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General objectives:

Introduction to imapact of jet.

Force exerted on stationary plate held normal to jet.

Force exerted on fixed inclined flat plate to jet.

Force exerted on single curved plate.

Force exerted on series of curve blade.

Impact of jet

Introduction about impact of jet

normal to jet.

held perpendicular to flow direction of jet as shown in

fig.the jet after striking the plate will deflected through

90.so final velocity of fluid in the direction of the jet after

striking plate will be zero.

Force exerted on stationary plate held

normal to jet.

d = diameter of jet,

= density of fluid,

A = cross section area of jet,

m = mass flow rate of fluid,

Force exerted on stationary plate held

normal to jet.

plate to jet.

in fig.

Let , V = velocity of jet.

A = cross section area of jet.

= inclination of the plate with the jet.

Force exerted on fixed inclined flat

plate to jet.

Assuming no loss of energy due to impact of jet then jet

will move over the plate after striking with velocity

equal to initial velocity of jet.

Let Fn = force exerted by the jet on the plate in

direction normal to the plate.

Fx = force exerted by the jet on the plate in

direction to the jet

Fy = force exerted by the jet on the plate in

direction perpendicular to the jet.

Force exerted on fixed inclined flat

plate to jet.

blade :

consider jet of the water striking on the curved

fixed blade at the centre of blade as shown in fig.

let V = velocity of liquid jet

A = area of cross section of jet

Force exerted on single curved plate.

to impact of jet. Hence liquid leaving the plate with

velocity V in he tangential direction of the curved plate.

Force exerted by jet in the direction of jet,

Fx = (mass of water/sec) * (V1x - V2x)

where V1x =initial velocity of water jet in direction of jet = V

V2x =final velocity water in direction of jet = -Vcos

Fx = (AV)*[V-(-Vcos]

Fx = AV[1+cos]

Force exerted on single curved plate.

Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]

where V1y =initial velocity of water jet in vertical direction=0

V2y =final velocity water in vertical direction=Vsin

Fy = (AV)*[0 -Vsin ]

Fy = -AVsin

Angle of deflecton = 180-

(2) When jet strikes tangentially at one end of symmetrical

plate :

consider a water jet striking on symmetrical curved plate

tangentially at one end as shown in fig

Force exerted on single curved plate.

= angle between jet and x-axis at the tip of plate at

inlet

Fx = (AV)* (V1x - V2x)

= (AV)*[Vcos -(-Vcos)]

= AV2Vcos = 2AVcos

Force exerted on single curved plate.

Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]

= (AV)*[Vsin -Vsin ] = 0

Angle of deflection = 180- 2

unsymmetrically plate:

consider a water jet striking on unsymmetrical curved plate

tangentially at one end as shown in fig.

let = angle between water jet and x-axis at of inlet tip.

= angle between water jet and x-axis at of outlet tip.

Force exerted on single curved plate.

Fx = (AV)* (V1x - V2x)

= AV * [Vcos -Vcos]

= AV[cos +cos]

Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]

= (AV)*[Vsin -Vsin]

= AV[sin -sin]

Resultant force inclination with Horizontal is = tan^-1(Fy / Fx)

Angle of deflecton = 180- ( +)

Force exerted on series of curved plate.

mounted on wheel as shown in

fig. in a radial curved vane the

radius of vane at inlet and outlet

is not same.hence the tangential

velocities of the radial vanes is

not equal (u1=u2)

Let,

R1 =radius of wheel at inlet of

vane

R2 = radius of wheel at outlet

of vane

Force exerted on single curved plate.

V2 =velocity of jet at outlet of vane

= angular velocity of the wheel

U1 = tangential velocity of vane at inlet = R1

U2 = tangential velocity of vane at outlet = R2

In the series of vanes, the mass of water striking per

second is same as mass of water coming out from nozzle

per second, and AV1

momentum of water striking the vane in the tangential

direction at inlet/sec =(mass/sec)*component of velocity

V1 in tangential direction = AV1*V1cos1

= AV1*Vw1

Force exerted on single curved plate.

momentum of water at outlet/sec =(mass/sec)*component

of velocity V2 in tangential direction = AV1*(-V2cos2)

= AV1*Vw2

Angular momentum/sec at inlet = -(AV1*Vw2)*R2

T = rate change of angular momentum

= (AV1*Vw1)*R1 - (-AV1*Vw2)*R2

= AV1(Vw1*R1+Vw2*R2)

Force exerted on single curved plate.

= torque * angular velocity

= T*

= AV1[Vw1R1+Vw2R2 ]

= AV1 (Vw1u1+Vw2u2 )

If 2 > 90 ,WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1 - Vw2u2 )

In general for 2 < 90 and 2 > 90

WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )

For 2 = 90, Vw2 = 0

WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1)

Force exerted on single curved plate.

Effficiency of system(vane)

= work done/sec /kinetic energy/sec

= AV1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )/ .5AV1 *V1

= 2(Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )/ V1

If there is no loss of energy when water is flowing over

vanes, the work done and effiency in terms of absolute

velocities.

WD/sec= (initial kinetic energy/sec final kinetic energy/sec)

= 1/2 (AV1)V1 -1/2 (AV1)V2

= 1/2 (AV1)V1 -1/2 (AV1)V2/ 1/2 (AV1)V1

=V1 -V2/ V1 = 1- V2/ V1

Force exerted on single curved plate.

(1) For given value of V1 , increases with decrease V2 ,at

V2 = 0 , = max.actual practice ,V2 0 ,without outlet

velocity V2 ,incoming jet will not move out of the vane

Vw2 added to Vw1 .also Vw2 is max when 2 = 0.but

actual practice 2 0 .so efficiency is max when 2 is

minimum

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