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References

Electrical power

( Dr\ S.L. Uppa )

( William Stevenson )

( I.J.Nagrath , D.R. Kothari )

Elements of power system .

1. Power stations .

2. Substations .

3. Busbars .

4. Primary T.L and secondary T.L .

Step Up Transformer Step down Transformer

Power Station

Transmission Line 1 TL2

S

11/500 500/220 220/66

kV kV kV

Busbars

Loads

66/11 11kV/380V

kV

Standard voltages .

1. Generation voltages .

3.3 , 6.6 , 11 , 33 KV

2. Transmission line voltage .

11 , 33 , 66 , 110 , 132 KV

3. Distribution high voltages .

11 , 6.6 KV

4. Distribution low voltages .

380 , 220 KV

Standard voltages In Egypt .

T.L voltages 66 , 220 KV and

500 KV from High Dam to Cairo

Power stations

Types of power stations :

1. Thermal power stations .

2. Hydro power stations .

3. Nuclear power stations .

4. Gas power stations .

Thermal power stations

It dependents on coal and petrol

to heat the water in big boilers

under high pressure to transfer

the water to steam

Turbine Generator

BB

Condenser Cooler

Coal Burner

Boiler

Pump

Advantages of this stations .

2. It uses small area to construct .

3. No trembles ( vibrations ) .

4. It can be constructed in minimum time

compared to Hydro and Nuclear power

stations .

5. It can be constructed near to the load .

Disadvantages

1. Running costs are high because

it uses coal and solar .

2. The response is very low to

supply the increasing in load .

3. It is not clean and causes more

pollution .

4. It has low efficiency ( 25 : 40 %) .

Some of consideration must be

taken

1. It must near to source of water .

2. It must near to transmitted tools .

3. It needs to strong land which has

low price .

4. We can extend the station.

Hydro power stations

It depends on two deferent

levels in the river.

Advantages of this stations .

1. Running cost is very low because

it depends on water .

2. The response is very high to

supply the sudden increasing in

load.

3. It is clean .

4. Efficiency is equal ( 90 : 95 %) .

Disadvantages

1. It has high construction cost .

2. It has high T.L costs .

3. Constructed far from the loads .

4. Takes more time to construct .

Nuclear power stations

When Uranium 235 is crashed with

neutrons, releasing neutrons and

heat energy . These neutrons then

participate in the chain reaction of

fashioning more atoms.

Control rots

Heat exchanger

Steam

Turbine Generator

CO2

Reactor Water

Condenser

Fuel rots (Uranium 235)

Advantages and disadvantages

are similar to hydro power

station added to that it has

higher protection cost ands and

it is constructed in the desert.

Gas power stations

It depends on the outage of

gases from the refine petrol

factory which produces high

pressure gas, (in the Max and

Tebein in Egypt) .

Series impedance of T.L .

It has four parameters : resistance,

inductance, capacitance and conductance.

Conductance is between the conductors and

between conductors and the ground through

the insulators as a leakage current.

The resistance and inductance are uniformly

distributed along the line.

Types of conductors .

1.Copper conductor .

2.Aluminum conductor .

3.Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced

copper because of the much lower cost

and lighter weight.

Resistance

Resistance causes power loss in the T.L.

For uniform resistance ,

R L a

Relation between resistance

and temperature rise .

(R 2 R1 ) (T t 2 ) (T t 1 )

t

T R

The influence of skin effect

on resistance

Uniform distribution of current throughout

the cross-section of a conductor exists only

for D.C.

In A.C, as increased of frequency, the non-

uniformly of distribution of current becomes

more appearance . This case is called skin

effect.

The alternating flux induces higher

voltages acting on the interior

filaments than are induced on

filaments near the surface of the

conductor .

La Lb

Xa Xb

r

Za Zb rrr

r

Ia Ib

Definition of inductance

flux linkage is :

e d dt (1)

Where,

is the flux linkages of the circuit in

weber-turns ( wbt ) .

When the current in a circuit is changing,

the induced voltage must be changing as

a proportional ratio as :

e di dt

e L (di dt ) (2)

Where,

L is the constant of proportionality

inductance of circuit.

From equations ( 1 ) and ( 2 ),

L d di

( i ) is linear :

L i

where, ( i ) and () is the instantaneous

current and flux linkages .

For sinusoidal alternating current, flux

linkages are sinusoidal , where is the

phasor expression as :

L .I ( phasor flux linkages )

The phasor voltage drop due to flux

linkages is :

V J LI

J

Mutual inductance between two circuits

is defined as the flux linkage of one

circuit due to the current in the second

circuit as :

M 12 12 I 2

circuit 1.

The phasor voltage drop in circuit 1 caused

by flux linkages of circuit 2 is:

V 1 J M 12 I 2

J 12

the influence of power lines on telephone

lines and the coupling between parallel

power lines .

Inductance of a conductor due to

internal flux .

The correct value of inductance due to internal

flux can be computed as the ratio of flux

linkages to current .To obtain an accurate

value for the inductance of a transmission line ,

it is necessary to consider the flux inside each

conductor as well as the external flux .

whose cross section is shown in fig.

H x I x 2 x (3)

B x H x (I x 2 x )

x B x dx (I x 2 x ) dx

Assuming uniform current density :

(I x x 2 ) (I r 2 )

Where, I is the total current in the conductor.

I x I ( x 2 r 2 ) I ( x 2 r 2 ) (4)

H x I ( x 2 2 x r 2 ) I ( x 2 r 2 ) AT / m

B x H x ( xI 2 r 2 ) wb / m 2

d (xI 2 r 2 ) dx wb / m

The flux linkages d of length are the product

of the flux per meter of length and the fraction of

the current linkage .

d ( x 2 r 2 ) d

( Ix 3 2 r 4 ) dx wbt / m

r

int ( Ix 3 2 r 4 ) dx ( I 8 ) wbt / m

0

Where, r 0

Assuming , r 1

0 4 107 H /m

int (I 2) 107 wbt / m

L int ( int I ) 0.5 107 H /m

Flux linkages between two points external

to an isolated conductor .

In the Fig. P1 and P2 are two points at distance D1

and D2 from the center of the conductor which

carries a current of (I) :

H x (I 2 x ) AT / m

B x (I 2 x ) wb / m 2

The flux linkages between P1 and P2 are:

D2

12 ( I

D1

2 x ) dx ( I 2 ) ln( D 2 D1 ) wbt / m

The inductance due only to the flux included between P1 and

P2 is:

L12 2 107 ln( D 2 D1 ) H /m

Using the logarithm to base ( 10 ) :

L12 0.7411 log(D2 D1 ) mH / mile

Inductance of a single-phase two

wire line .

In the following Fig. , a single phase with two conductors of

radius r1 and r2 have been shown. One conductor is the return

circuit for the other

r1 r2

D

the current in conductor 1. The current in conductor 2 is equal

in value and opposite in direction to the current in conductor 1

The inductance of the circuit due to current in

conductor 1 is determined by the following equation:

L12 2 107 ln( D 2 D1 ) H /m

substituted for D2 and the radius r1 of conductor 1

substituted for D1.

For external flux only:

L1,ext . 2 107 ln(D r1 ) H /m

For internal flux only

L1,int . 0.5 107 H /m

The total inductance of the current due to the

current in conductor ( 1 ) equations :

= 2 107 [( 1 4 ) + ln( D r1 )]

= 2 107 [ln e 1 4 + ln( D r1 )]

= 2 107 ln( D r1 e 1 4 )

= 2 107 ln( D r1 )

=0.7411 log10 ( D r1 ) H /m

1 4

Where, r r1 e

1

The inductance due to current in conductor ( 2 ) is :

L 2 2 107 ln( D r 2)

=0.7411 log10 ( D r 2) mH / mile

L L1 L 2 4 107 ln( D r1 r 2 ) H /m

If r1 r 2 r

L 4 107 ln( D r )

=1.4822 log10 ( D r ) mH / mile

Inductance between two points external one conductor is one-

half the total inductance of a single-phase line and is called the

inductance per conductor .

Flux linkages of one conductor in

a group

with distance

Let us determine , ( 1 p )1 the flux linkages of conductor,

due to I 1 including internal flux linkages and external

all the flux beyond point ( p ):

= 2 107 I 1 ln( D1 p r1) wbt / m

is equal to the flux produced by I 2 between the point (p)

and conductor ( 1 )

( 1p )2 2 10 I 2 ln(D2 p D12 )

7

The flux linkage 1p with conductor (1 ) due

to all the conductors in the group is

I 3 ln( D 3 p D13 ) .... I n ln( D np D1n )]

1 p 2 107 [I 1 ln(1 r1) I 2 ln(1 D12 ) I 3 ln(1 D13 ) .... I n ln(1 D1n )

+I 1 ln D1 p I 2 ln D 2 p I 3 ln D 3 p .... I n ln D np ]

However , I 1 I 2 I 3 .... I n =0

I n (I 1 I 2 I 3 .... I n 1 )

( D1 p D 2 p ..... Dnp )

p : is infinity for away

1 2 107 [I 1 ln(1 r1) I 2 ln(1 D12 ) I 3 ln(1 D13 ) .... I n ln(1 D1n )

+ ln D1 p (I 1 I 2 I 3 .... I n )] (5)

of conductor ( 1 )

Inductance of composite-

conductor lines.

two conductors , each conductor arrangement of an

indefinite number of conductors and share the current

equally .

Conductor ( x ) is composed of ( n ) identical each of

which carries the current I/n .

Conductor ( Y ) , which is the return circuit for the

current in conductor( x ) , is composed to identical

each of which carries the current -I/m.

Applying equation ( 5 ) to filaments of conductor ( x )

, the flux linkage at conductor ( a ) is :

a 2 107 ( I n )[ ln(1 ra) ln(1 Dab ) ln(1 Dac ) .... ln(1 Dan )]

- 2 107 ( I m ) [ ln(1 Daa ) ln(1 Dab ) ln(1 Dac ) .... ln Dam ]

Or

a 2 107 I ln( m Daa Dab Dac ..... Dam n

ra Dab Dac ..... Dan ) wbt / m

The inductance of filaments ( a ) is:

ra Dab Dac ..... Dan ) H /m

Lb b (I n ) 2n 107 ln( m Dba Dbb Dbc ..... Dbm n

Dba rb Dbc ..... Dbn ) H /m

7

mn

(Daa Dab Dac ...Dam )(Dba Dbb ...Dbm )(Dna ...Dnm )

L x 2n 10 ln[ 2

] H /m

n (Daa Dab Dac ...Daa )(Dba Dbb Dbc ...Dbn )( Dna ...Dn n )

Where

L x = 2 10 ln( G.M.D G.M.R )

7

= 2 10 ln( )

Geometric mean radius

calculated similar to conductor ( x ) .

The total inductance of conductor ( x ) and ( y ) is :

L Lx Ly

Example (1)

One circuit of a single phase transmission line is

composed of three solid wires ( 0.1 in ) . The return

circuit is composite of two ( 0.2 in radius ) wires . The

arrangement of conductors is shown in fig. . Find the

inductance due to the current in each side of the line

and the inductance of the complete line .

Solution

The G.M.D between side ( x ) and ( y ) is :

The G.M.R for side ( x ) is :

The inductance ,

7 G .M .D

L x 2 10 ln( )

G .M .R of side x

7 G .M .D

L y 2 10 ln( )

G .M .R of side y

Example (2)

A conductor is composed of seven identical strands

each having a radius ( r ) . Find the ( G.M.R ) for the

conductor.

Solution

G.M.R of the seven strand conductor is :

Ds 49 (r )2 (D12D13D14D17 )6 (2r )6

The inductive reactance of one conductor of a single-

phase two conductor line is :

x L 2 fL 2 f 0.7411 10 log( Dm Ds )

3

Inductance of 3-phase lines with

equilateral spacing.

The figure shows the conductors of a 3-phase line

spaced at the corners of an equilateral triangle.

where , a

ra rb rc r D D

c b

D

Assume balanced 3-phase phasor current .

Ia Ib Ic 0

The flux linkages of conductor ( a ) is :

a 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D ) + I c ln(1 D )] wbt / m (6)

Since, I a ( I b I c ) (7)

From equation ( 7 ) in ( 6 ) ,

a 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) - I a ln(1 D )]

=2 107 I a ln( D r ) wbt / m

Or La 0.4711 log(D r ) mH / mile

This equation is the same in form as equation for a single-

phase line ( between two conductors ) . However ,

La Lb Lc for balance system

Inductance of 3-phase lines with

unsymmetrical spacing

In this case , the flux linkages and inductance of each

phase are not the same .

A different inductance in each phase results in an

unbalance circuit .

This case can be overcome by exchanging the

positions of the conductors at regular intervals along

the line so that each conductor occupies the original

position of every other conductor over an equal

distance .

Such an exchange of conductor positions is called

"transposition".

A complete transposition cycle is shown as :

The flux linkages of ( a ) in position ( 1 ) , when ( b )

is in position ( 2 ) and ( c ) in position ( 3 ) , is :

1

a

D13 D12

3 c b 2

D23

The flux linkages of ( a ) in position ( 2 ) , when ( b )

is in position ( 3 ) and ( c ) in position ( 1 ) , is :

1

c

D13 D12

3 b a 2

D23

The flux linkages of ( a ) in position ( 3 ) , when ( b )

is in position ( 1 ) and ( c ) in position ( 2 ) , is :

1

b

D13 D12

3 a c 2

D23

The average value of the flux linkages of ( a ) is :

a ( a1 a2 a3 ) 3

2 107

a ln[3 I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D12 D 23 D13 ) + I b ln(1 D12D 23D13 )]

3

I a ( I b I c )

2 107

a ln[3 I a ln(1 r ) - I a ln(1 D12 D 23 D13 )]

3

2 107

= ln[3 I a ln(1 r ) - 3 I a ln(1 3 D12 D 23 D13 )]

3

= 2 107 I a ln( 3 D12 D 23 D13 r )

= 2 107 I a ln( Deq . r )

L a 2 107 ln( Deq . r )

=0.4711 log( Deq . r ) mH / mile

However , La Lb Lc

are the same of equation for equal

spacing conductor D12 D23 D13 D

Example (3)

A single circuit 3-phase line operated at ( 60 CPS ) is

arranged as shown below . Each conductor has radius (

0.2 in ) . Find the inductance and inductive reactance

per phase per mile ,at frequency equals ( 50 c/s ) .

Solution

La 0.7411 log10 (Deq . Dscp )

Deq . D D D

3 p

ab

p

ac

p

cb

D A .B .C

p

sc

3

Dcap 4 Dca Dca Dac Dac C 2 r .Dcc

Example (4)

Each conductor of a section of the ( 460 KV ) line

shown in below is ( 1.5 in ) diameter . Conductor

spacing is shown in the figure . Find the inductive

reactance in ohm/mile at 60 CPS .

Solution

Example (5)

A 3-phase double circuit line has diameter ( 0.3 in ) .

The line is arranged as shown below and is completely

transposed. Find 60 cycle inductive reactance per

phase per mile .

Solution

Bundled conductors

The trend toward ever higher voltages for T.L has

stimulated interest in the use of two or more

conductors per phase.

conductors.

Usually the spacing of conductors of a phase is

about ( 10 ) times the diameter of one conductor ,

that is about ( 8 to 20 in ).

because of increased self SGM and reduce voltage

drop and voltage gradient which result in reduced

radio interference

Capacitance of Transmission Lines

Capacitance of a transmission line is the

result of the potential difference between

the conductors .

The capacitance between conductors is

the charge per unit of potential difference .

Capacitance between parallel conductors

is a constant depending on the size and

spacing of the conductors

Electric field of a long straight

conductor

Electric flux density ( D ) is the electric flux

per square meter and is measured in

coulombs per square meter .

The fig. ( 1 ) shows an isolated conductor

carrying an uniformly distributed charge.

The flux density at ( x ) meters from the

conductor can be computed by :

D q 2x c m 2

The electric field intensity is equal to the electric

flux density divided by the permittivity of the

medium.

q 2xk vm

Where

12

k k r ko , ko 8.854 10 F m

D k

Induced voltage is:

V dx

x

V q 2xk dx

r

= ( q 2k ) ln( x r )

The potential difference between

two points due to a charge

Consider a long straight wire carrying a positive

charge of [ q (c/m) ].

The positive charge on the wire will exert a repelling

force on a positive charge placed in the field.

The potential difference is independent of the path

followed.

Thus the instantaneous voltage drop between P1 and

P2 is:

D2 D2

V 12

D1

dx q 2 xk dx (q 2 k ) ln( D 2 D1 )

D1

V (1)

Capacitance of a two-wire line

Capacitance per unit length of the line is:

C q V F m (2)

From eq.(2) in eq.(1) we get

C 12 q V 12 2k ln(D2 D1 ) F m

The voltage between the two conductors of the two

wire shown in the fig.(3) can be found by computing

the voltage drop due to the charge (qa) on conductor

( a ) and assume that conductor ( b ) is uncharged

and then by computing the voltage drop due to the

charge (qb) on conductor ( b ) .

By the principle of superpose the voltage drop are

computed. We obtained:

V ab (q a 2 k ) ln( D ra ) (q b 2 k ) ln(rb D )

a r1 r2

D

Since qa = -qb for a two-wire line .

V ab (q a 2 k ) [ ln(D ra ) ln(rb D )]

(q a 2 k ) ln(D ra rb )

2

V

C ab q a V ab 2k ln( D ra rb )

2

F m

If r a rb r

C ab 2k 2ln(D r ) = k ln(D r ) F m

Sometimes it is desirable to know the capacitance

between one of the conductors and a neutral point

between them .

Thus the capacitance to neutral for the two-wire

line is twice the line-to-line capacitance

( capacitance between conductors ) .

The voltage across the line divided equally

between them .

Therefore,

C an C bn 2C ab 2k ln(D r ) F m

Capacitance of a 3-phase line

with equalateral spacing

A three identical conductors of radius ( r )

shown in the fig .(5) .

Thus the voltage Vab of the 3-phase line is:

V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D r ) q b ln(r D ) q c ln(D D )] V

1

a

D13 D12

3 c b 2

D23

Similarly,

V ac (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D r ) q b ln(D D ) q c ln(r D )] V

V ab V ac (1 2 k ) [ 2 q a ln(D r ) (q b q c )ln(r D )] V

to have negligible effect. For,

q a qb qc 0

qb qc q a

V ab V ac (1 2 k ) [ 2 q a ln( D r ) q a ln(r D )]

= (q a 2 k )ln( D 3 r 3 )

= (3q a 2 k )ln( D r ) (3)

Fig.(6) is the phasor diagram of voltages where

the voltage from line ( a ) to the neutral of the 3-

phase circuit.

V ab ( 3 2) V ab J (1 2) V ab

V ab 3 V an

V ab ( 3 2) 3 V an J ( 3 2) V an

3 V an [( 3 2) J (1 2)]

Similarly,

V ac 3 V an [( 3 2) J (1 2)]

V ab V ac 3 V an (4)

From ( 3 ) and ( 4 ) we get:

3 V an = (3q a 2 k )ln( D r )

V an = (q a 2 k )ln(D r )

C an q a V an

C an 2k ln(D r ) F m

Capacitance of a 3-phase line

with unsymmetrical spacing

In this condition , the problem of calculating

capacitance becomes more difficult .

In the usual untransposed line the capacitances of

each phases to neutral are unequal .

For the line shown in the following Fig.(7)

equations are found for for the three different parts

of the transposition cycle .

With phase ( a ) in position (1) , (b) in position (2) and

( c ) in position ( 3 ) .

V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln( D12 r ) q b ln(r D12 ) q c ln( D 23 D 31 )] V

and ( c ) in position ( 1 ) ,

V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D23 r ) q b ln(r D23 ) q c ln(D31 D 12 )] V

position ( 1 ) and ( c ) in position ( 2 ) ,

V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D31 r ) q b ln(r D31 ) q c ln(D12 D 23 )] V

The average voltage between conductors (a) and (b).

V ab (1 2 3k ) [q a ln(D12 D 23D 31 r 3 ) q b ln(r 3 D12D 23D 31 ) q c ln(D12D 23D 31 D12D 23D 31 )]

(1 2 k ) [q a ln( Deq r ) q b ln(r Deq )] V

conductor ( c ) is :

V ac (1 2 k ) [q a ln( Deq r ) q c ln(r Deq )] V

V ab V ac 3 V an

Since, qa+qb+qc=0 in a balanced 3-phase circuit .

3 V an (1 2 k ) [2q a ln( Deq r ) q a ln( Deq r )]

3 V an (3 2 k ) q a ln( Deq r )

And

C n q a V an 2k ln( Deq r ) F m (I )

Effect of earth on the capacitance of

3-phase transmission lines

Let us imagine conductor of the same size and

shape as the overhead conductor lying directly

below the original conductor above the plane of the

ground .

If the earth is removed and a charge equal and

opposite to that on the overhead conductor is

assumed on the imagine conductor .

The electric flux between the overhead conductor

and this equipotential surface is the same as that

which existed between the conductor and the earth .

To apply the method of images to the calculation of

capacitance for a 3- phase , refer to fig.( 8 ) , we

assume that the line is transposed and that conductor

( a ) , ( b ) and ( c ) carry the changes (qa) , (qb) and

(qc) and occupy positions ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) , in

the first part of the transposition cycle .

The conductors with the image charges charge (-qa)

, (-qb) and (-qc).

Equations for 3-parts of the transposition cycle can

be written for the voltage drop from conductor (a) to

conductor ( b ) as determined by the three charged

conductors and their images .

With conductor ( a ) in position ( 1 ) , ( b ) position (

2 ) and ( c ) in position ( 3 ) .

V ac (1 2 k ) [q a (ln( D12 r ) ln( H 12 H 1 )) q b (ln(r D12 ) ln( H 2 H 12 ))

q c (ln( D 23 D 31 ) ln( H 23 H 31 ))] V

parts of the transposition cycle and calculate the

average value of Vab.

The equation for the average value Vac is found in a

similar manner , and (3Van) is obtain by adding the

average values of Vab and Vac .

Knowing that the sum of charges is zero. We then

find:

C n 2k [ln(Deq r ) ln( 3 H 12H 23 H 31 3 H 1H 2 H 3 )] F m ( II )

Comparison of equations ( I ) and ( II ) show the effect

of the earthed is to increase the capacitance of a line (

subtract from it the term:

log( 3 H 12 H 23 H 31 3 H 1H 2 H 3 )

Parallel circuit 3-phase lines

Similar to the calculation of inductance :

C n 2k ln(Deq Dsc ) p

Deq D D D3 p

ab

p

bc

p

ca D A .B .C

p 3

sc

D p

ab 4 Dab Dab Dba Dba A 2 r .Da a

D 4 Dbc Dbc Dcb Dcb

p

bc B 2 r .Db b

p

ca C 2 r .Dc c

Transmission Circuit

Calculations

Short Transmission line

In the case of a short transmission line the

capacitance and conductance to earth may be

neglected.

Leaving only the series resistance and inductance

to be taken into consideration.

The current entering the line at the sending-end

termination is equal to the current leaving at the

receiving-end, and this same current flows through

all the line sections.

The R and L parameters may therefore be

regarded as ' lumped ' .

The equivalent circuit diagram and the vector

diagram for a short line are shown in fig.( 6.1 ) in

which:

Fig.( 6.1 b ): Vector diagram for a short transmission line .

The currents IS and IR will be equal in magnitude

but not in phase.

line.

,the size of conductor and the specifics resistance

of the conductor material ,

and radius using the formula derived in Chapter 5 .

Referring to the equivalent circuit :

IS IR (6.1a )

V S V R ( R jX L )I R (6.1b )

V R Z I R

the necessary sending-end voltage may be

calculated .

It will be noted that ( 6.1a ) and ( 6.1b ) are phasor

equations , a more approximate method involving

scalar quantities is as follows: Referring to the

vector diagram,

V SX V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R

V SY I R X L cos R I R R sin R

V S =[ (V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R ) 2

However (IR XL) and (IR R) are very much less

than VR and the small voltage is in quadrate with

the much larger VSX ,

V S V SX V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R

rise in voltage when full loads is removed , or :

V S V R (R cos R X L sin R )

%age voltage regulation IR

VR VR

Example

A three-phase line delivers 3 MW at 11 KV for a

distance of 15 Km . Line loss is 10 % of power

delivered , load power factor is 0.8 lagging . frequency

is 50 Hz , 1.7 m equilateral spacing of conductors .

Calculate the sending-end voltage and regulation .

Solution

11,000

Receiving-end phase voltage = 6.360 V R

3

Line current = phase current ( assuming a star connection )

3,000 103

= 197 A

3 11 10 0.8

3

Total line loss =3 I 2 R (in three conductors)

10

= 3, 000 10 3

100

300 103

R

3 197 2

2.58 ohms

from copper having a resistance of 0.0137 ohms

per meter for a cross-sectional area of 1 mm2 , the

conductor cross-section is 80 mm2 corresponding to

a radius of 5 mm .

1 d

Inductance =L (1 4 logc ) 107 H / metre

2 r

X L L length

3

1 1.7 10

= 314 (1 4 logc ) 107 15 103

2 5

=5.75 ohms

V S V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R

= 6,350 + ( 197 2.58 0.8) + ( 197 5.75 0.6)

= 6,350 + 1057

= 7,407 V per phase

= 12,780 V line

( R cos R X L sin R ) V S V R

Regulation =I R =

VR VR

1,057

= 16.7 %

6,350

Medium Transmission line

It has been mentioned in section 6.2 that the

capacitance of medium length lines is significant.

may be assumed to be concentrated at one or more

definite points along the line.

been used to make approximate line performance

calculations.

The following methods are more commonly used :

accurate results for the solution of most

transmission-line problems .

Nominal T method .

In a nominal T method the total line capacitance is

assumed to be concentrated at the middle point of

the line . The T representation of a line is shown in

fig.( 6.12 ).

Series impedance of the line Z R jX

Shunt admittance Y j C

With the usual meanings of the quantities given in

fig.( 2 ) ,

Z

Voltage at the mid-point of the line . Vab Vr Ir

2

Sending-end current , Is Ir Iab

=Ir Vab Y

Z

=Ir (Vr Ir ) Y

2

Z Y

Is =Ir (1 ) Y Vr (6.13.1)

2

Sending-end voltage ,

Z

Vs Vab Is

2

Z Z Y Z

=Vr Ir [Ir (1 Y Vr )]

2 2 2

Z Y Z Y

Vs Vr (1 ) Ir ( Z ) (6.13.2)

2 4

Equations ( 6.13.1 ) and ( 6.13.2 ) give the

sending-end current and sending-end voltage

respectively.

Other quantities , such as phase shift, power input,

efficiency, regulation, etc, can be determined in the

usual manner .

Phasor diagram

The phasor diagram of the nominal T circuit of

fig.(6.12) is shown in fig.(6.13). It is drawn for a

lagging power factor cos R

In the phasor diagram :

Nominal method .

This method assumed that one-half of the total line

capacitance is concentrated at each end of the line

and the total resistance and inductive reactance are

concentrated at the center .

Fig.( 6.14 ) shows the nominal representation of

the line.

From fig.( 6.14),

Y

Iab Vr

2

Y

I=Ir Iab Ir Vr

2

Voltage at the sending-end ,

Vs Vr I Z

Y

Vr ( Ir Vr ) Z

2

Z Y

(1 )Vr Z Ir (6.14.1)

2

Y

Icd Vs

2

Z Y Y

[(1 )Vr Z Ir ]

2 2

Sending-end current,

Is I Icd

Y Z Y Y

Is Ir Vr [(1 )Vr Z Ir ]

2 2 2

Z Y2 Z Y

( Y+ ) Vr ( 1 ) Ir (6.14.2)

4 2

and current respectively . The other calculations can be made

in the usual manner.

Phasor diagram

The phasor diagram of a nominal circuit is

shown in fig.( 6.15 ). It is also drawn a lagging

power factor of the load.

In the phasor diagram the quantities shown are as

follows :

Example

A three-phase, 50 Hz, transmission line, 40 km long

delivers 36 Mw at 0.8 power factor lagging at 60 kv

(phase). The line constants per conductor are ,

voltage , current , phase angle, and the efficiency . Use

(a) nominal T method, (b) nominal method.

Solution

Phase voltage at the receiving-end

V r 60 kv =60 10 3

v

1

Power per phase = 36 Mw = 12 106 w

3

Therefore, the receiving-end current ,

12 10 6

Ir 250 A

60 10 0.8

3

Vr V r jQ

cos r 0.8 , sin r 0.6

Ir I r cos r j I r sin r

=250 0.8 j 250 0.6=200 j 150

Inductive reactance per phase ,

Series impedance per phase,

Z =R jX 2.5 j 31.4 31.4 tan 1 12.56

31.485.4

78.5 106 siemens

Y= 0 +j 78.5 106 78.6 106 90

Calculation by nominal T method

The nominal T circuit for the line is shown in Fig.(6.1).

Z

Vab Vr Ir

2

R X

V r j 0 (I r cos r j I r sin r )( j )

2 2

60 103 (200 j 150)(1.25 j 15.7)

60 103 2.605 j 2959

(62.605 j 2.959) 103 v

The current in the capacitor ,

Iab Y Vab

j 78.6 106 (62.605 j 2.959) 103

=-0.2315+j 4.903

The current at the sending-end ,

Is Ir Iab

(200 j 150) (-0.2315+j 4.903)

=199.8 j 145

[(199.8)2 (145)2 ]1 2 tan 1 ( 145 199.8)

247 tan 1 0.7257

247 35 57

Z

Is (199.8 j 145)(1.25 j 15.7)

2

2527 j 2959

Voltage at the sending-end ,

Z

Vs Vab Is

2

62.605 j 2959 2527 j 2959

65132 j 5918

[(65132)2 (5918)2 ]1 2 tan 1 (5918 65132)

65450 tan 1 0.09077

654505 11 v/phase

Fig.(6.16):Phasor diagram

Sending-end line voltage ,

=65450 3 113400 v

=113.4 kv

Phase difference between Vs and Is ,

s 5 11 ( 35 57)

41 8

Sending-end power factor ,

Power loss in the line ,

R 2 R

3I r

2

3I s

2 2

3 (250)2 1.25 3 (247)2 1.25

463.2 10 3

v

Transmission efficiency ,

Power output

T

Power output Power loss

36 10 6

36 10 463.2 10

6 3

Alternatively , transmission efficiency may be calculated as

follows :

3V r I r cosr

T

3V s I s coss

36 10 6

=

3 65450 247 0.7532

=0.986 or 98.6 per cent

Calculation by nominal method

The nominal circuit for the line is shown in Fig.( 6.14)

Y

Iab Vr

2

j 39.3 106 60 103 =j 2.35

I Ir Iab

(200 j 150) j 2.35

=200 j 147.65

[(200)2 (147.65)2 ]1 2 tan 1 ( 147.65 200)

245.6 36 26

Voltage drop per phase ,

5136 j 5910

Vs Vab I Z

60 103 5136 j 5910

65136 j 5910

1

[(65136) (5910) ] tan (5910 65136)

2 2 12

65390 5 11 v/phase

Sending-end line voltage ,

=65390 3=113.2 kv

Y

Icd Vs

2

6

j 39.3 10 (65136 j 5190)

= 0.232+j 2.557

Sending-end current ,

Is Ir Icd

(200 j 150) 0.232+j 2.557

=199.8 j 145

1

[(199.8) (145) ] tan ( 145 199.8)

2 2 12

247 35 57 A

s 5 11 ( 35 57)

41 8

Sending-end power factor ,

Power loss in the line ,

2

=3 I R

=3 (248.6) 2.5

2

=463.6 Kw

Transmission efficiency ,

36 106

T

36 106 463.6 103

0.9873 or 98.73 per cent

Example

A three-phase , 50 Hz , 150 km line operates at 110 Kv

between the lines at the sending-end. The total inductance

and capacitance per phase are (0.2 H) and (1.5 F) .

Neglecting losses calculate the value of receiving-end load

having a power factor of unity for which the voltage at the

receiving-end will be the same as that at the sending-end .

Assume one-half of the total capacitance of the line to be

concentrated at each end .

Solution

The circuit for the given line is shown in fig.(6.17) . It is a

nominal representation .

110 1000

V r V s 63510 v

3

Inductive reactance per phase ,

X L 2 fL 2 3.14 50 0.2 62.8

Z =jX L j 62.8

Y 2 fC 2 3.14 50 1.5 10 6

4

Y=j 4.71 10

Vr V r j 0

Current in the load-end capacitor ,

Y 4.71

Iab Vr j 104 63510 j 14.96 A

2 2

Let the load current be Ir . Since the load power factor is

unity ,

Ir I s 0 I s j 0

I =Ir Iab

Ir j 14.96

Sending-end voltage ,

Vs Vr I Z

=V r j 0 (Ir j 14.96)( j 62.8)

=(V r -939.5)+j 62.8 I r

(63510) =(63510-939.5) (62.8 I r )

2 2 2

10862

Ir 173 A

62.8

General Network

Constants

Introduction

A network having two input and two output terminals is

known as a two-port network . It may also be called a two-

terminal-pair network or quadriple network . In fig.(1 .

a,b) represent the input pair terminals and ( c,d ) the output

pair terminals . The two pairs of terminals are usually

shown to be enclosed in a box .

A circuit consisting of any arrangement of its

components is connected to these terminals .

V s AV r BI r

(1.1)

I s CV r DI r

constants of the system . These constants are known

by other names like transmission parameters , chain

parameters and auxiliary network constants .

Equation (1) can be put in the matrix form as :

V s A B V r

D I r

(1.2)

I s C

A B

The matrix C

D is called the transfer matrix or

transmission matrix of the network

Cascaded network

The overall A , B , C , D constants for several 2-port

networks connected in cascade ( or chain arrangement )

can be found out easily . Fig.( 2 ) shows two cascaded

networks , and one that is the equivalent of both . The

constants of the two component networks are A1 , B1 , C1 ,

D1 and A2 , B2 , C2 , D2 . Let the constants for the

equivalent network be A0 , B0 , C0 , D0 .

Let Va and Ia be the voltage and current

respectively at the junction (a) of the two networks.

V a A2 V r B 2 I r

(2.1)

I a C 2 V r D2 I r

V s A1 V a B1 I a

(2.2)

I s C 1 V a D1 I a

Substituting the values of Va and Ia from the first

set of equations in the second set , we have :

V s A1 ( A2 V r B 2 I r ) B 1 (C 2 V r D 2 I r )

( A1 A2 B1C 2 ) V r ( A1B 2 B1D 2 ) I r (2.3)

I s C 1 ( A2 V r B 2 I r ) D1 (C 2 V r D 2 I r )

(C 1 A2 D1C 2 ) V r (C 1B 2 D1D 2 ) I r (2.4)

The sending-end voltage and current for the

equivalent network with constants A0 , B0 , C0 , D0 are

given by :

V s A0 V a B 0 I a

(2.5)

I s C 0 V a D0 I a

constants for the two networks in cascade are :

A0 A1 A2 B 1C 2

B 0 A1B 2 B 1 D 2

(2.6)

C 0 C 1 A2 D1C 2

D 0 C 1B 2 D1 D 2

Matrix method . For the first network ,

V s A1 B1 V a

(2.7)

I s C 1 D1 I a

respectively of the second network , so that :

V a A2 B 2 V r

(2.8)

I a C 2 D2 I r

Combining these equations ,

V s A1 B1 A2 B 2 V r

C

D2 I r

(2.9)

I s 1

C D1 2

V s A0 B 0 V r

(2.10)

I s C 0 D0 I r

Comparing equations (2.9) and (2.10) we get ,

A0 B 0 A1 B1 A2 B2

C (2.11)

0 D0 C 1 D1 C 2 D2

Relations between A,B ,C ,D

constants

The relations between A, B , C , D constants of a passive ,

linear and bilateral network can be found with the help of

reciprocity theorem . First a voltage V is applied to the

input terminals keeping the output terminals short

circuited fig.( 3 ,a ) . Since under short circuit Vr= 0 ,

equations ( 1.1 ) give :

V B I rs (3.1)

I ss D I rs (3.2)

Now , the voltage V is applied to the output terminals and

the input terminals are short circuited fig.( 3 ,b ) . The

directions of flow of currents at the input and output

terminals are reversed and the sending-end voltage Vs

becomes zero. Equation ( 1.1 ) become :

0 AV BI r

AV

I r (3.3)

B

I s CV DI r (3.4)

Since the network is passive , by the reciprocity theorem ,

I s I rs (3.5)

Fig.( 3 )

Combining equations ( 3.1 ), ( 3.3 ) , ( 3.4 ) and ( 3.5 ) we

get ,

DAV

I rs CV

B

V DAV

CV

B B

Dividing both the sides of the above equation by -V/B we

get ,

AD BC 1 (3.6)

the network constants. This relation may also be put in the

determinant form as :

A B

C 1

D

Series impedance circuit

A circuit having a series impedance Z is shown in fig.(4)

. Such a case is found in a short transmission line where

the line capacitance is negligible and the shunt admittance

Y is zero . A transformer with magnetizing current

neglected can also be represented by such a circuit .

For the network shown in fig.( 4 ) we may write :

V s V r Z I r

(4.1)

Is Ir

V s 1 Z V r

I (4.2)

s

I 0 1 r

By comparing these equations with the general equations

(1.1) and (1.2) the general constants for the series

impedance network can be written as :

A 1 B Z

(4.3)

C 0 D=1

1 Z

The transfer matrix for the network is

0 1

Shunt admittance circuit

Fig,( 5 ) , shows a transmission network with a shunt

admittance Y . Such a network may represent the

magnetizing current circuit of a transformer or a shunt

capacitor .

For the network shown in fig.( 5 ) we may write :

V s V r

(5.1)

I s Y Vr I r

V s 1 0 V r

(5.2)

I s Y 1 I r

Hence,

A 1 B 0

(5.3)

C Y D=1

Half T network

A half T network is shown in fig.( 6 ) .

V s V r Z I r

V r (Y V r I r ) Z

(1 Z Y ) V r Z I r

V s (1 Z Y ) Z V r

(6.1)

I s Y 1 I r

Hence,

A 1 Z Y B Z

(6.2)

C Y D=1

Matrix method , The half T network can be considered

as the cascade connection of two sections . One section is

a series impedance Z and the other a shunt admittance Y .

The overall constants are obtained from the matrix product

of the transfer matrices of each section in the correct order.

V s 1 Z 1 0 V r

I s 0 1 Y 1 I r

(1 Z Y ) Z V r

Y 1 I r

Overhead lines and its

mechanical

characteristics

Introduction

An overhead line comprises mainly of i ) conductor, ii )

supports , iii ) insulators and pole fittings . The function of

overhead lines is to transmit electrical energy , and the

important characteristics which the line conductors must

have are :

a) High electrical conductivity .

b) High tensile strength .

c) Low density .

d) Low cost .

aluminum and steel , which are used either alone or in

combination .

Types of conductors

Copper

hard-drawn copper , because it is twice as strong as soft

drawn copper and it stretches to a much lesser extent than

soft drawn copper .

The merits of this metal as a line conductor are :

i ) It has a best conductivity in comparison to other metals .

The conductivity of copper , however depends upon the

percentage of impurities present in it , the more the

impurities the lesser will be the conductivity . The

conductivity of copper conductor also depends upon the

method by which it has been drawn .

ii ) It has higher current density , so for the given current

rating , lesser cross-sectional area of conductor is

required and hence it provides lesser cross-sectional

area to wind loads .

iii ) The metal is quite homogeneous .

iv ) It has low specific resistance .

v) It is durable and has a higher scrap value .

Aluminum

Next to copper aluminum is the conductor used in order of

performance as far as the conductivity is concerned .Its

merits and demerits are :

ii ) It is lighter in weight .

iii ) It is second in conductivity ( among the metals used for

transmission ) . Commercial hard-down aluminum wire at

standard temperature has approximately 60.6 per cent

conductivity in comparison to standard annealed copper

wire .

iv ) For same ohmic resistance , its diameter is about 1.27

times that of copper .

v) At higher voltages it causes less corona loss .

vi ) Since the diameter of the conductor is more , so it is

subject to greater wind pressure due to which greater is

the swing of the conductor and greater is the sag .

vii ) Since the conductors are liable to swing, so it requires

larger cross arms .

viii ) As the melting point of the conductor is low , so the

short circuit etc. will damage it .

ix ) Joining of aluminum is much more difficult than that of

any other material .

aluminum in transmission and distribution lines has

been adopted .

Steel

No doubt it has got the greatest tensile strength , but it is

least used for transmission of electrical energy as it has

got high resistance .Bare steel conductors are not used

since , it deteriorates rapidly owing to rusting . Generally

galvanized steel wires are used . It has the following

properties :

i) It is lowest in conductivity .

ii ) It has high internal reactance .

iii ) It is much subjected to eddy current and hysterisis loss.

iv ) In a damp atmosphere it is rusted .

Aluminum conductor with steel reinforced

( A.C.S.R )

An aluminum conductor having a central core of

galvanized steel wires is used for high voltage

transmission purposes .

This is done to increase the tensile strength of aluminum

conductor . the galvanized steel core is covered by one or

more strands of aluminum wires .

The steel conductors used are galvanized in order to

prevent rusting and electrolytic corrosion ( since Zinc is

near to aluminum and there is no electro-chemical action

between the two metals ) .

The cross-sections of the two metals are in the ratio (1:6) ,

but in case of high strength conductors their ratio is (1:4) .

and longer span than the copper conductor line since it has

high tensile strength .

any other type of conductor of same resistance .

is passing only in the aluminum section .

Line supports

The line supports are poles and the chief

requirements for such supports are :

i) They must be mechanically strong with factor of safety of

2.5 to 3 .

ii ) They must be light in weight without the loss of strength .

iii ) They must have least number of parts .

iv ) They must be cheap .

v) Their maintenance cost should be minimum .

vi ) They must be easily accessible for point and erection of

line conductors .

vii ) They must have longer life .

viii ) They must be of pleasing shape .

The different types of poles which can be used as line

supports are :

a. Wooden poles .

b. Steel tubular poles

c. Reinforced concrete poles .

d. Steel towers .

Fig.(1):Singlephase single-circuit

Spacing between the

conductors

between the conductors

can be arrived at by

mathematical calculations.

It can only be obtained by

empirical formulae which

have been obtained from

practical considerations.

Generally the following formulae are used for obtaining

spacing between the conductors :

d

spacing 0.01 V kv 1.24 D feet

Where,

Vkv : is voltage in kilovolts .

d : is diameter of conductor

in inches .

w : is weight of conductor

in lb. per foot run .

D : is sag in feet .

Sag-tension calculations for the

overhead lines

The theory of sag tension calculation is based on the fact

that when a wire of uniform cross-section is suspended

between two points at the same level , the wire sags down

and assumes the shape of a " catenary " .

The line between the two points must be so teasioned that .

Fig.(9):Representation of sag in the conductor suspended between two points

Let , ( L ) be the length of the conductor POQ ,

suspended between the supports P and Q at the same

level and having a distance L between them .

Let , O be the lowest point of the catenary so formed ,

D be the maximum sag , and let :

w : be the weight of the conductor per unit length .

T : be the tension at any point A of the conductor .

To : be the tension at point O of the conductor , which is

taken as origin .

S : be the length of the conductor OA .

2

W I W 2 l2

D TQ T 0

8 T0 8 T0

Effect of ice covering and wind

over the line

Under the severest conditions of ice covering and wind ,

the stress over the line is increased to the maximum . The

ice covering over the conductor increase the weight of the

conductor per unit length . Let , ( d cm ) be the diameter

of the conductor and ( r cm ) be the radial thickness of ice.

Cross-sectional area of the conductor

d 2

4

Overall cross-sectional area when covered with ice

(d 2 r ) 2

4

Sectional area of the ice d2

= (d 2 r )

2

4 4

= [ (d 2 r )2 d 2 ]

4

= [ d 2 4 r 2 4 d r d 2 ]

4

= r ( d r )

Density of ice 0.915 g / cm3

0.287 r ( d r ) Kg

is blowing with a velocity of ( 80.45 km ) per hour across

the line . It is equivalent to a pressure of ( 33.7 km ) per

square meter of the projected surface to the line to ice .

The projected surface per meter length of the conductor

( d 2 r )

1 sq.m

100

horizontal direction ,

( d 2 r )

Pw 33.7

100

0.337 ( d 2 r ) Kg

Fig.(11):Representation of resultant force acting on the

conductor .

So , the resultant force Wi acting on the conductor from

figure , is given as :

W i (w w i ) P 2

w

2

Overhead line over supports

different level

Consider an overhead line POQ , supports over the

supports at points P and Q .

The difference between supports level is h as shown in

figure(12).

Fig.(12)

Let , the different between the supports P and Q be h .

The line POQ forms the parts of the catenary , " POP ".

Let the horizontal distance between O and support Q be

(x).

So , distance of support P from O l x

l T h

x

2 l w

Example

An overhead line has a span of 220 meters , the lines

conductor weights 684 km . per 1,000 meters . Calculate the

max. sag in the line , if the maximum allowable tension in the

line is 1,450 kg

Solution

2 l 220 m

W l

Maximum sag = 8 T T 0 1,450 Kg

0

684

Kg 0.684 220 220

1, 000

0.684 Kg 8 1, 450

2.85 m

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