This picture shows what were known as "counting tables" [photo courtesy IBM]

The first computers were people! That is, electronic computers (and the earlier mechanical computers) were given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people. "Computer" was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. Imagine you had a job where hour after hour, day after day, you were to do nothing but compute multiplications. Boredom would quickly set in, leading to carelessness, leading to mistakes. And even on your best days you wouldn't be producing answers very fast. Therefore, inventors have been searching for hundreds of years for a way to mechanize (that is, find a mechanism that can perform) this task.

A typical computer operation back when computers were people.

the oldest surviving abacus was used in 300 B. In fact.C. A skilled abacus operator can work on addition and subtraction problems at the speed of a person equipped with a hand calculator (multiplication and division are slower). but the older one pictured below dates from the time when pebbles were used for counting (the word "calculus" comes from the Latin word for pebble). A modern abacus consists of rings that slide over rods. A very old abacus . principally in the far east. The abacus is still in use today.The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations. Its only value is that it aids the memory of the human performing the calculation. by the Babylonians. The abacus is often wrongly attributed to China.

A more modern abacus. Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands. .

where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier's Bones. An original set of Napier's Bones [photo courtesy IBM] . The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand.In 1617 an eccentric (some say mad) Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms. But Napier also invented an alternative to tables. which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. which was originally obtained from a printed table.

A more modern set of Napier's Bones .

Napier's invention led directly to the slide rule, first built in England in 1632 and still in use in the 1960's by the NASA engineers of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs which landed men on the moon.

A slide rule

A Leonardo da Vinci drawing showing gears arranged for computing

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made drawings of gear-driven calculating machines but apparently never built any.

The first gear-driven calculating machine to actually be built was probably the calculating clock, so named by its inventor, the German professor Wilhelm Schickard in 1623. This device got little publicity because Schickard died soon afterward in the bubonic plague.

Schickard's Calculating Clock

the hydraulic press. the odometer portion of a car's speedometer used the very same mechanism as the Pascaline to increment the next wheel after each full revolution of the prior wheel. Pascal built 50 of this gear-driven one-function calculator (it could only add) but couldn't sell many because of their exorbitant cost and because they really weren't that accurate (at that time it was not possible to fabricate gears with the required precision). he was discovered doing his version of Euclid's thirty-second proposition on the kitchen floor. Pascal was a child prodigy. At the age of 12. at age 19. invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. Shown below is an 8 digit version of the Pascaline.In 1642 Blaise Pascal. Pascal went on to invent probability theory. and the syringe. and two views of a 6 digit version: . Up until the present age when car dashboards went digital.

Pascal's Pascaline [photo © 2002 IEEE] A 6 digit model for those who couldn't afford the 8 digit model .

A Pascaline opened up so you can observe the gears and cylinders which rotated to display the numerical result .

multiplication. . instead of gears. Although the stepped reckoner employed the decimal number system (each drum had 10 flutes). subtraction. Leibniz was the first to advocate use of the binary number system which is fundamental to the operation of modern computers.Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner (have you ever heard "calculating" referred to as "reckoning"?) Just a few years after Pascal. it employed fluted drums having ten flutes arranged around their circumference in a stairstep fashion. and division) calculator that he called the stepped reckoner because. Leibniz is considered one of the greatest of the philosophers but he died poor and alone. the German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (co-inventor with Newton of calculus) managed to build a fourfunction (addition.

In 1801 the Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom that could base its weave (and hence the design on the fabric) upon a pattern automatically read from punched wooden cards. held together in a long row by rope. Descendents of these punched cards have been in use ever since (remember the "hanging chad" from the Florida presidential ballots of the year 2000?). Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards .

By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern [photo © 2002 IEEE] .

A close-up of a Jacquard card .

Jacquard's technology was a real boon to mill owners. This tapestry was woven by a Jacquard loom . overall. Angry mobs smashed Jacquard looms and once attacked Jacquard himself. but put many loom operators out of work. technology has actually increased the number of jobs. History is full of examples of labor unrest following technological innovation yet most studies show that.

By promoting their commercial and military navies. Ten years later the device was still nowhere near complete. But in that time frame the British government was publishing a seven volume set of navigation tables which came with a companion volume of corrections which showed that the set had over 1000 numerical errors. He obtained government funding for this project due to the importance of numeric tables in ocean navigation. This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers. and funding dried up. acrimony abounded between all involved. which he called the Difference Engine. But construction of Babbage's Difference Engine proved exceedingly difficult and the project soon became the most expensive government funded project up to that point in English history. The device was never finished. . It was hoped that Babbage's machine could eliminate errors in these types of tables. the British government had managed to become the earth's greatest empire.By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage was proposing a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room. such as logarithm tables.

A small section of the type of mechanism employed in Babbage's Difference Engine [photo © 2002 IEEE] .

thanks to the punched card technology of Jacquard. the presence or absence of each hole in the card physically allows a colored thread to pass or stops that thread (you can see this clearly in the earlier photo). . In the Jacquard loom. But it was Babbage who made an important intellectual leap regarding the punched cards. Babbage saw that the pattern of holes could be used to represent an abstract idea such as a problem statement or the raw data required for that problem's solution. which he called the Analytic Engine. large as a house and powered by 6 steam engines. and by then was on to his next brainstorm. would be more general purpose in nature because it would be programmable.Babbage was not deterred. This device. Babbage saw that there was no requirement that the problem matter itself physically pass thru the holes.

Babbage realized that punched paper could be employed as a storage mechanism. Babbage called the two main parts of his Analytic Engine the "Store" and the "Mill". Because of the connection to the Jacquard loom. In a modern computer these same parts are called the memory unit and the central processing unit (CPU). holding computed numbers for future reference. The Store was where numbers were held and the Mill was where they were "woven" into new results. as both terms are used in the weaving industry. .Furthermore.

.The Analytic Engine also had a key function that distinguishes computers from calculators: the conditional statement. what statements are executed next) can be determined based upon a condition or situation that is detected at the very moment the program is running. A conditional statement allows a program to achieve different results each time it is run. Based on the conditional statement. the path of the program (that is.

The conditional statement also allows a program to react to the results of its own calculations.You have probably observed that a modern stoplight at an intersection between a busy street and a less busy street will leave the green light on the busy street until a car approaches on the less busy street.R. The conditional statement in the stoplight program would be something like. An example would be the program that the I. "if a car approaches on the less busy street and the more busy street has already enjoyed the green light for at least a minute then move the green light to the less busy street". This type of street light is controlled by a computer program that can sense the approach of cars on the less busy street. This program first computes a person's tax liability and then decides whether to alert the police based upon how that person's tax payments compare to his obligations. That moment when the light changes from green to red is not fixed in the program but rather varies with each traffic situation. .S uses to detect tax fraud.

which is still used today to treat the eye. While Babbage refused to publish his knowledge for another 30 years. she was fascinated by Babbage's ideas and thru letters and meetings with Babbage she learned enough about the design of the Analytic Engine to begin fashioning programs for the still unbuilt machine. Ada wrote a series of "Notes" wherein she detailed sequences of instructions she had prepared for the Analytic Engine. and the ophthalmoscope. cowcatchers on trains.Babbage befriended Ada Byron. Babbage himself went on to invent the modern postal system. . Though she was only 19. The Analytic Engine remained unbuilt (the British government refused to get involved with this one) but Ada earned her spot in history as the first computer programmer. Ada invented the subroutine and was the first to recognize the importance of looping. the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron (Ada would later become the Countess Lady Lovelace by marriage).

S. population had grown so much that the count for the 1880 census took 7.The next breakthrough occurred in America. . citizens every 10 years in order to determine the representation of the states in Congress.S. known as the Hollerith desk. a gear driven mechanism which could count (using Pascal's mechanism which we still see in car odometers). Constitution states that a census should be taken of all U. consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards. and a large wall of dial indicators (a car speedometer is a dial indicator) to display the results of the count.S. by 1880 the U. The census bureau offered a prize for an inventor to help with the 1890 census and this prize was won by Herman Hollerith. Hollerith's invention. The U. Automation was clearly needed for the next census.5 years. While the very first census of 1790 had only required 9 months. who proposed and then successfully adopted Jacquard's punched cards for the purpose of computation.

An operator working at a Hollerith Desk like the one below .

census .Preparation of punched cards for the U.S.

A few Hollerith desks still exist today [photo courtesy The Computer Museum] .

he observed that the conductor didn't merely punch each ticket. eye color. . could be accomplished via multiple passes thru the cards using newly printed cards to remember the intermediate results. Complicated analyses. Today. but rather punched a particular pattern of holes whose positions indicated the approximate height. Hollerith realized how useful it would be to punch (write) new cards based upon an analysis (reading) of some other set of cards. we would call this a read-only form of information storage. etc. weight. of the ticket owner. Babbage had proposed this long before. While riding a train. Unknown to Hollerith. This was done to keep anyone else from picking up a discarded ticket and claiming it was his own (a train ticket did not lose all value when it was punched because the same ticket was used for each leg of a trip). too involved to be accomplished during a single pass thru the cards. Hollerith had the insight to convert punched cards to what is today called a read/write technology.The patterns on Jacquard's cards were determined when a tapestry was designed and then were not changed.

Interesting aside: the reason that a person who removes inappropriate content from a book or movie is called a censor.Hollerith's technique was successful and the 1890 census was completed in only 3 years at a savings of 5 million dollars. is that in Roman society the public official called the "censor" had both of these jobs. as is a person who conducts a census. .

known today as IBM. The little pieces of paper that are punched out of the card are called "chad" and were thrown as confetti at weddings. gas usage. This punch card recorded the particulars of your account: your name. address. Your gas bill would arrive each month with a punch card you had to return with your payment. when you entered a toll way (a highway that collects a fee from each driver) you were given a punch card that recorded where you started and then when you exited from the toll way your fee was computed based upon the miles you drove. the Tabulating Machine Company which. (I imagine there were some "hackers" in these days who would alter the punch cards to change their bill).Hollerith built a company. IBM grew rapidly and punched cards became ubiquitous. after a few buyouts. etc. As another example. Until recently all Social Security and other checks issued by the . eventually became International Business Machines. When you voted in an election the ballot you were handed was a punch card.

spindle. Written on all these cards was a phrase as common as "close cover before striking": "do not fold.Federal government were actually punch cards. A spindle was an upright spike on the desk of an accounting clerk. The check-out slip inside a library book was a punch card. tie up the bundle. You occasionally still see spindles at restaurant cash registers. As he completed processing each receipt he would impale it on this spike. he'd run a piece of string through the holes. . or mutilate". When the spindle was full. and ship it off to the archives.

Two types of computer punch cards .Incidentally. the Hollerith census machine was the first machine to ever be featured on a magazine cover.

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. One characteristic of both financial accounting and inventory accounting is that although you need to subtract. you don't need negative numbers and you really don't have to multiply since multiplication can be accomplished via repeated addition.IBM continued to develop mechanical calculators for sale to businesses to help with financial accounting and inventory accounting.

would determine the trajectory of the shell. . gravity. By World War II the U. But solving such equations was extremely laborious. wind. muzzle velocity.S. had battleships that could lob shells weighing as much as a small car over distances up to 25 miles. etc. military desired a mechanical calculator more optimized for scientific computation. Their results would be published in ballistic "firing tables" published in gunnery manuals. Physicists could write the equations that described how atmospheric drag. This was the work performed by the human computers.But the U.S.

S. But not enough humans could be found to keep up with the need for new tables. Sometimes artillery pieces had to be delivered to the battlefield without the necessary firing tables and this meant they were close to useless because they couldn't be aimed properly.S.During World War II the U. military was willing to invest in even hairbrained schemes to automate this type of computation. . the U. Faced with this situation. military scoured the country looking for (generally female) math majors to hire for the job of computing these tables.

The machine weighed 5 tons. and clutches. incorporated 500 miles of wire. But it was not a purely electronic computer. relays. To appreciate the scale of this machine note the four typewriters in the foreground of the following photo. and had a 50 ft rotating shaft running its length. rotating shafts. was 8 feet tall and 51 feet long. sounding like a roomful of ladies knitting. turned by a 5 horsepower electric motor.One early success was the Harvard Mark I computer which was built as a partnership between Harvard and IBM in 1944. . This was the first programmable digital computer made in the U. Instead the Mark I was constructed out of switches.S. The Mark I ran non-stop for 15 years.

The Harvard Mark I: an electro-mechanical computer .

You can see the 50 ft rotating shaft in the bottom of the prior photo. This shaft was a central power source for the entire machine. This design feature was reminiscent of the days when waterpower was used to run a machine shop and each lathe or other tool was driven by a belt connected to a single overhead shaft which was turned by an outside waterwheel.
A central shaft driven by an outside waterwheel and connected to each machine by overhead belts was the customary power source for all the machines in a factory

Here's a close-up of one of the Mark I's four paper tape readers. A paper tape was an improvement over a box of punched cards as anyone who has ever dropped -- and thus shuffled -- his "stack" knows.

One of the four paper tape readers on the Harvard Mark I (you can observe the punched paper roll emerging from the bottom)

One of the primary programmers for the Mark I was a woman, race Hopper. Hopper found the first computer "bug": a dead moth that had gotten into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking the reading of the holes in the paper tape. The word "bug" had been used to describe a defect since at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word "debugging" to describe the work to eliminate program faults.

The first computer bug [photo © 2002 IEEE]

to translate it into the binary language of the computer and hence Grace Hopper also constructed the world's first compiler. This language eventually became COBOL which was the language most affected by the infamous Y2K problem. A high-level language is designed to be more understandable by humans than is the binary language understood by the computing machinery. "Flow-matic". . Grace remained active as a Rear Admiral in the Navy Reserves until she was 79 (another record).known as a compiler -.In 1953 Grace Hopper invented the first high-level language. A high-level language is worthless without a program -.

and divide them in ten seconds. . This kind of speed is obviously impossible for a machine which must move a rotating shaft and that is why electronic computers killed off their mechanical predecessors. Today.The Mark I operated on numbers that were 23 digits wide. a number can be pulled from RAM after a delay of only a few billionths of a second. and from a hard disk after a delay of only a few thousandths of a second. home computers can store 30 million numbers in RAM and another 10 billion numbers on their hard disk. it could only store 72 numbers! Today. It could add or subtract two of these numbers in three-tenths of a second. multiply them in four seconds. Forty-five years later computers could perform an addition in a billionth of a second! Even though the Mark I had three quarters of a million components.

Howard Aiken of Harvard. IBM had commissioned this study to determine whether it should bother developing this new invention into one of its standard products (up until then computers were oneof-a-kind items built by special arrangement). He just didn't foresee the micro-electronics revolution which would allow something like an IBM Stretch computer of 1959: . Aiken's prediction wasn't actually so bad as there were very few institutions (principally. the government and military) that could afford the cost of what was called a computer in 1947.On a humorous note. estimated in 1947 that six electronic digital computers would be sufficient to satisfy the computing needs of the entire United States. the principal designer of the Mark I.

(that's just the operator's console. here's the rest of its 33 foot length:) .

to be bested by a home computer of 1976 such as this Apple I which sold for only $600: .

The Apple 1 which was sold as a do-it-yourself kit (without the lovely case seen here) .

Computers had been incredibly expensive because they required so much hand assembly. such as the wiring seen in this CDC 7600: Typical wiring in an early mainframe computer [photo courtesy The Computer Museum] .

An integrated circuit ("silicon chip") [photo courtesy of IBM] .The microelectronics revolution is what allowed the amount of hand-crafted wiring seen in the prior photo to be mass-produced as an integrated circuit which is a small sliver of silicon the size of your thumbnail .

. All the elements on the integrated circuit are fabricated simultaneously via a small number (maybe 12) of optical masks that define the geometry of each layer.The primary advantage of an integrated circuit is not that the transistors (switches) are miniscule (that's the secondary advantage).just as Gutenberg's printing press sped up the fabrication of books and thereby made them affordable to all.and hence reduces its cost -. This speeds up the process of fabricating the computer -. but rather that millions of transistors can be created and interconnected in a massproduction process.

The IBM Stretch computer of 1959 needed its 33 foot length to hold the 150. By the early 1980s this many transistors could be simultaneously fabricated on an integrated circuit.000 transistors in this same thumbnail sized piece of silicon. but they were still individual elements requiring individual assembly. Today's Pentium 4 microprocessor contains 42.000 transistors it contained. It's humorous to remember that in between the Stretch machine (which would be called a mainframe today) and the Apple I (a desktop computer) there was an entire industry segment referred to as minicomputers such as the following PDP-12 computer of 1969: . These transistors were tremendously smaller than the vacuum tubes they replaced.000.

The DEC PDP-12 .

This machine was the first to store data as a charge on a capacitor. which is how today's computers store information in their main memory (DRAM or dynamic RAM). a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State University. no gears. Atanasoff. it was also the first to employ binary arithmetic. One of the earliest attempts to build an all-electronic (that is. etc. belts. its design was appropriate for only one type of mathematical problem.) digital computer occurred in 1937 by J. By 1941 he and his graduate student. . huh? But we're getting ahead of our story. It's inventors didn't even bother to preserve the machine and it was dismantled by those who moved into the room where it lay abandoned. shafts. cams. it lacked a conditional branch. However. Clifford Berry. and it was not further pursued after World War II. the machine was not programmable.Sure looks "mini". V. had succeeded in building a machine that could solve 29 simultaneous equations with 29 unknowns. As far as its inventors were aware.

The Atanasoff-Berry Computer [photo © 2002 IEEE] .

Note the presence of pulleys in the two photos of Colossus below: Two views of the code-breaking Colossus of Great Britain . reprogrammable machine. But Colossus was definitely not a general purpose.Another candidate for granddaddy of the modern computer was Colossus. built during World War II by Britain for the purpose of breaking the cryptographic codes used by Germany. Britain led the world in designing and building electronic machines dedicated to code breaking. and was routinely able to read coded Germany radio transmissions.

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the Z1. Scooped! Zuse had built a sequence of general purpose computers in Nazi Germany. American and British computer pioneers were still arguing over who was first to do what. The Zuse Z1 in its residential setting . The first. when in 1965 the work of the German Konrad Zuse was published for the first time in English. the Atanasoff-Berry computer. and the British Colossus all made important contributions.The Harvard Mark I. was built between 1936 and 1938 in the parlor of his parent's home.

. was probably the first operational. and input and output devices to connect to the external world. Because these machines were unknown outside Germany. built in 1941. software controlled) digital computer. though it too was unknown outside Germany. Without knowledge of any calculating machine inventors since Leibniz (who lived in the 1600's). a control system to supervise operations. programmable (that is. a memory for storing numbers. The Z3 was destroyed by an Allied bombing raid. "Plankalkul". But their architecture is identical to that still in use today: an arithmetic unit to do the calculations. Zuse's accomplishments are all the more incredible given the context of the material and manpower shortages in Germany during World War II. Zuse reinvented Babbage's concept of programming and decided on his own to employ binary representation for numbers (Babbage had advocated decimal). Zuse also invented what might be the first high-level computer language.Zuse's third machine. they did not influence the path of computing in America. the Z3. general-purpose. The Z1 and Z2 met the same fate and the Z4 survived only because Zuse hauled it in a wagon up into the mountains. Zuse couldn't even obtain paper tape so he had to make his own by punching holes in discarded movie film.

Presper Eckert. . ENIAC was built at the University of Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1945 by two professors. John Mauchly and the 24 year old J. who got funding from the war department after promising they could build a machine that would replace all the "computers". the persons they ran to bring to their lab to show off their progress were some of these female computers (one of whom remarked. meaning the women who were employed calculating the firing tables for the army's artillery guns. The day that Mauchly and Eckert saw the first small piece of ENIAC work. which stood for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator.The title of forefather of today's all-electronic digital computers is usually awarded to ENIAC. "I was astounded that it took all this equipment to multiply 5 by 1000").

Only the left half of ENIAC is visible in the first picture. weighed 30 tons. . and used more than 18.ENIAC filled a 20 by 40 foot room. the right half was basically a mirror image of what's visible.000 watts of heat) meant that the computer could only be operated in a specially designed room with its own heavy duty air conditioning system. When operating. the ENIAC was silent but you knew it was on as the 18. Like the Mark I. as they were a long established part of business accounting machines.000 vacuum tubes each generated waste heat like a light bulb and all this heat (174. ENIAC employed paper card readers obtained from IBM (these were a regular product for IBM.000 vacuum tubes. IBM's forte).

Two views of ENIAC: the "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator" (note that it wasn't even given the name of computer since "computers" were people) [U. Army photo] .S.

. 1. and the settings of 3000 switches that you can observe on the right. you type out a program with statements like: Circumference = 3.To reprogram the ENIAC you had to rearrange the patch cords that you can observe on the left in the prior photo. and 4.14 * diameter To perform this computation on ENIAC you had to rearrange a large number of patch cords and then locate three particular knobs on that vast wall of knobs and set them to 3. To program a modern computer.

S.Reprogramming ENIAC involved a hike [U. Army photo] .

Mauchly and Eckert worked around the clock.Once the army agreed to fund ENIAC. hoping to complete the machine in time to contribute to the war. . seven days a week. They were allowed a small staff but soon observed that they could hire only the most junior members of the University of Pennsylvania staff because the more experienced faculty members knew that their proposed machine would never work. Their war-time effort was so intense that most days they ate all 3 meals in the company of the army Captain who was their liaison with their military sponsors.

The device that used the largest number of vacuum tubes was an electronic organ: it incorporated 160 tubes. Vacuum tubes were so notoriously unreliable that even twenty years later many neighborhood drug stores provided a "tube tester" that allowed homeowners to bring in the vacuum tubes from their television sets and determine which one of the tubes was causing their TV to fail. RCA.000 vacuum tubes to all work simultaneously. The idea that 18. refused to join the project (but did supply tubes in the interest of "wartime cooperation").One of the most obvious problems was that the design would require 18. And television sets only incorporated about 30 vacuum tubes. He was so thorough that before he chose the type of wire cabling he would employ in ENIAC he first ran an experiment where he starved lab rats for a few days and then gave them samples of all the available types of cable to determine which they least liked to eat. Eckert solved the tube reliability problem through extremely careful circuit design.000 tubes could function together was considered so unlikely that the dominant vacuum tube supplier of the day. Here's a look at a small number of the vacuum tubes in ENIAC: .

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However. thanks to the elimination of moving parts it ran much faster than the Mark I: a multiplication that required 6 seconds on the Mark I could be performed on ENIAC in 2.000.000.000 cycles per second. This first ENIAC program remains classified even today. ENIAC's first task was to compute whether or not it was possible to build a hydrogen bomb (the atomic bomb was completed during the war and hence is older than ENIAC). ENIAC could only hold 20 numbers at a time. ENIAC's basic clock speed was 100. Built with $500. Today's home computers employ clock speeds of 1.S. ENIAC did humanity no favor when it declared the hydrogen bomb feasible. . The very first problem run on ENIAC required only 20 seconds and was checked against an answer obtained after forty hours of work with a mechanical calculator.000 cycles per second.000 vacuum tubes.8 thousandths of a second.000 from the U. After chewing on half a million punch cards for six weeks.Even with 18. Army.

Once ENIAC was finished and proved worthy of the cost of its development. But this major breakthrough can be found in Eckert's notes long before he ever started working with von Neumann. Eckert and Mauchly's next teamed up with the mathematician John von Neumann to design EDVAC. the sequence of computation steps) could be represented electronically just as the data was. Because he was the first to publish a description of this new computer. . von Neumann is often wrongly credited with the realization that the program (that is. which pioneered the stored program. its designers set about to eliminate the obnoxious fact that reprogramming the computer required a physical modification of all the patch cords and switches. It took days to change ENIAC's program. Eckert was no slouch: while in high school Eckert had scored the second highest math SAT score in the entire country.

ILLIAC was built at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. can you imagine being asked to duplicate this?) . Clarke chose to have the HAL computer of his famous book "2001: A Space Odyssey" born at Champaign-Urbana. of course. JOHNNIAC. which is probably why the science fiction author Arthur C.After ENIAC and EDVAC came other computers with humorous names such as ILLIAC. and. MANIAC. Have you ever noticed that you can shift each of the letters of IBM backward by one alphabet position and get HAL? ILLIAC II built at the University of Illinois (it is a good thing computers were one-of-a-kind creations in these days.

. Look at the previous picture to understand why the movie makers in 1968 assumed computers of the future would be things you walk into.HAL from the movie "2001: A Space Odyssey".

Once the computer's program was represented electronically. Von Neumann is perhaps most famous (infamous?) as the man who worked out the complicated method needed to detonate an atomic bomb. modifications to that program could happen as fast as the computer could compute. By 8 he was doing calculus. On one occasion it took von Neumann only 6 minutes to solve a problem in his head that another professor had spent hours on using a mechanical calculator. . At age 6 he could tell jokes in classical Greek. who was unquestionably a genius. computer programs could now modify themselves while they ran (such programs are called selfmodifying programs). He could recite books he had read years earlier word for word. He could read a page of the phone directory and then recite it backwards. In fact. This is one source of the general protection fault famous in MS-DOS and the blue screen of death famous in Windows.JOHNNIAC was a reference to John von Neumann. This introduced a new way for a program to fail: faulty logic in the program could cause it to damage itself.

‡ the compression of music to allow more minutes of music to fit within the limited memory of an MP3 player.Today. one of the most notable characteristics of a computer is the fact that its ability to be reprogrammed allows it to contribute to a wide variety of endeavors. ‡ the observation of car tire rotation to detect and prevent skids in an anti-lock braking system (ABS). . ‡ the analysis of the writing style in Shakespeare's work with the goal of proving whether a single individual really was responsible for all these pieces. such as the following completely unrelated fields: ‡ the creation of special effects for movies.

UNIVAC (a contraction of "Universal Automatic Computer") was the household word for "computer" just as "Kleenex" is for "tissue". Eckert and Mauchly left the University of Pennsylvania over a dispute about who owned the patents for their invention. to the Census bureau. the first commercial (that is.By the end of the 1950's computers were no longer one-of-a-kind hand built devices owned only by universities and government research labs. Their first product was the famous UNIVAC computer. In the 50's. UNIVAC was also the first computer to employ magnetic tape. The first UNIVAC was sold. They decided to set up their own company. appropriately enough. mass produced) computer. Many people still confuse a picture of a reel-toreel tape recorder with a picture of a mainframe computer. .

A reel-to-reel tape drive [photo courtesy of The Computer Museum] .

ENIAC was unquestionably the origin of the U. but its inventors. You might wonder what type of event is required to dislodge an industry heavyweight. . IBM 360.S. By 1955 IBM was selling more computers than UNIVAC and by the 1960's the group of eight companies selling computers was known as "IBM and the seven dwarfs". or IBM 370. IBM grew so dominant that the federal government pursued anti-trust proceedings against them from 1969 to 1982 (notice the pace of our country's legal system). In IBM's case it was their own decision to hire an unknown but aggressive firm called Microsoft to provide the software for their personal computer (PC). such as the IBM 7090 (shown below). you dealt with what today are called mainframe computers. If you learned computer programming in the 1970's. Mauchly and Eckert. never achieved fortune from their work and their company fell into financial problems and was sold at a loss. commercial computer industry. This lucrative contract allowed Microsoft to grow so dominant that by the year 2000 their market capitalization (the total value of their stock) was twice that of IBM and they were convicted in Federal Court of running an illegal monopoly.

a typical mainframe computer [photo courtesy of IBM] .The IBM 7094.

The first was called time sharing because the computer gave each user a tiny sliver of time in a round-robin fashion. each typing on a teletype such as the following: The Teletype was the standard mechanism used to interact with a time-sharing computer . Perhaps 100 users would be simultaneously logged on.There were 2 ways to interact with a mainframe.

. Here's a close-up of paper tape: Three views of paper tape . and waited for the teletype to begin noisily printing the computer's response (at a whopping 10 characters per second).e. hit the carriage return button. puncher). You typed a single line of text.A teletype was a motorized typewriter that could transmit your keystrokes to the mainframe and then print the computer's response on its roll of paper. On the left-hand side of the teletype in the prior picture you can observe a paper tape reader and writer (i.

.

Something which can only take two states is very easy to manufacture.After observing the holes in paper tape it is perhaps obvious why all computers use binary numbers to represent data: a binary bit (that is. The earliest all-electronic computers used vacuum tubes as switches: they too were either open or closed. In the case of paper tape. . Electro-mechanical computers such as the Mark I used relays to represent data because a relay (which is just a motor driven switch) can only be open or closed. the hole has either been punched or it has not. cheaper. and consumed less power. one digit of a binary number) can only have the value of 0 or 1 (just as a decimal digit can only have the value of 0 thru 9). and sense. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes because they too could act as switches but were smaller. control.

. where the computer gives its full attention to your program.Paper tape has a long history as well. In exchange for getting the computer's full attention at run-time. Wheatstone was also the inventor of the accordion). The alternative to time sharing was batch mode processing. who used it to store Morse code that was arriving via the newly invented telegraph (incidentally. It was first used as an information storage medium by Sir Charles Wheatstone. you had to agree to prepare your program off-line on a key punch machine which generated punch cards.

An IBM Key Punch machine which operates like a typewriter except it produces punched cards rather than a printed sheet of paper .

Your program would be run whenever the computer made it that far. By the 1990's a university student would typically own his own computer and have exclusive use of it in his dorm room. . You often submitted your deck and then went to dinner or to bed and came back later hoping to see a successful printout showing your results. you placed your stack of cards in the hopper of a card reader. But things changed fast.University students in the 1970's bought blank cards a linear foot at a time from the university bookstore. To submit your program to the mainframe. Obviously. a program run in batch mode could not be interactive. Each card could hold only 1 program statement.

The original IBM Personal Computer (PC) .

etc. two memory technologies that are still going strong today). Intel was started in 1968 and initially produced only semiconductor memory (Intel invented both the DRAM and the EPROM. a Japanese manufacturer of high performance calculators (these were typewriter sized units. But integrated circuits were (and are) expensive to design and this approach would have required Busicom to bear the full expense of developing 12 new chips since these 12 chips would only be of use to them. A microprocessor (uP) is a computer that is fabricated on an integrated circuit (IC). Computers had been around for 20 years before the first microprocessor was developed at Intel in 1971.This transformation was a result of the invention of the microprocessor. . another for the printer. Busicom wanted Intel to produce 12 custom calculator chips: one chip dedicated to the keyboard. the first shirt-pocket sized scientific calculator was the Hewlett-Packard HP35 introduced in 1972). The micro in the name microprocessor refers to the physical size. But they were the first to succeed in cramming an entire computer on a single chip (IC). In 1969 they were approached by Busicom. Intel didn't invent the electronic computer. another chip dedicated to the display.

A typical Busicom desk calculator .

But development of the chip took longer than expected and Busicom pulled out of the project. a printer. Busicom agreed to pay Intel to design a general purpose chip and to get a price break since it would allow Intel to sell the resulting chip to others. The general purpose computer is adapted to each new purpose by writing a program which is a sequence of instructions stored in memory (which happened to be Intel's forte). like all computers. Intel argued that since the chip could be reprogrammed for alternative purposes. .). etc.But a new Intel employee (Ted Hoff) convinced Busicom to instead accept a general purpose computer chip which. the cost of developing it could be spread out over more users and hence would be less expensive to each user. Intel knew it had a winner by that point and gladly refunded all of Busicom's investment just to gain sole rights to the device which they finished on their own. could be reprogrammed for many different tasks (like controlling a keyboard. a display.

Curiously. . This kit didn't even include an enclosure and that is the reason the unit shown below doesn't match the picture on the magazine cover.. 2.000. Intel followed the 4004 with the 8008 and 8080.Thus became the Intel 4004. the first microprocessor (uP). 108..000. Busicom went bankrupt and never ended up using the ground-breaking microprocessor. One of Intel's 4004 chips still functions aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft. It was personal all right: you had to build it yourself from a kit of parts that arrived in the mail. The 8080 was employed in the MITS Altair computer. Intel priced the 8080 microprocessor at $360 dollars as an insult to IBM's famous 360 mainframe which cost millions of dollars. which was the world's first personal computer (PC). The 4004 consisted of 2300 transistors and was clocked at 108 kHz (i.000 times per second). Compare this to the 42 million transistors and the 2 GHz clock rate (i.e. which is now the man-made object farthest from the earth.e.000 times per second) used in a Pentium 4.

The Altair 8800. the first PC .

.A Harvard freshman by the name of Bill Gates decided to drop out of college so he could concentrate all his time writing programs for this computer. This early experienced put Bill Gates in the right place at the right time once IBM decided to standardize on the Intel microprocessors for their line of PCs in 1981. The Intel Pentium 4 used in today's PCs is still compatible with the Intel 8088 used in IBM's first PC.

com. etc. logic and syntax errors. subroutines. These Windows programs are accompanied by a book's worth of on-line documentation which serves as a self-study guide. That is the only way you will really come to understand the concepts of looping. statements.computersciencelab. program and data memory. Finally. assembly language. etc.If you've enjoyed this history of computers. I start my students on a programmable RPN calculator where we learn about programs. stacks. visually-engaging setting. addressing modes. Then we move on to an 8051 microprocessor (which happens to be the most widespread microprocessor on earth) where we learn about microprocessors. . bits and bytes. I encourage you to try your own hand at programming a computer. I have written a number of Windows programs which teach computer programming in a fun. subroutines. allowing you to teach yourself computer programming! The home page (URL) for this collection of software is www. bits and bytes. high and low-level languages. we graduate to the most powerful language in use today: C++ (pronounced "C plus plus"). etc.

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