shown in fig
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## let V = velocity of water jet

= angle between jet and x-axis at the tip of plate at
inlet
Fx = (AV)* (V1x - V2x)
= (AV)*[Vcos -(-Vcos)]
= AV2Vcos = 2AVcos
Force exerted on single curved plate.
Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]
= (AV)*[Vsin -Vsin ] = 0
Angle of deflection = 180- 2

## (3) When jet strikes tangentially at one end of

unsymmetrically plate:
consider a water jet striking on unsymmetrical curved plate
tangentially at one end as shown in fig.
let = angle between water jet and x-axis at of inlet tip.
= angle between water jet and x-axis at of outlet tip.
Force exerted on single curved plate.
Fx = (AV)* (V1x - V2x)
= AV * [Vcos -Vcos]
= AV[cos +cos]
Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]
= (AV)*[Vsin -Vsin]
= AV[sin -sin]

## Resultant force F =Fx+Fy

Resultant force inclination with Horizontal is = tan^-1(Fy / Fx)
Angle of deflecton = 180- ( +)
Force exerted on series of curved plate.

## consider a series of curved vanes

mounted on wheel as shown in
fig. in a radial curved vane the
radius of vane at inlet and outlet
is not same.hence the tangential
velocities of the radial vanes is
not equal (u1=u2)
Let,
R1 =radius of wheel at inlet of
vane
R2 = radius of wheel at outlet
of vane
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## V1 =velocity of jet at inlet of vane

V2 =velocity of jet at outlet of vane
= angular velocity of the wheel
U1 = tangential velocity of vane at inlet = R1
U2 = tangential velocity of vane at outlet = R2
In the series of vanes, the mass of water striking per
second is same as mass of water coming out from nozzle
per second, and AV1
momentum of water striking the vane in the tangential
direction at inlet/sec =(mass/sec)*component of velocity
V1 in tangential direction = AV1*V1cos1
= AV1*Vw1
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## Angular momentum/sec at inlet = (AV1*Vw1)*R1

momentum of water at outlet/sec =(mass/sec)*component
of velocity V2 in tangential direction = AV1*(-V2cos2)
= AV1*Vw2
Angular momentum/sec at inlet = -(AV1*Vw2)*R2

## Torque exerted by the water on the wheel,

T = rate change of angular momentum
= (AV1*Vw1)*R1 - (-AV1*Vw2)*R2
= AV1(Vw1*R1+Vw2*R2)
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## Work done by water on wheel/sec

= torque * angular velocity
= T*
= AV1[Vw1R1+Vw2R2 ]
= AV1 (Vw1u1+Vw2u2 )
If 2 > 90 ,WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1 - Vw2u2 )
In general for 2 < 90 and 2 > 90
WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )
For 2 = 90, Vw2 = 0
WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1)
Force exerted on single curved plate.

Effficiency of system(vane)
= work done/sec /kinetic energy/sec
= AV1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )/ .5AV1 *V1
= 2(Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )/ V1
If there is no loss of energy when water is flowing over
vanes, the work done and effiency in terms of absolute
velocities.
WD/sec= (initial kinetic energy/sec final kinetic energy/sec)
= 1/2 (AV1)V1 -1/2 (AV1)V2
= 1/2 (AV1)V1 -1/2 (AV1)V2/ 1/2 (AV1)V1
=V1 -V2/ V1 = 1- V2/ V1
Force exerted on single curved plate.

## From above equation following points are observed :

(1) For given value of V1 , increases with decrease V2 ,at
V2 = 0 , = max.actual practice ,V2 0 ,without outlet
velocity V2 ,incoming jet will not move out of the vane

## (2) efficiency of the vane is max when 2 < 90 .hence ,

Vw2 added to Vw1 .also Vw2 is max when 2 = 0.but
actual practice 2 0 .so efficiency is max when 2 is
minimum