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# 1.

## Given an array, write a function to insert a number x

at index 0.
Ex: i/p: 1 2 3 4 5 6
o/p: 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 (if x=100)

## 2. Given an array, write a function to reverse the first and

second half of an array keeping its center element
unchanged if the array elements are odd.

## Ex: I/p : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (odd)

O/P : 3 2 1 4 7 6 5

## Ex: I/P : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (even)

O/P : 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5
Question 1
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
char arr[] = "geeksforgeeks";
printf("%d", sizeof(arr));
return 0;
}
Output

Output: 14

## The string geeksforgeeks has 13 characters, but the

size is 14 because compiler includes a single \0
(string terminator) when char array size is not
explicitly mentioned.
Question 2

## Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
int x, y = 5, z = 5;
x = y==z;
printf("%d", x);
return 0;
}
Output

Output: 1

## The crux of the question lies in the statement x =

y==z. The operator == is executed before = because
precedence of comparison operators (<=, >= and ==) is
higher than assignment operator =.
The result of a comparison operator is either 0 or 1
based on the comparison result. Since y is equal to z,
value of the expression y == z becomes 1 and the
value is assigned to x via the assignment operator.
Question 3

## Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
printf(" \"GEEKS %% FOR %% GEEKS\"");
getchar();
return 0;
}
Output

## Backslash (\) works as escape character for double

quote ().
Question 4
Predict the output of below program.

## int fun(char *str1)

{
char *str2 = str1;
while(*++str1);
return (str1-str2);
}

int main()
{
char *str = "geeksforgeeks";
printf("%d", fun(str));
getchar();
return 0;
}
Output

Output: 13

## Inside fun(), pointer str2 is initialized as str1 and str1 is

moved till \0 is reached (note ; after while loop). So
str1 will be incremented by 13 (assuming that char
takes 1 byte).
Question 5
Predict the output of below program. (Call by
Value)
void fun(int *p)
{
static int q = 10;
p = &q;
}

int main()
{
int r = 20;
int *p = &r;
fun(p);
printf("%d", *p);
getchar();
return 0;
Output

Output: 20

## Inside fun(), q is a copy of the pointer p. So if we

change q to point something else then p remains
unaffected.
Question 6
Predict the output of below program(Call by
reference)
void fun(int **p)
{
static int q = 10;
*p = &q;
}

int main()
{
int r = 20;
int *p = &r;
fun(&p);
printf("%d", *p);
getchar();
return 0;
Output
Output 10
Note that we are passing address of p to fun(). p in fun() is actually
a pointer to p in main() and we are changing value at p in fun(). So
p of main is changed to point q of fun(). To understand it better, let
us rename p in fun() to p_ref or ptr_to_p
void fun(int **ptr_to_p)
{
static int q = 10;
*ptr_to_p = &q; /*Now p of main is pointing to q*/
}
Also, note that the program wont cause any problem because q is
a static variable. Static variables exist in memory even after
functions return. For an auto variable, we might have seen some
weird output because auto variable may not exist in memory after
functions return.
Question 7
Predict the output of below program

int main()
{
int f = 0, g = 1;
int i;
for(i = 0; i < 15; i++)
{
printf("%d \n", f);
f = f + g;
g = f - g;
}
getchar();
return 0;
}
Output
Answer: The function prints first 15 Fibonacci Numbers.
Question 8
Predict the output of below program.

#include<stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
int a = 1;
int b = 0;
b = ++a + ++a;
printf("%d %d",a,b);
getchar();
return 0;
}
Output
Output : 3 6
Question 9
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
int a[3] = {1, 2, 3};
int *p = a;
printf("%p\t%p", p, a);
}
Output

Output:
Question 10
Predict the output of below program.

## #include <stdio.h> #include <stdio.h>

void main() void main()
{ {
int a[3] = {1, 2, 3}; char *s = "hello";
int *p = a; char *p = s;
printf("%p\t%p", p, a); printf("%p\t%p", p, s);
} }
Output

Output:
Question 11
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
int ary[4] = {1, 2, 3, 4};
printf("\n%ld",ary);
printf("\n%ld",ary+3);
int *p = ary + 3;
printf("\n%d\n", p[-2]);
getch();
}
Output

Output:
2
Question 12
Predict the output of below
program(Recursion).

void main()

{
m();
void m()
{
printf("hi");
}
}
Output

Output:
Compile Time error
Question 13
Predict the output of below program.

void main()

{
m();
void m()
{
printf("hi");
}
}
Output

Output:
Compile Time error
Question 14
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
m();
}
void m()
{
printf("hi");
m();
}
Output

Output:
Infinite hi
Question 15
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
static int x = 3;
x++;
if (x <= 5)
{
printf("hi");
main();
}
}
Output

Output:
hi hi
Question 16
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int ary[4] = {1, 2, 3, 4};
int p[4];
p = ary;
printf("%d\n", p[1]);
}
Output

Output:
Compile Time error
Question 17
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
struct p
{
int k;
char c;
float f;
};
int main()
{
struct p x = {.c = 97, .f = 3, .k = 1};
printf("%f\n", x.f);
}
Output

Output:
3.00000
Question 18
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
struct temp
{
int a;
int b;
int c;
} p[] = {0};
main()
{
printf("%d", sizeof(p));
}
Output

Output:
12
Question 19
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
struct student
{
char *name;
};
struct student s[2];
void main()
{
s[0].name = "alan";
s[1] = s[0];
printf("%s%s", s[0].name, s[1].name);
s[1].name = "turing";
printf("%s%s", s[0].name, s[1].name);
}
Output

Output:
alan alan alan turing
Question 20
Predict the output of below program.
#include <stdio.h>
struct student
{
char *name;
};
struct student s[2], r[2];
void main()
{
s[0].name = "alan";
s[1] = s[0];
r = s;
printf("%s%s", r[0].name, r[1].name);
}
Output

Output:
Compile Time error
Question 21
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
struct student
{
};
void main()
{
struct student s[2];
printf("%d", sizeof(s));
}
Output

Output:
0
Question 22
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
int main(){
static char a;
static long b;
int c;
printf("%d,%d,%d",a,b,c);
return 0;
}
Output

Output:
0 0 Garbage value
Question 23
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i<5; i++)
{
int i;
i = 10;
printf("%d ", i) ;
}
return 0;
}
Output

Output:
10 10 10 10 10
Question 23
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main()
{
printf("GEEKS size = %d \n\n", sizeof("GEEKS"));
printf("GEEKS length = %d \n", strlen("GEEKS"));
return 0;
}
Output

Output:
GEEKS size = 6
GEEKS length = 5

## sizeof() function returns the size of the string including

null character while strlen() function returns length of the
string excluding null character.
Question 24
Predict the output of below program.

#include <stdio.h>

int extern i;

int main()
{
printf("%d", i);
}

int i = 10;
Output

Output:
10

## With the help of extern keyword, the declaration of

variable can be done any where in the program. Here, i is
a variable which is being declared after the printf
statement outside the main. Still, it can be accessed by
the printf statement as it is an extern variable. For more
details on the keyword extern
Question 25
Predict the output of below program.
#include <stdio.h>
Void main()
{
int a = 10, b = 20, c = 30;
if (c > b > a)
{
printf("TRUE");
}
else
{
printf("FALSE");
}
}
Output

Output:
False
Question 26
Predict the output of below program.
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
enum channel {star, sony, zee};

int i = 0;
for(i = star; i <= zee; i++)
{
printf("%d ", i);
}

return 0;
}
Output

Output:
012
Question 27
Predict the output of below program.
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
int i, j;
int p = 0, q = 2;

## for(i = 0, j = 0; i < p, j < q; i++, j++)

{
printf("GeeksforGeeks\n");
}

return 0;
}
Output

Output:
GeeksforGeeks
GeeksforGeeks
Question 28
Predict the output of below program.
#include <stdio.h>
#define R 4
#define C 4
int main()
{
int mat[R][C] = { {1, 2, 3, 4},{5, 6, 7, 8},{9, 10, 11, 12},{13, 14, 15, 16}};
int i,j;
for (i = 0; i < R; i++)
{
for (j = 0; j < C; j++)
printf("%3d ", mat[i][j]);
printf("\n");
}
Output

Output:
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16
Question 29
Predict the output of below program.
int main()
{
int i, j;
int arr[4][4] = { {1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 6, 7, 8},
{9, 10, 11, 12},
{13, 14, 15, 16} };
for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
for(j = 0; j < 4; j++)
printf("%d ", j[i[arr]] );
printf("\n");
for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
for(j = 0; j < 4; j++)
printf("%d ", i[j[arr]] );
}
Output

Output:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 16
Question 30
Predict the output of below program.
int main()
{
int i, j;
int arr[4][4] = { {1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 6, 7, 8},
{9, 10, 11, 12},
{13, 14, 15, 16} };
for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
for(j = 0; j < 4; j++)
printf("%d ", j[i[arr]] );
printf("\n");
for(i = 0; i < 4; i++)
for(j = 0; j < 4; j++)
printf("%d ", i[j[arr]] );
}
Output

Output:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 16
Question 31
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
int i = 10;

static int x = i;

if (x==i)
printf("x and i are Equal\n");

return 0;
}
Output

Output:
Here, it would seem that, as x and i are equal, so the
output will be x and i are Equal. But the output is quite
unexpected.
As, static variables are load time entity while auto
variables are run time entity an We can not initialize any
load time variable by the run time variable. So,the output
the c code above will show Compile error.
Question 32
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
int a = 10;
printf("%o %x", a, a);
return 0;
}
Output

Output:
As, %o is used to print the number in octal number
format and %x is used to print the number in
hexadecimal number format. And if we convert decimal
10 to octal , we get 12 and in hexadecimal it will give a
Question 33
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
int a = 10;
printf("%o %x", a, a);
return 0;
}
Output

Output:
As, %o is used to print the number in octal number
format and %x is used to print the number in
hexadecimal number format. And if we convert decimal
10 to octal , we get 12 and in hexadecimal it will give a
Question 34
Predict the output of below program.
int fun()
{
static int num = 40;
return num--;
}

int main()
{
for(fun(); fun(); fun())
{
printf("%d ", fun());
}
getchar();
return 0;
}
Output

Output:
38 35 32 29 26 23 20 17 14 11 8 5 2

## Since num is static in fun(), the old value of num is

preserved for subsequent functions calls. Also, since the
statement return num is postfix, it returns the old value
of num, and updates the value for next function call.
Question 35
Predict the output of below program.
int main()
{
char *s[] = { "knowledge","is","power"};
char **p;
p = s;
printf("%s ", ++*p);
printf("%s ", *p++);
printf("%s ", ++*p);

getchar();
return 0;
}
Output
Output:
nowledge nowledge s

## Let us consider the expression ++*p in first printf(). Since

precedence of prefix ++ and * is same, associativity comes into
picture. *p is evaluated first because both prefix ++ and * are right
to left associative. When we increment *p by 1, it starts pointing to
second character of knowledge. Therefore, the first printf
statement prints nowledge.
Let us consider the expression *p++ in second printf() . Since
precedence of postfix ++ is higher than *, p++ is evaluated first.
And since its a psotfix ++, old value of p is used in this expression.
Therefore, second printf statement prints nowledge.
In third printf statement, the new value of p (updated by second
printf) is used, and third printf() prints s.
Question 36
Predict the output of below program.

#include<stdio.h>

#define R 10
#define C 20

int main()
{
int (*p)[R][C];
printf("%d", sizeof(*p));
getchar();
return 0;
}
Output
Output:
10*20*sizeof(int) which is 800 for compilers with
integer size as 4 bytes.

## The pointer p is de-referenced, hence it yields type of the

object. In the present case, it is an array of array of
integers. So, it prints R*C*sizeof(int).
Question 37
Predict the output of below program.

int main()
{
char arr[] = {1, 2, 3};
char *p = arr;
if(&p == &arr)
printf("Same");
else
printf("Not same");
getchar();
}
Output
Output:
Not Same

## &arr is an alias for &arr[0] and returns the address of the

first element in array, but &p returns the address of
pointer p.