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Processing and Utilization of

Sugarcane By-products
11FT028 Byproducts Utilization in Food and
Agro Industries

11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries 1


Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College
Sugarcane
Sugarcane - source of sucrose
India stands 2nd in sugar cane production
Brazil in 1st position
Major residues cane tops, trash (dried leaf bases),
bagasse, molasses, and filter cake (press mud)
Residues - 40% of the weight of cane crushed,
besides furnace ash.
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Parts of Sugarcane

11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries


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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
4 Major Residues of sugarcane

11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries


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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Possible By-products

11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries


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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(A) Cane Tops
Bunch at the top of the shoot
Cane tops from fields - feed for cattles
Economical basal diet for lactating goats than grass
Cane tops as feed - supported higher milk production
Cane tops - collected, chopped, dried, and marketed as roughage

Highly efficient parenchyma - cane


leaves rich source of cellulose & lignin
in the vessels
Compounds - utilized for the
production of 11FT028
biopolymers
Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(A1) Animal Feed (Silage)
Sugar Cane Tops (SCT)- 5- 10 %
21 tons of sugarcane tops produced per hectare are theoretically
enough to provide forage for 1 livestock unit (LU) over a year
1 LU = 500 kg
Tops - cannot be directly used as an animal feed
SCTs - deficient in protein & minerals
SCTs- low energy value
Cannot fulfill the maintenance requirements of cattle

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
SCTs are transformed into silage
Silage is fermented, high moisture fodder made from crop
waste that can be fed to ruminants such as cattle and sheep
Fermented & stored in a process called ensiling or silaging
Silage is very palatable to livestock and can be fed at any time
Silage treated with urea & molasses
Urea non-protein nitrogen source supports a growth rate of
400 g/day in steers.
Molasses 1 5%

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Silage Preparation
Cane tops collected
Chopped - length of 2 cm
Molasses (5% ) & ammonium sulfate (1%) - as additives
Made into large bales - wrapped tightly in plastic to exclude
air.
Bales are placed tightly end to end on the ground, making a
long continuous sausage of silage
Silage was kept for 3 months

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Process of fermentation (Silaging)
Pressed - storage silo (an airtight pit) or in plastic wrapping
Silaging starts - aerobic phase - trapped O2 is consumed,
After exhaustion of O2, the anaerobic phase commences after about
48 h
Fermentation - Lactobacillus plantarum
Lactobacillus buchneri
Enterococcus faecium
Pediococcus sp.
Microorganisms - convert sugars into acids
exhaust any oxygen present in the crop material
Silage inoculants contain one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria
Fermentation - complete after about 2 weeks

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Sillage - Advantages
Efficiently used by livestock
Stable composition for longer period
Reduced nutrient losses

Produced - both cold and cloudy weather


Fermentation - reduces harmful nitrates - accumulated
in plants during droughts and in over fertilized crops
Allows farmers to store silage anywhere they need it
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(B) Bagasse
3035% of the weight of cane harvested
Best raw materials due to its quality, cost, and renewable
character
Complex material containing fiber, pith, and non-soluble
solids
Includes cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin of low molecular
weight

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the
production of value-added products
Bagasse is used as fuel (95%) - steam in factories - saving of
about 40 million tons of oil
Paper
Insulating board
Hardboard
Animal feeds
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(B1)Paper and Particles Board
Bagasse - good quality wrapping and magazine paper
Kraft process - conversion of wood into wood pulp consisting of almost
pure cellulose fibers
Kraft process or Kraft pulping or sulfate process

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Bagasse lignin
Pycnoporus cinnabarinus
Produces laccase enzyme break down lignin
Addition of ethanol-like volatile agent enhance laccase
At end of fermentation lignin into paper pulp
Bleached
Cardboard

Paper pulp is treated with hydrogen peroxide


Printed & writing paper

Delignification & bleaching


High-strength & durable paper

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(B2) Cellulosic Ethanol
Ethanol - produced from cellulose
Usually from plant's seeds or fruit
Biofuel produced from grasses, wood, algae, or other plants
Decreasing amount of fossil fuels
Alternative energy sources need to be
renewable
sustainable
efficient
Ethanol production as substitutes to fossil fuel
cost effective
convenient
safe

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Bioethanol production - sugarcane bagasse - to yield
fermentable sugar
Cellulosic ethanol - an environmentally friendly
renewable transportation fuel
Fermentation
Breakdown of cellulosic materials component
sugars into ethanol
Ethanol - greater net energy benefit
- lower greenhouse gas emissions
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Steps involved
Pretreatment - amenable to hydrolysis
Hydrolysis - cellulose into sugars
Fermentation
Product separation /purification

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(i) Pretreatment
To alter
biomass macroscopic & microscopic size and structure
sub-microscopic chemical composition and structure
Hydrolysis of carbohydrate fraction - monomeric sugars -
achieved more rapidly greater yields
To remove lignin & hemicellulose
To Reduce cellulose crystallinity
To increase the porosity
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Requirements of pretreatment
improve sugar formation
Improve - ability to subsequently form sugars by enzymatic
hydrolysis
avoid the degradation or loss of CHO
avoid the formation of byproducts inhibitory to the
subsequent hydrolysis & fermentation processes
be cost-effective

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Physical, physicochemical, chemical, & biological processes
- pretreatment of ligno cellulosic materials
Lignin - physical barrier & must be removed to make the
CHO available for further processes
Physical method
Mechanical comminution - 1030 mm after chipping and 0.22
mm
Pyrolysis Heated at 300 C,

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Physico-chemical pretreatment
Steam explosion (auto hydrolysis) -160260 C, 0.694.83 Mpa
Chemical pretreatment
Ozonolysis good but expensive
Acid Pretreatment Conc. H2SO4 and HCl
Alkaline Pretreatment NaOH
Oxidative delignification- peroxidase enzyme + H2O2
Biological pretreatment
Microorganisms - brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi - Pleurotus
ostreatus
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Alteration of
structures
Accessible to
enzymes -
convert the
CHO polymers
into
fermentable
sugars &
cellulose-
Hemicellulose - broken down into simple sugars producing
microorganis
removed for fermentation ms

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(ii) Cellulose Hydrolysis
Cellulose long chain of glucose
broken down to free simple sugar - glucose
Glucose - utilized for the production of ethanol using
cellulose degrading fungi
Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus awamori
Trichoderma reesei , Phanerochaete chrysosporium
Enzymatic hydrolysis - cellulase enzymes
Products - reducing sugars including glucose
bacteria and fungi
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(iii) Fermentation
Conversion of sugar into ethanol
Two types of thermophilic bacteria:
Clostridium thermocellum
Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum
Yeast

Theoretical maximum yield is 0.5 kg ethanol & 0.49 kg carbon


dioxide per kg sugar
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(B3) Lignin
Second most abundant - 25% of lignin
To obtain phenols pdtion of adhesives, resins, fungicides,
veterinary products, insecticides & carbon
Important product - artificial board industry as a filler
As additive in the urea formaldehyde resin
As substitute of phenol in the preparation of phenolic-type
resins

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Organosolv lignin extraction method
pulping technique - uses organic solvent
to solubilize lignin & hemicellulose
high quality lignin
solvents are easily recovered by distillation
less water pollution
elimination of off odour

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(B4) Furfural
Bagasse - Transformed into furfural - large number of resins
Colorless, inflammable, volatile aromatic liquid almond type
aroma
Produced from pentosans
Bagasse - 90% is xylan

25 tons of mill-run bagasse 1 ton of furfural

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Bagasse
Acid treatment (acetic, formic, HCl, H2SO4)
Autoclaved 110C, 1.05 kg cm2, 1:15 Solid:liquid
ratio
Produced in a digester
Recovered by steam distillation
Water furfural separation
Purification

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Products from Furfural industrial source of diff pdts
Furfuryl alcohol,
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol,
Furoic acid,
Furfurylamine,
Methylfuran
Furan

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(B5) Sorbent
Activated carbon - pharmaceutical industries, water
treatment & wastewater treatment
Home water filtration systems
Adsorption of different organic pollutants
Sugar decoloration
Low cost product
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(C)Molasses
economical source of carbohydrate for ethanol and citric acid fermentation -
3.0% of the weight of cane crushed
production of industrial alcohol, rum, yeast, and organic chemicals
Clarified sugarcane juice
Boiled
syrup consistency 3 % the weight of cane crushed

Till sucrose is crystallized centrifuged Sugar
&
non- crystallizable sugars (glucose & fructose)
remain in the liquid phase along with caramel
&
Molasses
few other dissolved impurities
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Molasses
highly palatable
Thick
dark honey-like
sugar-rich syrup
Free of fat and fiber
Low nitrogen content

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Blackstrap molasses
the third boiling of the sugar syrup yields dark, viscous
blackstrap molasses
iron
Calcium
Copper
Products
Manganese Rum
Potassium Ethyl alcohol
magnesium Acetic acid, citric acid
Yeast molasses urea blocks
vitamin B6 MSG
selenium
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Molasses
Decolorification is needed
High in biotin content - good supplement for the
growth of bakers and brewers yeast
energy source to grow yeasts, molds, and bacteria
as a carbon source

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
RUM
Distilled alcoholic beverage <96 % alcohol
From molasses or sugarcane juice
Fresh blackstrap molasses - was preferable
high total sugars,
nitrogen, phosphorus
low ash and gum content
1 Ton of molasses 230 L of rum

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Raw materials : sugarcane molasses, water & Yeast

Molasses + water
15 % sugar
Pure yeast culture
Molasses sugar into alcohol
Distillation
Stored in barrels

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Fermentation
Yeast and sugar reaction
Yeast - ultimate taste & flavor to rum
Saccharomyces - 8890% of fermentable sugars into ethanol & carbon
dioxide
Period : 30 h
Mixture - live wash
Sugar utilized
cell growth (about 35%)
glycerol formation (35%)
by-products that are responsible for flavor and aroma.

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Distillation
Liquid remaining - dead wash
Separates alcohol from fermented mixture
Concentrates it to make the actual rum
Undesirable congeners are removed

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Aging
After distillation, the rum -
raw clear liquid
hot harsh taste
an acrid odor
also hydrogen sulfide gas
Rum - large oak casks for aging
Changes - as a result of the oxidation
Selective diffusion pores of the oak barrel
Chemical interaction between the congeners

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Blending
Secret of fine rum
Different types & styles of rums - particular blend or brand
Blended rum stored in bottling vats
Reduced to bottling strength - addition of deionized water
Passed through filters & polishers
Bottled & packaged for sale

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Ethyl Alcohol
Product from blackstrap molasses
3540 wt% sucrose
1520 wt% invert sugars (glucose & Fructose)
2835 wt% of non-sugar solids
1 hectare of sugarcane - 4000 L of ethanol / year
1 ton of sugarcane 190 L of molasses every year
Yield of ethanol is directly proportional to the amount of
sugar present

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Fermentation - ethanol
Blackstrap molasses
Diluted with water remove suspended mtrls
clarified Mash
Mash penicillin V(0.3mg/L) prevent contamination
pH 4.5-5 sulphuric acid
550 g of commercial yeast + 3 L of distilled water - cell suspension
Fermenter impeller speed (200/min), temp (32C)
Fed batch fermentation without air supply
Mash added at time intervals of 15 min
Sugar consumed ethanol formation

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Important products from ethyl alcohol

Ethyl benzene - Intermediate product styrene manufacture


Ethylene oxide - Chemicals manufacturing
Propionic acid - Weed killing agents
Cellulose acetate tri propionate - plastic and fiber

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Acetic acid
Utilized in acetic anhydride, cellulose acetate, vinyl acetate
Vinegar 4 % acetic acid acetic fermentation airing of bacteria
Molasses (diluted 1:50)
Pretreatment 5% activated charcoal remove colorants
0.4% H2SO4- enhance glucose & fructose content
pH 7.3 120 mM phosphate & 1.5% casitone
Batch fermentation - Clostridium thermoaceticum
Agitating - 100 rpm & 5% CO2 at 58C
After 24 h bacterial growth AA 0.69g/L
Maximum AA after 120 h 3.06 g/L
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Citric acid
Molasses boiled with 35mL of 1N H2SO4 per litre for an hr
A. niger and Yarrowia lipolytica
Cooled, neutralized with lime water
Left to stand clarification
Clear supernatant liquid diluted to 15 % sugar molasses medium
Molasses medium conical flask inoculated with 1mL of A.niger
Flask- incubated at 30C 200 rpm for 24 hr
Vegetative inoculum- fermenter - incubated for 144 hr

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Single cell protein
Unicellular microorganisms
Yeast 65-70% protein
Hydrocarbon & CHO as substrate
Bakers yeast molasses - high sugar, minerals, organic
compounds, and vitamins
4 kg molasses 1 kg active dry bakers yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae bakers yeast
Torula utilis feed yeast utilized for SCP
Adequate & fine aeration is important
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
MSG
MSG - salt of l-glutamic acid
Micrococcus glutamicus
4.5 kg of molasses - 1 kg of MSG
MSG in the well-aerated submerged aerobic fermentation
process
Brevibacterium lactofermentum
first glutamic acid is formed
Sodium carbonate is added - MSG is formed
MSG is isolated, purified, and crystallized
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Molasses as feed stuff
Molasses - CHO, mainly as sugars
Not a balanced ration - deficient in protein content
Urea - mixed with molasses to form as safe feed
Provide 1/3 protein requirement of cattle & sheep
Molasses - palatable
Mixed with other feeds such as hay, chaff, etc
Molasses - diluted with water - fed directly to dairy and beef

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Molasses - animal feed - stimulates microflora of the rumen
Allows cattle & sheep - deal effectively with low grade
roughage such as straw
Palatable livestock
By its flavor & smell promotes their appetites
Its physical properties cause dust particles to be absorbed
Help to prevent the development of bronchial disease

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Agricultural use of molasses
Molasses - rich in potash & nitrogen
Widely used as a fertilizer for sugarcane
Applied in furrows in the fields - 2 weeks before
planting
Mixed with cane filter cake - as fertilizer
A mixture of molasses & bagasse - burnt & ash - as
fertilizer
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Other uses of molasses
Preparation of edible syrups, dextran, potassium salts, activated
carbon, denaturants, coffee surrogate.
Making road surfacing material with coal tar, asphalt.
Solubilizing the phosphate of bone and rock phosphates.
Production of combustible gases.
Mixed with lime, molasses form compounds as hard as cement and
useful as mortar
serves as a bait in insecticidal poisons
Agent in wire drawing lubricants
Dehydrating agent in mineral clarifying processes; sealing compounds

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
(d) Press Mud
Mud -sedimentation in clarifiers, rotary drum vacuum filters
Brown-colored, sticky waste
2.5 3.5 % of cane crushed
Its components - fiber, lignin, -carotene, oil containing a high
content of phytosterol, and refined wax
Fiber - animal feed or a source of energy - animal feed - dried in
the sun or hot air mc to 12% moisture
Refined wax
Organic fertilizer

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
11FT028 Byproducts utilization in food and agro industries
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Bio Composting
Useful source of fertilizer
Bio compost bio earth mixed with spent wash
from the distillery sprayed on to press mud
45-day process usable fertilizer
Formation of windrows and mc reduced from 70% to
50% in five days
Inoculation of microbial culture
Spraying of spent wash and homogenization of
windrows for 30 days
Maturation period of 10 days to reduce the moisture to
30%

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Advantages of bio compost
Very low power requirement
Zero discharge to inland water resources
Freedom from river or ground water pollution
Rich in micronutrients and can reduce the requirement of chemical
fertilizers
Provides bacteria - nitrogen fixing, & solubilization of phosphates
The humus that will keep the soil healthy and develop the self-
reclamation cycle
This fertilizer is free from all pathogens, harmful bacteria, weeds,
and seeds
Fertilizer is free flowing and easy to handle, pack, and transport.
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Bio gas
Press mud rich in methane - Flammable gas as fuel
Biogas is a non-polluting and renewable energy resource
Two to three times than cow dung
100 sugar mills in India is over 30 MW capacity generating about
225 million units annually
Biogas - process of biodegradation of organic material under
anaerobic conditions by bacteria
Press mud - diluted to different solid concentrations
Inoculated with sludge collected from an anaerobic digestion plant
Pre-acclimatized with press mud for 30 days, at 37C for gas
formation
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Biogas - varying proportion of
CH4 (methane)
CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Traces of H2S, N, CO, O, etc
CH4 and CO2 - function of the matter digested and the process
conditions like temperature, C/N ratio, etc
Methane - most valuable component - biogas as a fuel
Other components do not contribute to the calorific value
Other compounds - washed out in purification plants in order to
obtain a gas with almost 100% CH4

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Composition of biogas

Fermentation
It is a microbiological process of decomposition of organic matter in absence of
oxygen.
The main products of this process are biogas and digester

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Microbial Protein Source

Before supplementing poultry rations enriched with biomass


protein
Fermenting with Arachniotus sp. under optimum conditions
Dewaxed filter cake as substrate

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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,
Other uses
Vermicomposting - utilization of filter cake
Filter cake - as a starting material for
vermicomposting
Results in a biologically stable product that is free of
pathogens
Vermicomposting of filter cake in combination with
equine manure accelerated mineralization of
nutrients
Adequate for growth and reproduction of
earthworms
Filter cake - substrate for seedling production
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Ms.A.Sangamtihra, Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College,