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I think, therefore I exist

- Rene Descartes
Research is a process by which
people discover or create new
knowledge about the world in
which they live.
A systematic study or
investigation of something for
the purpose of answering
questions or solving problems for
the improvement of life.
It enables the students to incorporate
and apply scientific concepts learned in
school to real - life scenario.
It provides activities wherein the
students probe areas that, for them,
contain unknowns.
It promotes the development of
valuable skills and attitudes in students
that characterize the research work of
scientists.
The Scientific
Method
Inquiry-based
Learning
Basic Science
Process Skills
Integrated Science
Process Skills
The Scientific
Method
Inquiry-based
Learning
Science Process
Skills
Scientific
Reasoning
Is my study relevant? Does it make sense?
Is there another way of preparing the
samples?
Is the method I used appropriate for my
study?
What other variables could possibly affect
the dependent variable? What will I do to
eliminate or minimize their effects?
What could be the possible reason if the
results does not agree with the hypothesis?
OBSERVING senses

INFERRING data-based educated guess

MEASURING standard/non-standard; estimation

COMMUNICATING description - words, graphic symbols

grouping/ordering; properties, patterns


CLASSIFYING
or criteria
future outcome based on pattern of
PREDICTING
evidence; extra/interpolate

3Padilla, M. (1990). National Association for Research in Science Teaching


Observation:

The clouds are dark

Inference:

There is a great possibility


that it will rain
In which glass will the food dye dissolve fastest?
Itis important that the students
are fully equipped with the
Basic Science Process Skills
prior to their gradual exposure
to the complex skills
dependent/independent
Controlling Variables +,- controls
stating how to measure a
Dening Operationally variable in experiment
stating the expected outcome
Formulating Hypothesis of the experiment

Interpreting Data description - words, graphic

conduct, questions, hypothesis, variables, operational


Experimenting denitions, errors and biases, interpretation of results

creating a mental or physical


Formulating Models model of a process or event
Purpose Method

BASIC DESCRIPTIVE

APPLIED EXPERIMENTAL

Process Logic

QUANTITATIVE INDUCTIVE
QUALITATIVE DEDUCTIVE
ACCORDING TO PURPOSE

Research is driven by Research is designed


curiosity or interest to solve practical
to search for problems of the
knowledge modern world

Main motivation is to Main motivation is to


expand mans improve the human
knowledge condition
Minimizing the The Effect of
Bad Effects of Global Warming
Global Warming to the
to Rice Production of
Production in Rice in the
the Philippines Philippines

APPLIED BASIC
ACCORDING TO PROCESS

To test hypothesis, Togain insight;


look at cause and explore the depth,
effect and make richness, and
predictions complexity
inherent in the
phenomenon.
analyze and
Tounderstand and
interpret data by
the use of interpret
statistics interactions
Relationship The Production
between of Rice in the
Temperature Philippines for
and Rice the Past 20
Production in Years
the Philippines

QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
ACCORDING TO METHOD

Todescribe the Toshow that one


nature of a variable causes or
situation as it determines the
exists at the time values of other
variables.
of the study.
Seekwhat is of Determine what
the data and not will happen when
Why is it so variables are
carefully
manipulated
Super Firming and Shelf
Antibiotics: Life of Tomatoes as
Affected by Alum and
Help or Hazard Lime Treatment

BioHazardous The Effect of Magnetic


Waste: The True Field in Extending the
Story of Disposal Shelf Life and Potency
of Coconut Water

DESCRIPTIVE EXPERIMENTAL
ACCORDING TO LOGIC

From general to From specific


specific, observations to
conclusion follows broader
logically from generalization and
premises theories
Variables
Dependent
Independent (intervention)

Groups
Experimental (treatment)
Control

POSITVECONTROL (standard)
NEGATIVE CONTROL (non-treatment)
Arethose that Shows the
the researchers effect of
have control manipulating or
over which will introducing the
have effect on independent
other variable variable
Independent Variable:

Light

Dependent Variable:

Plant Growth
TheFeasibility of Tubang Bakod (Jatropha
curcas) Seeds as Mosquito Repellant
Independent Variable:

Tubang Bakod seeds

Dependent Variable:

Capability to repel mosquito


TheInteraction Effects of Soil Cultivation
and Volume of Water on the Number of
Orange Fruit on Carmona Farm

Independent Variable:

Soil Cultivation and Volume of Water

Dependent Variable:

Number of orange Fruit


Effect of Chemicals on Strength of Ropes

Independent Variable:

Chemicals

Dependent Variable:

Strength of Ropes
Variables that are not measured in a particular
study

Must be held constant, neutralized or


eliminated so they will not have a biasing effect
on other variables
Controlled Variable/s:

Type of Plant

Type of Soil

Size of Pot
Amount of water

Frequency of watering
A controlled experiment compares two or
more things but changes only one variable in
the experiment
Group that is exposed to all of
the circumstances of the
experiment but does not get
whatever is being tested or
changed in the experiment.
The group that gets all of the
circumstances of the experiment
plus the one variable being
tested by the experiment.
Level of treatment Level of treatment
that is expected to that is expected to
result in change in result in lack of
the value of the change in the
dependent variable dependent variable
To determine whether
To serve as proof
experimental levels
that the experiment of treatment produce
can produce a a change in the
positive result dependent variable
Informative
Declarative
Moderate Level of Specificity
Variable-Oriented
Process Oriented
Subject-Oriented
Captures the relationship of the identified
variables
Specifies the Scientific Names
Generally less than 15 words
Availability of Data
Funds
Capability of the Writer
Attitude and Interest of the Researcher
Importance of the Issues involved
Availability of Facilities and Instruments
Ethylene Glycol as an Alternative Ripener
to Musa acuminata (AAB) cv. Lantundan
Emphasizing on Physico-chemical
Parameters
Determination of the Relationship Between
the Mass of Iron and the Induced Magnetic
Field
Lead (II)-Binding Capacity of Spiny Lobster
(Panulirus versicolor) Shells
Specifics
One variable at a time
Include preliminary essential
data
REMEMBER: Sub-problems
should be formulated in such
a way that when taken
together WILL ANSWER the
Ethylene Glycol as an Alternative Ripener to Musa
acuminata (AAB) cv. Lantundan Emphasizing on
Physico-chemical Parameters
What is the number of days Musa acuminata cv.
lantundan that are not treated with ethylene glycol to
ripen naturally?
What is the number of days Musa acuminata cv.
lantundan that are treated with ethylene glycol at20%
v/v concentration to ripen artificially?
What are the ripening characteristics Musa acuminata cv.
lantundan that are not treated with ethylene glycol in
terms of weight loss, firmness, color, total soluble solids
(TSS) and pH?
What are the ripening characteristics of Musa acuminata
cv. lantundan that are treated with ethylene glycol at
20% v/v concentration in terms of weight loss, firmness,
color, total soluble solids (TSS) and pH?
Lead(II)-Binding Capacity of Spiny Lobster
(Panulirus versicolor) Shells
the effect of initial Pb2+ concentration on lead
uptake at constant pH temperature, agitation
time, and mass of bioadsorbent.
the effect of the mass of bioadsorbent on lead
uptake at constant pH, temperature, initial Pb2+
concentration, and agitation time.
Inclusion of Methodology as
Sub-problem
Inclusion of researchable
facts
Simplistic restatement of the
main problem
Introduction of another
variable
TIME DAY 1

Input Output
The nature of SIPs
9:00 10:00
Experimental Research Design
10:00 11:00 Activity on Variables/Groups
Problem Conceptualization Group Activity on Problem
11:00 12:00
Conceptualization
Dissecting the Main Problem Group Activity on Sub-problem
1:30 2:00
Formulation
Rationale Vs. Significance of
Activity: Outline of Rationale
2:00 3:00 the Study
and Significance of the Study
Activity on Bibliographic
RRL: Theoretical Background Sources
3:00 5:00 Vs. Related Studies
Activity on Concept Diagrams
of Theoretical Background
DAY 2
TIME
Input Output
Research Methodology: Activity on Sampling Methods
Sample, Materials, Standardizations
Instruments, Procedures, Instrumentations
8:30 10:00
Treatments, Set-up Standard Tests
Significant Figures
Results and Discussion:
10:00 10:30 Procedure + Data + Analysis
Common Qualitative Tools in
10:30-11:00
Data Analysis
11:00 12:00 Hypothesis Testing
Common Statistical Activity on Basic Statistical
1:30 3:00
Treatments in Data Analysis Tools
Consideration and Treatment Activity on the Common
3:00 - 4:00
of Errors Sources of Errors
Formulating Conclusions and
4:00 5:00
Recommendations
Technical Aspects of Writing
Research Reports
Rationale Benefits
Why Process
Essence Nature
Importance Beneficiary
Convincing NO Hyper-
Power extension
EthyleneGlycol as an Alternative Ripener
to Musa acuminata (AAB) cv. Lantundan
Emphasizing on Physico-chemical
Parameters

Lead(II)-Binding Capacity of Spiny Lobster


(Panulirus versicolor) Shells
RRL
The Metaphor of Research as a
Conversation
Theoretical Related
Background Studies
Theoretical Background
Laws, theories, concepts,
processes, practices, methods,
phenomena, constructs
Foundational
Relevance + Importance +
Contribution
NOT a parade of concepts but a
forum of directed arguments
Related Studies
Empirical
Choice of Method
Justifications of Processes
Alteration of Factors or Variable
Major Findings
Recommendations
Confirmatory / Crosschecking
Ethylene and acetylene by the use of calcium
carbide (CaC2) are some of the most
commonly utilized chemicals for inducing
ripening in fruits.2,3
1. FarzanaPanhwar,Post-harvest technology of mango fruits,
its development, physiology, pathology and marketing in
Pakistan, (2009): 1-35.
2. William B. McGlasson, Herbert C. Dostal, Edward C.
Tigchelaar,Comparison of Propylene-induced Responses of
Immature Fruit of Normal and rin Mutant Tomatoes
Department of Horticulture, Purdue University,West
Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (1974):218-222
3. Suman, Singal, Madan, Kumud,
Seema,Thakral,Application of apple as ripening agent for
bananaIndian Journal of Natural Products and Resources
Ethylene and acetylene by the use of
calcium carbide (CaC2) are some of the
most commonly utilized chemicals for
inducing ripening in fruits (McGlasson et
al. 1974 ; Suman et al., 2012).
1. FarzanaPanhwar,Post-harvest technology of mango fruits,
its development, physiology, pathology and marketing in
Pakistan, (2009): 1-35.
2. Suman, Singal, Madan, Kumud,
Seema,Thakral,Application of apple as ripening agent for
bananaIndian Journal of Natural Products and Resources
Vol.3(1)(2012):61-64
3. William B. McGlasson, Herbert C. Dostal, Edward C.
Tigchelaar,Comparison of Propylene-induced Responses of
Mistakes (also known as dh, bb.. Etc.)
Human Errors
Instrumental Limitations
Errors Caused by the Act of Observation
Errors Caused by Extraneous Influences
Errors Caused by Statistical Fluctuations
Errors Due to Use of Unrepresentative
Samples
THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Method refers to the
technique with which a data
is collected; it refers to a
series of steps taken to
complete a task or objective
Methodology is a set of
methods for data collection
and analysis
Defining the Problem
Formulation of Hypothesis
Identification of Resources
Instrumentation/Planning of Data
Acquisition
Data Gathering
Organization and Data Anaysis
Interpretation of Data
Formulating Conclusion
Dissemination of Results
Is NOT equivalent to Method
A logical structure of inquiry
Method is not inherent to the design
May be THEORY TESTING (deductive);
abstract towards empirical
Or THEORY BUILDING (inductive);
empirical towards abstract
Problem Data

Conclusio
Method
n

Treatmen
Evidence
t
Insufficient/Incomplete Description of Sample
Incorrect sampling
Inappropriate instrumentations
Simplistic set-up*
Unidentified variables
Unclear/unspecified controls
Recipe-type procedure
Unspecified materials and apparatus
Inability to account/control extraneous
variables*
1,000,000 ASSUMPTIONS
DAY 2
TIME
Input Output
Research Methodology: Activity on Sampling Methods
Sample, Materials, Standardizations
Instruments, Procedures, Instrumentations
8:30 10:00
Treatments, Set-up Standard Tests
Significant Figures
Results and Discussion:
10:00 10:30 Procedure + Data + Analysis
Common Qualitative Tools in
10:30-11:00
Data Analysis
11:00 12:00 Hypothesis Testing
Common Statistical Activity on Basic Statistical
1:30 3:00
Treatments in Data Analysis Tools
Consideration and Treatment Activity on the Common
3:00 - 4:00
of Errors Sources of Errors
Formulating Conclusions and
4:00 5:00
Recommendations
Technical Aspects of Writing
Research Reports
Quantitative Data Analysis and
Results
1. Scoring the data
2. Preparing the data for analysis
3. Analyzing the data to answer
descriptive research questions
4. Analyzing the data to test
comparison and relationship
hypotheses
5. Reporting the results of the
data analysis
Statistical tools that help researchers
summarize the overall tendencies in
the data, provide an assessment of
how varied the values are, and
provide insight into where one value
stands compared with others
They are useful for describing three
main ideas:
Central tendency

Variability

Relative standing
Central
tendency: single numbers that
summarize a collection of scores
Mean (M): the average value; that
is, the total of n set divided by the
number of n.
Mode: the value that occurs most
frequently in a list of scores.
Median: The middle value in a
given data set
Variability: numbers that indicate
the spread of data collected for a
variable
Range: the difference between
the highest and lowest values for
a variable
Standard deviation (SD): a
measure of how dispersed the
data are about the mean value for
a variable
-4 -3 -2 -1 +0 +1 +2 +3 +4

Standard Deviations
Relative standing: are numbers that describe
one score relative to a group of scores
Percentile rank (%): the percentage of
participants in the distribution with scores at
or below a particular score
Example: The mean height of plants in set-up X is 60th
percentile of the plants at that given maturity level
Z score: an original score converted into a
relative score measured in units of standard
deviations
Example: Plant is A is tall; z score of 2.8.
Plant B is average; z score of 0.1.
Plant C is very short; z score of -3.3.
Inferential statistics:
Statistical tools that help researchers compare
groups or relate variables and infer results
from a sample to a population.
Used with the process of hypothesis testing
Hypothesis testing:
a procedure that researchers use to make
decisions about quantitative results by
comparing an observed value of a sample with
a population value to determine whether a
difference or relationship exists in the
population.
Theconcept of sameness or equality
in mathematics and statistics are quite
COMMON QUESTIONS
Is there a difference?
Is there a relationship?
Is there an effect?
The researcher states the purpose, research questions, and/or
hypotheses

The researcher collects data for each variable

The researcher scores the data

The researcher prepares the data for analysis

The researcher analyzes the data to answer descriptive research


questions

The researcher analyzes the data to answer


comparison and relationship research questions

The researcher reports the results


The Analogy of Criminal Prosecution
Guilty Vs. Not Guilty as to Null Vs. Alternative
The Analogy of Criminal Prosecution
Guilty Vs. Not Guilty as to Null Vs. Alternative
Introducing ALPHA () :D

What does the value of alpha indicate then???


The p-value
Alpha level ():
the maximum risk that researchers are willing
to take during hypothesis testing that they
make a mistake when they conclude that they
have sufficient evidence that there is a
difference between groups or a relationship
between variables in the population.
In most research, =.05 (5% chance of wrongly
finding a significant result)
p value (p):
the probability that an inferential statistical
result could have been produced by chance if
the null hypothesis were true for the
population.
Statistically significant result
p : "Reject" the null hypothesis
Conclude there is a difference among groups or
there is a relationship among the variables
Non-significant result
P > : "Fail to reject" the null hypothesis
Conclude there is no difference among the
groups or there is no relationship among the
variables
Effect size
A measure of the practical strength of a
statistically significant result
Effects are small, moderate, or large
t test (t): Used to test for a difference
between two groups on one dependent
variable
ANOVA (F): Used to test for a difference
among more than two groups on one
dependent variable
Pearson correlation coefficient (r): Used to
test for a relationship between two variables
BEFORE AFTER

75 72

60 61

70 73

68 69

65 64

70 71

65 60
O Not relevant and doesnt make sense
O Too easy or too difficult to delve on
O Lack of significant contribution to society
O The dependent and independent variable is
unclear
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
Must be relevant and must make sense
Must not be too easy or too difficult
Must have significant contribution to society
Variables must be clearly identified
Sub-problems must answer the major
problem
Statement of the Problem
This investigation aims to determine the
effectiveness of banana sap as raw material for
quality injectable ink of computer printers.
Specifically, the study aims to answer the
following questions:
1. Does banana sap contains property needed for the
preparation of quality injectable ink for computer
printers?
2. How much time is needed in the preparation of quality
injectable ink for computers printer?
3. To what particular type of printer can the ink be used?
4. Could it be a good source of inexpensive quality
injectible ink?
This study was conducted to perform histochemical
tests in Drynaria quercifolia and to determine its
efficacy as an antibacterial plant. Specifically, it
aimed to
a. determine the active component and its distribution in
the tissues of the rhizome and pinna using histochemical
test

b. determine the efficacy of fresh extracts from the


rhizomes and pinna as an antibacterial; and

c. identify and recommend the appropriate dosage and


which plant parts of fresh D. quercifolia have medicinal
use.
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
The students must be able to identify the
dependent variable and the independent
variable in their Investigatory Projects

Thestudents must know how the variables


are operated.
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
Rationale
- Must justify the existence of the study

Significance
Must present the beneficiaries and the
benefits they will get from the study
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
Theoretical Background
- must contain ideas and concepts that must
be understood first before the whole
study can be fully appreciated.
-Not a parade of concepts but a forum of
directed argument

Related Studies
must contain major findings extracted
from recent studies related to the SIP
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
The methods employed must be valid and
reliable so that a competent individual can
repeat the experiment and get the same
result
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
Patterns,
relationships, implications and
generalizations that can be derived from the
obtained data must be clearly pointed out
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
The Research paper must stand the scrutiny
of the academic community.

Itmust follow certain policies on format,


structure, content and style of writing.
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
Identification of the Research Problem

Data Collection through Experimentation

Summarizing of Results

Data Analysis

Drawing Conclusions
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
The conduct of SIP must be at least 6 months
The students must have a Project Data Book
Formulation of Problems and Sub-problems
Variables and Groups
Strength of Rationale and Significance
Depth of Related Literature
Choice of Method
Extent of Analysis
Technical Aspects of Formal Research Report
General Understanding of the Process
Time Element
Congruence of Conclusion and Problems
Theconclusion must answer the questions or
the problems posed in the Statement of the
Problem