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Electrical Power Systems

References
Electrical power
( Dr\ S.L. Uppa )

Elements of power system analysis


( William Stevenson )

Modern power system analysis


( I.J.Nagrath , D.R. Kothari )
Elements of power system .

1. Power stations .
2. Substations .
3. Busbars .
4. Primary T.L and secondary T.L .
Step Up Transformer Step down Transformer

Power Station
Transmission Line 1 TL2
S
11/500 500/220 220/66
kV kV kV
Busbars

Loads

66/11 11kV/380V
kV

Elements of Power System


Standard voltages .
1. Generation voltages .
3.3 , 6.6 , 11 , 33 KV
2. Transmission line voltage .
11 , 33 , 66 , 110 , 132 KV
3. Distribution high voltages .
11 , 6.6 KV
4. Distribution low voltages .
380 , 220 KV
Standard voltages In Egypt .
T.L voltages 66 , 220 KV and
500 KV from High Dam to Cairo
Power stations
Types of power stations :
1. Thermal power stations .
2. Hydro power stations .
3. Nuclear power stations .
4. Gas power stations .
Thermal power stations
It dependents on coal and petrol
to heat the water in big boilers
under high pressure to transfer
the water to steam
Turbine Generator

BB

Condenser Cooler
Coal Burner

Boiler

Pump

Thermal Power Station


Advantages of this stations .

1. It has low construction ( primary ) cost .


2. It uses small area to construct .
3. No trembles ( vibrations ) .
4. It can be constructed in minimum time
compared to Hydro and Nuclear power
stations .
5. It can be constructed near to the load .
Disadvantages
1. Running costs are high because
it uses coal and solar .
2. The response is very low to
supply the increasing in load .
3. It is not clean and causes more
pollution .
4. It has low efficiency ( 25 : 40 %) .
Some of consideration must be
taken
1. It must near to source of water .
2. It must near to transmitted tools .
3. It needs to strong land which has
low price .
4. We can extend the station.
Hydro power stations
It depends on two deferent
levels in the river.
Advantages of this stations .
1. Running cost is very low because
it depends on water .
2. The response is very high to
supply the sudden increasing in
load.
3. It is clean .
4. Efficiency is equal ( 90 : 95 %) .
Disadvantages
1. It has high construction cost .
2. It has high T.L costs .
3. Constructed far from the loads .
4. Takes more time to construct .
Nuclear power stations
When Uranium 235 is crashed with
neutrons, releasing neutrons and
heat energy . These neutrons then
participate in the chain reaction of
fashioning more atoms.
Control rots
Heat exchanger
Steam

Turbine Generator
CO2

Reactor Water

Condenser
Fuel rots (Uranium 235)

Nuclear Power Station


Advantages and disadvantages
are similar to hydro power
station added to that it has
higher protection cost ands and
it is constructed in the desert.
Gas power stations
It depends on the outage of
gases from the refine petrol
factory which produces high
pressure gas, (in the Max and
Tebein in Egypt) .
Series impedance of T.L .
It has four parameters : resistance,
inductance, capacitance and conductance.
Conductance is between the conductors and
between conductors and the ground through
the insulators as a leakage current.
The resistance and inductance are uniformly
distributed along the line.
Types of conductors .
1.Copper conductor .
2.Aluminum conductor .
3.Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced

Aluminum conductors have replaced


copper because of the much lower cost
and lighter weight.
Resistance
Resistance causes power loss in the T.L.
For uniform resistance ,

R L a
Relation between resistance
and temperature rise .

(R 2 R1 ) (T t 2 ) (T t 1 )
t
T R
The influence of skin effect
on resistance
Uniform distribution of current throughout
the cross-section of a conductor exists only
for D.C.
In A.C, as increased of frequency, the non-
uniformly of distribution of current becomes
more appearance . This case is called skin
effect.
The alternating flux induces higher
voltages acting on the interior
filaments than are induced on
filaments near the surface of the
conductor .

La Lb
Xa Xb
r
Za Zb rrr
r
Ia Ib
Definition of inductance

Induced voltage related to change of


flux linkage is :
e d dt (1)
Where,
is the flux linkages of the circuit in
weber-turns ( wbt ) .
When the current in a circuit is changing,
the induced voltage must be changing as
a proportional ratio as :
e di dt
e L (di dt ) (2)
Where,
L is the constant of proportionality
inductance of circuit.
From equations ( 1 ) and ( 2 ),
L d di

If the relation between () and current


( i ) is linear :
L i
where, ( i ) and () is the instantaneous
current and flux linkages .
For sinusoidal alternating current, flux
linkages are sinusoidal , where is the
phasor expression as :
L .I ( phasor flux linkages )
The phasor voltage drop due to flux
linkages is :
V J LI
J
Mutual inductance between two circuits
is defined as the flux linkage of one
circuit due to the current in the second
circuit as :
M 12 12 I 2

Where, I2 produces flux linkages 12 with


circuit 1.
The phasor voltage drop in circuit 1 caused
by flux linkages of circuit 2 is:
V 1 J M 12 I 2
J 12

Mutual inductance is important in considering


the influence of power lines on telephone
lines and the coupling between parallel
power lines .
Inductance of a conductor due to
internal flux .
The correct value of inductance due to internal
flux can be computed as the ratio of flux
linkages to current .To obtain an accurate
value for the inductance of a transmission line ,
it is necessary to consider the flux inside each
conductor as well as the external flux .

Let us consider the long cylindrical conductor


whose cross section is shown in fig.
H x I x 2 x (3)
B x H x (I x 2 x )
x B x dx (I x 2 x ) dx
Assuming uniform current density :
(I x x 2 ) (I r 2 )
Where, I is the total current in the conductor.
I x I ( x 2 r 2 ) I ( x 2 r 2 ) (4)

From equation ( 4 ) in equation ( 3 ) .


H x I ( x 2 2 x r 2 ) I ( x 2 r 2 ) AT / m
B x H x ( xI 2 r 2 ) wb / m 2

The flux /meter of length is :

d (xI 2 r 2 ) dx wb / m
The flux linkages d of length are the product
of the flux per meter of length and the fraction of
the current linkage .
d ( x 2 r 2 ) d
( Ix 3 2 r 4 ) dx wbt / m
r

int ( Ix 3 2 r 4 ) dx ( I 8 ) wbt / m
0
Where, r 0
Assuming , r 1
0 4 107 H /m
int (I 2) 107 wbt / m
L int ( int I ) 0.5 107 H /m
Flux linkages between two points external
to an isolated conductor .
In the Fig. P1 and P2 are two points at distance D1
and D2 from the center of the conductor which
carries a current of (I) :

H x (I 2 x ) AT / m
B x (I 2 x ) wb / m 2
The flux linkages between P1 and P2 are:
D2

12 ( I
D1
2 x ) dx ( I 2 ) ln( D 2 D1 ) wbt / m

For a relative permeability of

12 2 107 I ln( D 2 D1 ) wbt / m


The inductance due only to the flux included between P1 and
P2 is:
L12 2 107 ln( D 2 D1 ) H /m
Using the logarithm to base ( 10 ) :
L12 0.7411 log(D2 D1 ) mH / mile
Inductance of a single-phase two
wire line .
In the following Fig. , a single phase with two conductors of
radius r1 and r2 have been shown. One conductor is the return
circuit for the other
r1 r2
D

First , consider only the flux linkages of the circuit caused by


the current in conductor 1. The current in conductor 2 is equal
in value and opposite in direction to the current in conductor 1
The inductance of the circuit due to current in
conductor 1 is determined by the following equation:
L12 2 107 ln( D 2 D1 ) H /m

With the distance D between conductor 1 and 2


substituted for D2 and the radius r1 of conductor 1
substituted for D1.
For external flux only:
L1,ext . 2 107 ln(D r1 ) H /m
For internal flux only
L1,int . 0.5 107 H /m
The total inductance of the current due to the
current in conductor ( 1 ) equations :

L 1 [(1 2) 2 ln( D r1 )] 107


= 2 107 [( 1 4 ) + ln( D r1 )]
= 2 107 [ln e 1 4 + ln( D r1 )]
= 2 107 ln( D r1 e 1 4 )
= 2 107 ln( D r1 )
=0.7411 log10 ( D r1 ) H /m

1 4
Where, r r1 e
1

The inductance due to current in conductor ( 2 ) is :
L 2 2 107 ln( D r 2)
=0.7411 log10 ( D r 2) mH / mile

The inductance for the complete circuit :


L L1 L 2 4 107 ln( D r1 r 2 ) H /m

If r1 r 2 r
L 4 107 ln( D r )
=1.4822 log10 ( D r ) mH / mile
Inductance between two points external one conductor is one-
half the total inductance of a single-phase line and is called the
inductance per conductor .
Flux linkages of one conductor in
a group

Conductors ( 1 , 2 , 3 ,., n ) carry the phasor currents:

with distance
Let us determine , ( 1 p )1 the flux linkages of conductor,
due to I 1 including internal flux linkages and external
all the flux beyond point ( p ):

( 1 p )1 [(I 1 2) 2 I 1 ln( D1 p r1 )] 107


= 2 107 I 1 ln( D1 p r1) wbt / m

The flux linkage ( 1 p )2 with conductor ( 1 ) due to I 2


is equal to the flux produced by I 2 between the point (p)
and conductor ( 1 )
( 1p )2 2 10 I 2 ln(D2 p D12 )
7
The flux linkage 1p with conductor (1 ) due
to all the conductors in the group is

1 p 2 107 [I 1 ln( D1 p r1) I 2 ln( D 2 p D12 )


I 3 ln( D 3 p D13 ) .... I n ln( D np D1n )]

1 p 2 107 [I 1 ln(1 r1) I 2 ln(1 D12 ) I 3 ln(1 D13 ) .... I n ln(1 D1n )
+I 1 ln D1 p I 2 ln D 2 p I 3 ln D 3 p .... I n ln D np ]
However , I 1 I 2 I 3 .... I n =0
I n (I 1 I 2 I 3 .... I n 1 )
( D1 p D 2 p ..... Dnp )
p : is infinity for away

1 2 107 [I 1 ln(1 r1) I 2 ln(1 D12 ) I 3 ln(1 D13 ) .... I n ln(1 D1n )
+ ln D1 p (I 1 I 2 I 3 .... I n )] (5)

However , this equation includes all flux linkage


of conductor ( 1 )
Inductance of composite-
conductor lines.

The figure shows a single-phase line composed of


two conductors , each conductor arrangement of an
indefinite number of conductors and share the current
equally .
Conductor ( x ) is composed of ( n ) identical each of
which carries the current I/n .
Conductor ( Y ) , which is the return circuit for the
current in conductor( x ) , is composed to identical
each of which carries the current -I/m.
Applying equation ( 5 ) to filaments of conductor ( x )
, the flux linkage at conductor ( a ) is :
a 2 107 ( I n )[ ln(1 ra) ln(1 Dab ) ln(1 Dac ) .... ln(1 Dan )]
- 2 107 ( I m ) [ ln(1 Daa ) ln(1 Dab ) ln(1 Dac ) .... ln Dam ]
Or
a 2 107 I ln( m Daa Dab Dac ..... Dam n
ra Dab Dac ..... Dan ) wbt / m
The inductance of filaments ( a ) is:

La a (I n ) 2n 107 ln( m Daa Dab Dac ..... Dam n


ra Dab Dac ..... Dan ) H /m

Similarly , the inductance of filaments ( b ) is :


Lb b (I n ) 2n 107 ln( m Dba Dbb Dbc ..... Dbm n
Dba rb Dbc ..... Dbn ) H /m

The average inductance of the filaments of conductor ( x ) is :

7
mn
(Daa Dab Dac ...Dam )(Dba Dbb ...Dbm )(Dna ...Dnm )
L x 2n 10 ln[ 2
] H /m
n (Daa Dab Dac ...Daa )(Dba Dbb Dbc ...Dbn )( Dna ...Dn n )
Where
L x = 2 10 ln( G.M.D G.M.R )
7

7 Geometric mean distance


= 2 10 ln( )
Geometric mean radius

However , the inductance of conductor ( Y ) can be


calculated similar to conductor ( x ) .
The total inductance of conductor ( x ) and ( y ) is :

L Lx Ly
Example (1)
One circuit of a single phase transmission line is
composed of three solid wires ( 0.1 in ) . The return
circuit is composite of two ( 0.2 in radius ) wires . The
arrangement of conductors is shown in fig. . Find the
inductance due to the current in each side of the line
and the inductance of the complete line .
Solution
The G.M.D between side ( x ) and ( y ) is :

Dm 6 Dad Dae Dbd Dbe Dcd Dce


The G.M.R for side ( x ) is :

Ds 9 Daa Dab Dac Dba Dbb Dbc Dca Dcb Dcc

and for side ( Y ) :

Ds 4 Ddd Dde Dee Ded


The inductance ,
7 G .M .D
L x 2 10 ln( )
G .M .R of side x
7 G .M .D
L y 2 10 ln( )
G .M .R of side y
Example (2)
A conductor is composed of seven identical strands
each having a radius ( r ) . Find the ( G.M.R ) for the
conductor.
Solution
G.M.R of the seven strand conductor is :

Ds 49 (r )2 (D12D13D14D17 )6 (2r )6
The inductive reactance of one conductor of a single-
phase two conductor line is :
x L 2 fL 2 f 0.7411 10 log( Dm Ds )
3

=4.657 103 f log( Dm Ds ) /mile


Inductance of 3-phase lines with
equilateral spacing.
The figure shows the conductors of a 3-phase line
spaced at the corners of an equilateral triangle.
where , a

ra rb rc r D D

c b
D

Assume that , there is no neutral wire.


Assume balanced 3-phase phasor current .
Ia Ib Ic 0
The flux linkages of conductor ( a ) is :
a 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D ) + I c ln(1 D )] wbt / m (6)

Since, I a ( I b I c ) (7)

From equation ( 7 ) in ( 6 ) ,
a 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) - I a ln(1 D )]
=2 107 I a ln( D r ) wbt / m

And L a 2 107 ln( D r ) H /m


Or La 0.4711 log(D r ) mH / mile
This equation is the same in form as equation for a single-
phase line ( between two conductors ) . However ,
La Lb Lc for balance system
Inductance of 3-phase lines with
unsymmetrical spacing
In this case , the flux linkages and inductance of each
phase are not the same .
A different inductance in each phase results in an
unbalance circuit .
This case can be overcome by exchanging the
positions of the conductors at regular intervals along
the line so that each conductor occupies the original
position of every other conductor over an equal
distance .
Such an exchange of conductor positions is called
"transposition".
A complete transposition cycle is shown as :
The flux linkages of ( a ) in position ( 1 ) , when ( b )
is in position ( 2 ) and ( c ) in position ( 3 ) , is :

a1 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D12 ) + I c ln(1 D 31 )] wbt / m

1
a

D13 D12

3 c b 2
D23
The flux linkages of ( a ) in position ( 2 ) , when ( b )
is in position ( 3 ) and ( c ) in position ( 1 ) , is :

a2 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D 23 ) + I c ln(1 D12 )] wbt / m

1
c

D13 D12

3 b a 2
D23
The flux linkages of ( a ) in position ( 3 ) , when ( b )
is in position ( 1 ) and ( c ) in position ( 2 ) , is :

a3 2 107 ln[I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D13 ) + I c ln(1 D 23 )] wbt / m

1
b

D13 D12

3 a c 2
D23
The average value of the flux linkages of ( a ) is :
a ( a1 a2 a3 ) 3
2 107
a ln[3 I a ln(1 r ) + I b ln(1 D12 D 23 D13 ) + I b ln(1 D12D 23D13 )]
3

Assume that a balance current :

I a ( I b I c )
2 107
a ln[3 I a ln(1 r ) - I a ln(1 D12 D 23 D13 )]
3
2 107
= ln[3 I a ln(1 r ) - 3 I a ln(1 3 D12 D 23 D13 )]
3
= 2 107 I a ln( 3 D12 D 23 D13 r )
= 2 107 I a ln( Deq . r )

And the average inductance per phase is :


L a 2 107 ln( Deq . r )
=0.4711 log( Deq . r ) mH / mile
However , La Lb Lc
are the same of equation for equal
spacing conductor D12 D23 D13 D
Example (3)
A single circuit 3-phase line operated at ( 60 CPS ) is
arranged as shown below . Each conductor has radius (
0.2 in ) . Find the inductance and inductive reactance
per phase per mile ,at frequency equals ( 50 c/s ) .
Solution
La 0.7411 log10 (Deq . Dscp )

Deq . D D D
3 p
ab
p
ac
p
cb
D A .B .C
p
sc
3

Dabp 4 Dab Dab Dba Dba A 2 r .Daa

Dbcp 4 Dbc Dbc Dcb Dcb B 2 r .Dbb


Dcap 4 Dca Dca Dac Dac C 2 r .Dcc
Example (4)
Each conductor of a section of the ( 460 KV ) line
shown in below is ( 1.5 in ) diameter . Conductor
spacing is shown in the figure . Find the inductive
reactance in ohm/mile at 60 CPS .
Solution
Example (5)
A 3-phase double circuit line has diameter ( 0.3 in ) .
The line is arranged as shown below and is completely
transposed. Find 60 cycle inductive reactance per
phase per mile .
Solution
Bundled conductors
The trend toward ever higher voltages for T.L has
stimulated interest in the use of two or more
conductors per phase.

Such a line said to be composed of " bundled "


conductors.
Usually the spacing of conductors of a phase is
about ( 10 ) times the diameter of one conductor ,
that is about ( 8 to 20 in ).

The advantages of bundling are reduced reactance


because of increased self SGM and reduce voltage
drop and voltage gradient which result in reduced
radio interference
Capacitance of Transmission Lines
Capacitance of a transmission line is the
result of the potential difference between
the conductors .
The capacitance between conductors is
the charge per unit of potential difference .
Capacitance between parallel conductors
is a constant depending on the size and
spacing of the conductors
Electric field of a long straight
conductor
Electric flux density ( D ) is the electric flux
per square meter and is measured in
coulombs per square meter .
The fig. ( 1 ) shows an isolated conductor
carrying an uniformly distributed charge.
The flux density at ( x ) meters from the
conductor can be computed by :

D q 2x c m 2
The electric field intensity is equal to the electric
flux density divided by the permittivity of the
medium.

q 2xk vm

Where
12
k k r ko , ko 8.854 10 F m

D k
Induced voltage is:

V dx

x
V q 2xk dx
r

= ( q 2k ) ln( x r )
The potential difference between
two points due to a charge
Consider a long straight wire carrying a positive
charge of [ q (c/m) ].
The positive charge on the wire will exert a repelling
force on a positive charge placed in the field.
The potential difference is independent of the path
followed.
Thus the instantaneous voltage drop between P1 and
P2 is:
D2 D2

V 12
D1
dx q 2 xk dx (q 2 k ) ln( D 2 D1 )
D1
V (1)
Capacitance of a two-wire line
Capacitance per unit length of the line is:
C q V F m (2)
From eq.(2) in eq.(1) we get

C 12 q V 12 2k ln(D2 D1 ) F m
The voltage between the two conductors of the two
wire shown in the fig.(3) can be found by computing
the voltage drop due to the charge (qa) on conductor
( a ) and assume that conductor ( b ) is uncharged
and then by computing the voltage drop due to the
charge (qb) on conductor ( b ) .
By the principle of superpose the voltage drop are
computed. We obtained:
V ab (q a 2 k ) ln( D ra ) (q b 2 k ) ln(rb D )
a r1 r2
D
Since qa = -qb for a two-wire line .
V ab (q a 2 k ) [ ln(D ra ) ln(rb D )]
(q a 2 k ) ln(D ra rb )
2
V

The capacitance between conductors is :

C ab q a V ab 2k ln( D ra rb )
2
F m

If r a rb r

C ab 2k 2ln(D r ) = k ln(D r ) F m
Sometimes it is desirable to know the capacitance
between one of the conductors and a neutral point
between them .
Thus the capacitance to neutral for the two-wire
line is twice the line-to-line capacitance
( capacitance between conductors ) .
The voltage across the line divided equally
between them .
Therefore,
C an C bn 2C ab 2k ln(D r ) F m
Capacitance of a 3-phase line
with equalateral spacing
A three identical conductors of radius ( r )
shown in the fig .(5) .
Thus the voltage Vab of the 3-phase line is:
V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D r ) q b ln(r D ) q c ln(D D )] V
1
a

D13 D12

3 c b 2
D23
Similarly,
V ac (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D r ) q b ln(D D ) q c ln(r D )] V
V ab V ac (1 2 k ) [ 2 q a ln(D r ) (q b q c )ln(r D )] V

We have assumed that ground is for enough a way


to have negligible effect. For,
q a qb qc 0
qb qc q a
V ab V ac (1 2 k ) [ 2 q a ln( D r ) q a ln(r D )]
= (q a 2 k )ln( D 3 r 3 )
= (3q a 2 k )ln( D r ) (3)
Fig.(6) is the phasor diagram of voltages where
the voltage from line ( a ) to the neutral of the 3-
phase circuit.
V ab ( 3 2) V ab J (1 2) V ab

V ab 3 V an

V ab ( 3 2) 3 V an J ( 3 2) V an
3 V an [( 3 2) J (1 2)]
Similarly,

V ac 3 V an [( 3 2) J (1 2)]
V ab V ac 3 V an (4)
From ( 3 ) and ( 4 ) we get:

3 V an = (3q a 2 k )ln( D r )
V an = (q a 2 k )ln(D r )

C an q a V an
C an 2k ln(D r ) F m
Capacitance of a 3-phase line
with unsymmetrical spacing
In this condition , the problem of calculating
capacitance becomes more difficult .
In the usual untransposed line the capacitances of
each phases to neutral are unequal .
For the line shown in the following Fig.(7)
equations are found for for the three different parts
of the transposition cycle .
With phase ( a ) in position (1) , (b) in position (2) and
( c ) in position ( 3 ) .
V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln( D12 r ) q b ln(r D12 ) q c ln( D 23 D 31 )] V

When phase ( a ) in position ( 2 ) , ( b ) in position ( 3 )


and ( c ) in position ( 1 ) ,
V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D23 r ) q b ln(r D23 ) q c ln(D31 D 12 )] V

And , with phase ( a ) in position ( 3 ) , ( b ) in


position ( 1 ) and ( c ) in position ( 2 ) ,
V ab (1 2 k ) [q a ln(D31 r ) q b ln(r D31 ) q c ln(D12 D 23 )] V
The average voltage between conductors (a) and (b).
V ab (1 2 3k ) [q a ln(D12 D 23D 31 r 3 ) q b ln(r 3 D12D 23D 31 ) q c ln(D12D 23D 31 D12D 23D 31 )]
(1 2 k ) [q a ln( Deq r ) q b ln(r Deq )] V

Where, Deq 3 D12 D23 D31

Similarly , the average drop from conductor ( a ) to


conductor ( c ) is :
V ac (1 2 k ) [q a ln( Deq r ) q c ln(r Deq )] V

V ab V ac 3 V an

3 V an (1 2 k ) [2q a ln( Deq r ) q b ln(r Deq ) q c ln(r Deq )]


Since, qa+qb+qc=0 in a balanced 3-phase circuit .

3 V an (1 2 k ) [2q a ln( Deq r ) q a ln(r Deq )]


3 V an (1 2 k ) [2q a ln( Deq r ) q a ln( Deq r )]
3 V an (3 2 k ) q a ln( Deq r )

And

C n q a V an 2k ln( Deq r ) F m (I )
Effect of earth on the capacitance of
3-phase transmission lines
Let us imagine conductor of the same size and
shape as the overhead conductor lying directly
below the original conductor above the plane of the
ground .
If the earth is removed and a charge equal and
opposite to that on the overhead conductor is
assumed on the imagine conductor .
The electric flux between the overhead conductor
and this equipotential surface is the same as that
which existed between the conductor and the earth .
To apply the method of images to the calculation of
capacitance for a 3- phase , refer to fig.( 8 ) , we
assume that the line is transposed and that conductor
( a ) , ( b ) and ( c ) carry the changes (qa) , (qb) and
(qc) and occupy positions ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) , in
the first part of the transposition cycle .
The conductors with the image charges charge (-qa)
, (-qb) and (-qc).
Equations for 3-parts of the transposition cycle can
be written for the voltage drop from conductor (a) to
conductor ( b ) as determined by the three charged
conductors and their images .
With conductor ( a ) in position ( 1 ) , ( b ) position (
2 ) and ( c ) in position ( 3 ) .
V ac (1 2 k ) [q a (ln( D12 r ) ln( H 12 H 1 )) q b (ln(r D12 ) ln( H 2 H 12 ))
q c (ln( D 23 D 31 ) ln( H 23 H 31 ))] V

Similar equations for Vab are written for the other


parts of the transposition cycle and calculate the
average value of Vab.
The equation for the average value Vac is found in a
similar manner , and (3Van) is obtain by adding the
average values of Vab and Vac .
Knowing that the sum of charges is zero. We then
find:
C n 2k [ln(Deq r ) ln( 3 H 12H 23 H 31 3 H 1H 2 H 3 )] F m ( II )
Comparison of equations ( I ) and ( II ) show the effect
of the earthed is to increase the capacitance of a line (
subtract from it the term:
log( 3 H 12 H 23 H 31 3 H 1H 2 H 3 )
Parallel circuit 3-phase lines
Similar to the calculation of inductance :
C n 2k ln(Deq Dsc ) p

Deq D D D3 p
ab
p
bc
p
ca D A .B .C
p 3
sc
D p
ab 4 Dab Dab Dba Dba A 2 r .Da a
D 4 Dbc Dbc Dcb Dcb
p
bc B 2 r .Db b

D 4 Dca Dca Dac Dac


p
ca C 2 r .Dc c
Transmission Circuit
Calculations
Short Transmission line
In the case of a short transmission line the
capacitance and conductance to earth may be
neglected.
Leaving only the series resistance and inductance
to be taken into consideration.
The current entering the line at the sending-end
termination is equal to the current leaving at the
receiving-end, and this same current flows through
all the line sections.
The R and L parameters may therefore be
regarded as ' lumped ' .
The equivalent circuit diagram and the vector
diagram for a short line are shown in fig.( 6.1 ) in
which:

Fig.( 6.1 a ): Equivalent circuit for a short transmission line


Fig.( 6.1 b ): Vector diagram for a short transmission line .
The currents IS and IR will be equal in magnitude
but not in phase.

Since there is a phase-shift of voltage along the


line.

R is obtained from a knowledge of the line length


,the size of conductor and the specifics resistance
of the conductor material ,

while XL is calculated from the conductor spacing


and radius using the formula derived in Chapter 5 .
Referring to the equivalent circuit :

IS IR (6.1a )

V S V R ( R jX L )I R (6.1b )
V R Z I R

Hence, if the receiving-end conditions are known


the necessary sending-end voltage may be
calculated .
It will be noted that ( 6.1a ) and ( 6.1b ) are phasor
equations , a more approximate method involving
scalar quantities is as follows: Referring to the
vector diagram,

V SX V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R

V SY I R X L cos R I R R sin R

V S =[ (V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R ) 2

+(I R X L cos R I R R sin R ) ] 2 12


However (IR XL) and (IR R) are very much less
than VR and the small voltage is in quadrate with
the much larger VSX ,

V S V SX V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R

The voltage regulation of the line is given by the


rise in voltage when full loads is removed , or :
V S V R (R cos R X L sin R )
%age voltage regulation IR
VR VR
Example
A three-phase line delivers 3 MW at 11 KV for a
distance of 15 Km . Line loss is 10 % of power
delivered , load power factor is 0.8 lagging . frequency
is 50 Hz , 1.7 m equilateral spacing of conductors .
Calculate the sending-end voltage and regulation .
Solution
11,000
Receiving-end phase voltage = 6.360 V R
3
Line current = phase current ( assuming a star connection )
3,000 103
= 197 A
3 11 10 0.8
3
Total line loss =3 I 2 R (in three conductors)
10
= 3, 000 10 3

100
300 103
R
3 197 2

2.58 ohms

Assuming that the conductors are manufactured


from copper having a resistance of 0.0137 ohms
per meter for a cross-sectional area of 1 mm2 , the
conductor cross-section is 80 mm2 corresponding to
a radius of 5 mm .
1 d
Inductance =L (1 4 logc ) 107 H / metre
2 r

X L L length
3
1 1.7 10
= 314 (1 4 logc ) 107 15 103
2 5
=5.75 ohms
V S V R I R R cos R I R X L sin R
= 6,350 + ( 197 2.58 0.8) + ( 197 5.75 0.6)
= 6,350 + 1057
= 7,407 V per phase
= 12,780 V line

( R cos R X L sin R ) V S V R
Regulation =I R =
VR VR
1,057
= 16.7 %
6,350
Medium Transmission line
It has been mentioned in section 6.2 that the
capacitance of medium length lines is significant.

When the effect of capacitance is not negligible , it


may be assumed to be concentrated at one or more
definite points along the line.

A number of localized capacitance methods have


been used to make approximate line performance
calculations.
The following methods are more commonly used :

These methods of calculation give reasonably


accurate results for the solution of most
transmission-line problems .
Nominal T method .
In a nominal T method the total line capacitance is
assumed to be concentrated at the middle point of
the line . The T representation of a line is shown in
fig.( 6.12 ).
Series impedance of the line Z R jX
Shunt admittance Y j C
With the usual meanings of the quantities given in
fig.( 2 ) ,
Z
Voltage at the mid-point of the line . Vab Vr Ir
2

Current in the capacitor , Iab Vab Y


Sending-end current , Is Ir Iab
=Ir Vab Y
Z
=Ir (Vr Ir ) Y
2
Z Y
Is =Ir (1 ) Y Vr (6.13.1)
2
Sending-end voltage ,
Z
Vs Vab Is
2
Z Z Y Z
=Vr Ir [Ir (1 Y Vr )]
2 2 2
Z Y Z Y
Vs Vr (1 ) Ir ( Z ) (6.13.2)
2 4
Equations ( 6.13.1 ) and ( 6.13.2 ) give the
sending-end current and sending-end voltage
respectively.
Other quantities , such as phase shift, power input,
efficiency, regulation, etc, can be determined in the
usual manner .
Phasor diagram
The phasor diagram of the nominal T circuit of
fig.(6.12) is shown in fig.(6.13). It is drawn for a
lagging power factor cos R

Fig.(6.13):Phasor diagram of a nominal T network


In the phasor diagram :
Nominal method .
This method assumed that one-half of the total line
capacitance is concentrated at each end of the line
and the total resistance and inductive reactance are
concentrated at the center .
Fig.( 6.14 ) shows the nominal representation of
the line.
From fig.( 6.14),
Y
Iab Vr
2
Y
I=Ir Iab Ir Vr
2
Voltage at the sending-end ,

Vs Vr I Z
Y
Vr ( Ir Vr ) Z
2
Z Y
(1 )Vr Z Ir (6.14.1)
2
Y
Icd Vs
2
Z Y Y
[(1 )Vr Z Ir ]
2 2
Sending-end current,

Is I Icd
Y Z Y Y
Is Ir Vr [(1 )Vr Z Ir ]
2 2 2
Z Y2 Z Y
( Y+ ) Vr ( 1 ) Ir (6.14.2)
4 2

Equations ( 6.14.1 ) and ( 6.14.2 ) give the sending-end voltage


and current respectively . The other calculations can be made
in the usual manner.
Phasor diagram
The phasor diagram of a nominal circuit is
shown in fig.( 6.15 ). It is also drawn a lagging
power factor of the load.
In the phasor diagram the quantities shown are as
follows :
Example
A three-phase, 50 Hz, transmission line, 40 km long
delivers 36 Mw at 0.8 power factor lagging at 60 kv
(phase). The line constants per conductor are ,

Shunt leakage may be neglected. Find the sending-end


voltage , current , phase angle, and the efficiency . Use
(a) nominal T method, (b) nominal method.
Solution
Phase voltage at the receiving-end
V r 60 kv =60 10 3
v
1
Power per phase = 36 Mw = 12 106 w
3
Therefore, the receiving-end current ,
12 10 6
Ir 250 A
60 10 0.8
3

Taking Vr as the reference phasor,

Vr V r jQ
cos r 0.8 , sin r 0.6
Ir I r cos r j I r sin r
=250 0.8 j 250 0.6=200 j 150

Reference per phase, R 2.5


Inductive reactance per phase ,

X 2 fL 2 3.14 50 0.1 31.4


Series impedance per phase,
Z =R jX 2.5 j 31.4 31.4 tan 1 12.56
31.485.4

Shunt admittance per phase

Y 2 fC 2 3.14 50 0.25 106


78.5 106 siemens
Y= 0 +j 78.5 106 78.6 106 90
Calculation by nominal T method
The nominal T circuit for the line is shown in Fig.(6.1).
Z
Vab Vr Ir
2
R X
V r j 0 (I r cos r j I r sin r )( j )
2 2
60 103 (200 j 150)(1.25 j 15.7)
60 103 2.605 j 2959
(62.605 j 2.959) 103 v
The current in the capacitor ,
Iab Y Vab
j 78.6 106 (62.605 j 2.959) 103
=-0.2315+j 4.903
The current at the sending-end ,
Is Ir Iab
(200 j 150) (-0.2315+j 4.903)
=199.8 j 145
[(199.8)2 (145)2 ]1 2 tan 1 ( 145 199.8)
247 tan 1 0.7257
247 35 57

Voltage drop in the left-hand half of the line ,


Z
Is (199.8 j 145)(1.25 j 15.7)
2
2527 j 2959
Voltage at the sending-end ,
Z
Vs Vab Is
2
62.605 j 2959 2527 j 2959
65132 j 5918
[(65132)2 (5918)2 ]1 2 tan 1 (5918 65132)
65450 tan 1 0.09077
654505 11 v/phase

Fig.(6.16):Phasor diagram
Sending-end line voltage ,

=65450 3 113400 v
=113.4 kv
Phase difference between Vs and Is ,
s 5 11 ( 35 57)
41 8
Sending-end power factor ,

coss cos 41 8=0.7532


Power loss in the line ,
R 2 R
3I r
2
3I s
2 2
3 (250)2 1.25 3 (247)2 1.25
463.2 10 3
v

Transmission efficiency ,
Power output
T
Power output Power loss
36 10 6

36 10 463.2 10
6 3

0.9872 or 98.72 per cent


Alternatively , transmission efficiency may be calculated as
follows :

3V r I r cosr
T
3V s I s coss
36 10 6
=
3 65450 247 0.7532
=0.986 or 98.6 per cent
Calculation by nominal method
The nominal circuit for the line is shown in Fig.( 6.14)

Y
Iab Vr
2
j 39.3 106 60 103 =j 2.35

I Ir Iab
(200 j 150) j 2.35
=200 j 147.65
[(200)2 (147.65)2 ]1 2 tan 1 ( 147.65 200)
245.6 36 26
Voltage drop per phase ,

I Z (200 j 147.65)(2.5 j 31.4)


5136 j 5910

Voltage at the sending-end per phase ,

Vs Vab I Z
60 103 5136 j 5910
65136 j 5910
1
[(65136) (5910) ] tan (5910 65136)
2 2 12

65390 5 11 v/phase
Sending-end line voltage ,

=65390 3=113.2 kv
Y
Icd Vs
2
6
j 39.3 10 (65136 j 5190)
= 0.232+j 2.557
Sending-end current ,
Is Ir Icd
(200 j 150) 0.232+j 2.557
=199.8 j 145
1
[(199.8) (145) ] tan ( 145 199.8)
2 2 12

247 35 57 A

s 5 11 ( 35 57)
41 8
Sending-end power factor ,

coss cos 41 8=0.7532


Power loss in the line ,
2
=3 I R
=3 (248.6) 2.5
2

=463.6 Kw
Transmission efficiency ,
36 106
T
36 106 463.6 103
0.9873 or 98.73 per cent
Example
A three-phase , 50 Hz , 150 km line operates at 110 Kv
between the lines at the sending-end. The total inductance
and capacitance per phase are (0.2 H) and (1.5 F) .
Neglecting losses calculate the value of receiving-end load
having a power factor of unity for which the voltage at the
receiving-end will be the same as that at the sending-end .
Assume one-half of the total capacitance of the line to be
concentrated at each end .
Solution
The circuit for the given line is shown in fig.(6.17) . It is a
nominal representation .
110 1000
V r V s 63510 v
3
Inductive reactance per phase ,
X L 2 fL 2 3.14 50 0.2 62.8

Series impedance per phase ,


Z =jX L j 62.8

Shunt admittance per phase ,

Y 2 fC 2 3.14 50 1.5 10 6

4.71 104 siemins


4
Y=j 4.71 10
Vr V r j 0

Fig.(6.17): Illustrating example (6.9).


Current in the load-end capacitor ,
Y 4.71
Iab Vr j 104 63510 j 14.96 A
2 2
Let the load current be Ir . Since the load power factor is
unity ,
Ir I s 0 I s j 0

Current through the inductive reactance ,

I =Ir Iab
Ir j 14.96
Sending-end voltage ,
Vs Vr I Z
=V r j 0 (Ir j 14.96)( j 62.8)
=(V r -939.5)+j 62.8 I r

V s2 =(V r -939.5)2 (62.8 I r )2


(63510) =(63510-939.5) (62.8 I r )
2 2 2

(62.8 I r )2 118 106

10862
Ir 173 A
62.8
General Network
Constants
Introduction
A network having two input and two output terminals is
known as a two-port network . It may also be called a two-
terminal-pair network or quadriple network . In fig.(1 .
a,b) represent the input pair terminals and ( c,d ) the output
pair terminals . The two pairs of terminals are usually
shown to be enclosed in a box .

Fig.( 1 ) :Two-port network .


A circuit consisting of any arrangement of its
components is connected to these terminals .

V s AV r BI r
(1.1)
I s CV r DI r

Where A , B , C , D are called the general network


constants of the system . These constants are known
by other names like transmission parameters , chain
parameters and auxiliary network constants .
Equation (1) can be put in the matrix form as :

V s A B V r

D I r
(1.2)
I s C

A B

The matrix C
D is called the transfer matrix or
transmission matrix of the network
Cascaded network
The overall A , B , C , D constants for several 2-port
networks connected in cascade ( or chain arrangement )
can be found out easily . Fig.( 2 ) shows two cascaded
networks , and one that is the equivalent of both . The
constants of the two component networks are A1 , B1 , C1 ,
D1 and A2 , B2 , C2 , D2 . Let the constants for the
equivalent network be A0 , B0 , C0 , D0 .

Fig.( 2 ) : Two cascaded networks and their equivalents.


Let Va and Ia be the voltage and current
respectively at the junction (a) of the two networks.

V a A2 V r B 2 I r
(2.1)
I a C 2 V r D2 I r

For the network ( 1 ) ,

V s A1 V a B1 I a
(2.2)
I s C 1 V a D1 I a
Substituting the values of Va and Ia from the first
set of equations in the second set , we have :

V s A1 ( A2 V r B 2 I r ) B 1 (C 2 V r D 2 I r )
( A1 A2 B1C 2 ) V r ( A1B 2 B1D 2 ) I r (2.3)

I s C 1 ( A2 V r B 2 I r ) D1 (C 2 V r D 2 I r )
(C 1 A2 D1C 2 ) V r (C 1B 2 D1D 2 ) I r (2.4)
The sending-end voltage and current for the
equivalent network with constants A0 , B0 , C0 , D0 are
given by :

V s A0 V a B 0 I a
(2.5)
I s C 0 V a D0 I a

Equating the constants of Vr and Ir , the overall


constants for the two networks in cascade are :
A0 A1 A2 B 1C 2

B 0 A1B 2 B 1 D 2
(2.6)
C 0 C 1 A2 D1C 2
D 0 C 1B 2 D1 D 2

Matrix method . For the first network ,

V s A1 B1 V a
(2.7)
I s C 1 D1 I a

But Va and Ia are the input voltage and current


respectively of the second network , so that :

V a A2 B 2 V r
(2.8)
I a C 2 D2 I r
Combining these equations ,

V s A1 B1 A2 B 2 V r
C
D2 I r
(2.9)
I s 1
C D1 2

For the equivalent network ,


V s A0 B 0 V r
(2.10)
I s C 0 D0 I r
Comparing equations (2.9) and (2.10) we get ,
A0 B 0 A1 B1 A2 B2
C (2.11)
0 D0 C 1 D1 C 2 D2
Relations between A,B ,C ,D
constants
The relations between A, B , C , D constants of a passive ,
linear and bilateral network can be found with the help of
reciprocity theorem . First a voltage V is applied to the
input terminals keeping the output terminals short
circuited fig.( 3 ,a ) . Since under short circuit Vr= 0 ,
equations ( 1.1 ) give :
V B I rs (3.1)

I ss D I rs (3.2)
Now , the voltage V is applied to the output terminals and
the input terminals are short circuited fig.( 3 ,b ) . The
directions of flow of currents at the input and output
terminals are reversed and the sending-end voltage Vs
becomes zero. Equation ( 1.1 ) become :

0 AV BI r
AV
I r (3.3)
B

I s CV DI r (3.4)
Since the network is passive , by the reciprocity theorem ,
I s I rs (3.5)

Fig.( 3 )
Combining equations ( 3.1 ), ( 3.3 ) , ( 3.4 ) and ( 3.5 ) we
get ,
DAV
I rs CV
B
V DAV
CV
B B
Dividing both the sides of the above equation by -V/B we
get ,
AD BC 1 (3.6)

Equation ( 3.6 ) is of one of the required relations between


the network constants. This relation may also be put in the
determinant form as :
A B
C 1
D
Series impedance circuit
A circuit having a series impedance Z is shown in fig.(4)
. Such a case is found in a short transmission line where
the line capacitance is negligible and the shunt admittance
Y is zero . A transformer with magnetizing current
neglected can also be represented by such a circuit .

Fig.( 4 ) :Series impedance circuit .


For the network shown in fig.( 4 ) we may write :
V s V r Z I r
(4.1)
Is Ir

V s 1 Z V r
I (4.2)
s
I 0 1 r
By comparing these equations with the general equations
(1.1) and (1.2) the general constants for the series
impedance network can be written as :
A 1 B Z
(4.3)
C 0 D=1
1 Z
The transfer matrix for the network is
0 1
Shunt admittance circuit
Fig,( 5 ) , shows a transmission network with a shunt
admittance Y . Such a network may represent the
magnetizing current circuit of a transformer or a shunt
capacitor .

Fig.( 5 ) : Shunt admittance circuit


For the network shown in fig.( 5 ) we may write :

V s V r
(5.1)
I s Y Vr I r

V s 1 0 V r
(5.2)
I s Y 1 I r

Hence,
A 1 B 0
(5.3)
C Y D=1
Half T network
A half T network is shown in fig.( 6 ) .

Fig.( 6 ): Half-T network .


V s V r Z I r
V r (Y V r I r ) Z
(1 Z Y ) V r Z I r

V s (1 Z Y ) Z V r
(6.1)
I s Y 1 I r

Hence,

A 1 Z Y B Z
(6.2)
C Y D=1
Matrix method , The half T network can be considered
as the cascade connection of two sections . One section is
a series impedance Z and the other a shunt admittance Y .
The overall constants are obtained from the matrix product
of the transfer matrices of each section in the correct order.

V s 1 Z 1 0 V r

I s 0 1 Y 1 I r
(1 Z Y ) Z V r

Y 1 I r
Overhead lines and its
mechanical
characteristics
Introduction
An overhead line comprises mainly of i ) conductor, ii )
supports , iii ) insulators and pole fittings . The function of
overhead lines is to transmit electrical energy , and the
important characteristics which the line conductors must
have are :
a) High electrical conductivity .
b) High tensile strength .
c) Low density .
d) Low cost .

The metals which posses the above properties are copper ,


aluminum and steel , which are used either alone or in
combination .
Types of conductors
Copper

The most common conductor used for transmission is


hard-drawn copper , because it is twice as strong as soft
drawn copper and it stretches to a much lesser extent than
soft drawn copper .
The merits of this metal as a line conductor are :
i ) It has a best conductivity in comparison to other metals .
The conductivity of copper , however depends upon the
percentage of impurities present in it , the more the
impurities the lesser will be the conductivity . The
conductivity of copper conductor also depends upon the
method by which it has been drawn .
ii ) It has higher current density , so for the given current
rating , lesser cross-sectional area of conductor is
required and hence it provides lesser cross-sectional
area to wind loads .
iii ) The metal is quite homogeneous .
iv ) It has low specific resistance .
v) It is durable and has a higher scrap value .
Aluminum
Next to copper aluminum is the conductor used in order of
performance as far as the conductivity is concerned .Its
merits and demerits are :

i ) It is cheaper than copper .


ii ) It is lighter in weight .
iii ) It is second in conductivity ( among the metals used for
transmission ) . Commercial hard-down aluminum wire at
standard temperature has approximately 60.6 per cent
conductivity in comparison to standard annealed copper
wire .
iv ) For same ohmic resistance , its diameter is about 1.27
times that of copper .
v) At higher voltages it causes less corona loss .
vi ) Since the diameter of the conductor is more , so it is
subject to greater wind pressure due to which greater is
the swing of the conductor and greater is the sag .
vii ) Since the conductors are liable to swing, so it requires
larger cross arms .
viii ) As the melting point of the conductor is low , so the
short circuit etc. will damage it .
ix ) Joining of aluminum is much more difficult than that of
any other material .

Because of storage of copper ores in India ,the use of


aluminum in transmission and distribution lines has
been adopted .
Steel
No doubt it has got the greatest tensile strength , but it is
least used for transmission of electrical energy as it has
got high resistance .Bare steel conductors are not used
since , it deteriorates rapidly owing to rusting . Generally
galvanized steel wires are used . It has the following
properties :
i) It is lowest in conductivity .
ii ) It has high internal reactance .
iii ) It is much subjected to eddy current and hysterisis loss.
iv ) In a damp atmosphere it is rusted .

Hence its use is limited .


Aluminum conductor with steel reinforced
( A.C.S.R )
An aluminum conductor having a central core of
galvanized steel wires is used for high voltage
transmission purposes .
This is done to increase the tensile strength of aluminum
conductor . the galvanized steel core is covered by one or
more strands of aluminum wires .
The steel conductors used are galvanized in order to
prevent rusting and electrolytic corrosion ( since Zinc is
near to aluminum and there is no electro-chemical action
between the two metals ) .
The cross-sections of the two metals are in the ratio (1:6) ,
but in case of high strength conductors their ratio is (1:4) .

Thus the steel reinforced aluminum conductor has less sag


and longer span than the copper conductor line since it has
high tensile strength .

The aluminum steel conductor has a larger diameter than


any other type of conductor of same resistance .

For all calculation purposes , it is assumed that the current


is passing only in the aluminum section .
Line supports
The line supports are poles and the chief
requirements for such supports are :
i) They must be mechanically strong with factor of safety of
2.5 to 3 .
ii ) They must be light in weight without the loss of strength .
iii ) They must have least number of parts .
iv ) They must be cheap .
v) Their maintenance cost should be minimum .
vi ) They must be easily accessible for point and erection of
line conductors .
vii ) They must have longer life .
viii ) They must be of pleasing shape .
The different types of poles which can be used as line
supports are :

a. Wooden poles .
b. Steel tubular poles
c. Reinforced concrete poles .
d. Steel towers .

Fig.(1):Singlephase single-circuit
Spacing between the
conductors

The most suitable spacing


between the conductors
can be arrived at by
mathematical calculations.
It can only be obtained by
empirical formulae which
have been obtained from
practical considerations.

Fig.(7):Three-phase single circuit horizontal disposition of conductor and steel towers


Generally the following formulae are used for obtaining
spacing between the conductors :
d
spacing 0.01 V kv 1.24 D feet

Where,
Vkv : is voltage in kilovolts .

d : is diameter of conductor
in inches .
w : is weight of conductor
in lb. per foot run .
D : is sag in feet .
Sag-tension calculations for the
overhead lines
The theory of sag tension calculation is based on the fact
that when a wire of uniform cross-section is suspended
between two points at the same level , the wire sags down
and assumes the shape of a " catenary " .
The line between the two points must be so teasioned that .
Fig.(9):Representation of sag in the conductor suspended between two points
Let , ( L ) be the length of the conductor POQ ,
suspended between the supports P and Q at the same
level and having a distance L between them .
Let , O be the lowest point of the catenary so formed ,
D be the maximum sag , and let :
w : be the weight of the conductor per unit length .
T : be the tension at any point A of the conductor .
To : be the tension at point O of the conductor , which is
taken as origin .
S : be the length of the conductor OA .

2
W I W 2 l2
D TQ T 0
8 T0 8 T0
Effect of ice covering and wind
over the line
Under the severest conditions of ice covering and wind ,
the stress over the line is increased to the maximum . The
ice covering over the conductor increase the weight of the
conductor per unit length . Let , ( d cm ) be the diameter
of the conductor and ( r cm ) be the radial thickness of ice.

Fig.(10): Representation of conductor covered with ice


Cross-sectional area of the conductor
d 2

4
Overall cross-sectional area when covered with ice

(d 2 r ) 2

4
Sectional area of the ice d2
= (d 2 r )
2

4 4

= [ (d 2 r )2 d 2 ]
4

= [ d 2 4 r 2 4 d r d 2 ]
4
= r ( d r )
Density of ice 0.915 g / cm3

Weight of ice per meter length

r ( d r ) 100 0.915 103 Kg


0.287 r ( d r ) Kg

The minimum temperature is assumed to be 22oF

The effect of wind is allowed for by assuming that the wind


is blowing with a velocity of ( 80.45 km ) per hour across
the line . It is equivalent to a pressure of ( 33.7 km ) per
square meter of the projected surface to the line to ice .
The projected surface per meter length of the conductor

( d 2 r )
1 sq.m
100

So , wind pressure Pw per meter run of the line in a


horizontal direction ,

( d 2 r )
Pw 33.7
100
0.337 ( d 2 r ) Kg
Fig.(11):Representation of resultant force acting on the
conductor .
So , the resultant force Wi acting on the conductor from
figure , is given as :

W i (w w i ) P 2
w
2
Overhead line over supports
different level
Consider an overhead line POQ , supports over the
supports at points P and Q .
The difference between supports level is h as shown in
figure(12).

Fig.(12)
Let , the different between the supports P and Q be h .
The line POQ forms the parts of the catenary , " POP ".
Let the horizontal distance between O and support Q be
(x).
So , distance of support P from O l x

and distance between PP 2 ( l x )

l T h
x
2 l w
Example
An overhead line has a span of 220 meters , the lines
conductor weights 684 km . per 1,000 meters . Calculate the
max. sag in the line , if the maximum allowable tension in the
line is 1,450 kg
Solution
2 l 220 m
W l
Maximum sag = 8 T T 0 1,450 Kg
0

Weight per unit length Max. sag


684
Kg 0.684 220 220
1, 000
0.684 Kg 8 1, 450
2.85 m