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Byproducts from fruits and

vegetables based agro-industries

Assistant Professor
Department of Food Technology
Kongu Engineering College
Fruit/vegetable processing waste
O Peeling and separation
O Peeling - produce a large quantity of wastes such as skin/peel &
kernel - utilized for commercial production
O Separation - centrifugation, filtration, and expression

O solid wastes such as pomace or residue, peel, pulp, and seed

O 5.5 million tonnes of solid waste fruit juice processing
O Effluent fruit processing
O Pomace - such as dietary fibres, lactic acid, pigments, vinegar, natural
sweeteners and cellulose
O Pectin can be found to a greater or lesser extent in most fruits and is,
after extraction and purification added as gelling agent in numerous
food products
O Protein-degrading enzymes (papain in papaya, or bromelain in
pineapple) as meat tenderizers or washing powders or used in beer
O Essential oils and antioxidants flavanones from citrus peels,

antioxidant lycopene, a bioactive terpenoid pigment from tomato

pomace, polyphenols from apple pomace
O Oil contained in the stones of mango, apricot, peach

O The final solid waste - used as animal feed, for composting or

Mango processing waste
O Peel
O Seed
O Seed kernel
O Peel and seed - 1025% of total mango weight
O Seed - 4570% of kernel
O Peel - good source of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin E, dietary
fibre and vitamin C
O Good antioxidant properties
O the anti-inflammatory components can be isolated and purified from
mango peel
O 5-(11Z-heptadecenyl)-resorcinol
O 5-(8Z,11Z-heptadecadienyl)- resorcinol
Per Cent Distribution of Mango Fruit Parts (Per Kg)

Mango fruit Weight Per cent

parts (g) (%)

Pulp 680.9 68.1

Peel 169.8 17.0
Seed coat 59.5 05.9

Kernel 89.8 09.0

Mango seed kernel
O Mango seed - tenacious coat enclosing the kernel
O Seed content - 9% to 23% of the fruit weight
O Kernel content of the seed - 45% to 70%
O Mango kernel contain almost 15 wt% of oils
O Potent antioxidant - relatively high phenolic contents
O Less in protein but rich in EAA - leucine, valine, and lysine
O Mango seed kernel obtained after decortication
O As a supplement to wheat flour
O For extraction of edible oil.
O Mango seed kernel source of edible oil (11.6% of dry kernel)
O Fatty acid and triglyceride composition is similar to that of coconut oil
O Mango seed kernel - phytosterols as campesterol, bsitosterol, and
stigmasterol and also contain tocopherols
O Polyphenols - tannin, gallic acid, coumarin, caffeic acid, vanillin,
mangiferin, ferrulic acid, cinnamic acid, ellagic acid, and gallate
Mango seed kernel flour
O Mango seeds - washed and dried in hot air at 60 C for 6 hours
O Kernels were separated from stone manually using stainless steel knife
O Kernels - dried in hot air oven at 50 C for 4 hours
O Stored in air tight containers
O Stored kernels - were soaked (6-7 hrs) in water - chopped into small pieces
- blanched (1-2 min) - dried (60 C for 5 hours)
O Ground into flour in electric blender, sieved and stored in air tight container
Composition of mango seed kernel flour

Mango seed kernel flour replace maize up to 14.1 % level in poultry feeds
Replaced wheat flour in preparing biscuits
Starch from mango seed kernel
O Mango seed kernel - high level of carbohydrate
O Mango seed kernel - cut into 5-10mm size
O To 10g of raw kernel sample 80ml of 0.16% of Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite
solution is added
O The temperature of the process is maintained at 50C for 24hrs
O Content is agitated at an interval of 1hr
O After the steeping process the solution - decanted to obtain steeped kernel
O Steeped kernel - grounded - by adding 50ml of distilled water to obtain
brownish white color slurry
O Slurry is filtered - muslin cloth and filtrate is obtained
O The filter cake - washed with distilled water until unless clear wash water
O The filter cake is disposed - obtained filtrate is further centrifuged at 2800
rpm for 5 mins
O The upper nonwhite layer is disposed & white layer was re- suspended in
distilled water and again centrifuged
O Repeated for 4 times & finally starch is collected & dried in an oven for 6
hrs at 50 C
Mango seed kernel oil
O Mango kernel oil - cosmetics industry - soaps, shampoos & lotions because it is a good

source of phenolic compounds

O Oil - neutral and polar lipids make up 96.1% and 3.9%, respectively
O Saturated fatty acid (4448%)
O Unsaturated fatty acid (5256%)

O Good source of microelements like selenium, copper and zinc

O Main fatty acids - in mango kernel oil

O 45% oleic acid - Major unsaturated fatty acid

O 38% steric acid Major saturated fatty acid

O Oleic acid - 18-carbon monounsaturated fatty acid - helps reducing LDL-

cholesterol, total cholesterol and glycemic index

O Increase in stability over oxidation of vegetable oil

O Stearic acid - a long C18 straight-chain saturated fatty acid

O Has been found to bind and plasticize composites, human serum albumin

and -helical sites in bio-molecules

O Common method solvent extraction
O Hexane, a liquid hydrocarbon, is used as the extraction medium
O The seeds are sun dried to reduce the moisture content to 12-15%
O The dried seed stone is roasted in a drum roaster
O Hull is removed mechanically, or manually by beating with wooden clubs
O The separated kernels are crushed into small pieces in a hammer mill
O The mango kernel pieces are conveyed to a pellet making machine and
pellets are formed
O The pellets are cooled to room temperature in a cooler and are conveyed to
the solvent extraction plant
O Some processors produce flakes by crushing the seeds in a flaking roller mill
Anti-nutritional factors mango seed kernel
O Mango seed kernels - rich in tannins, which progressively lead to
depression in growth rates and efficiency of feed utilization, when
included as a major component in diets of pigs and poultry.
O Contain cyanogenic glucosides, oxalates and trypsin inhibitors
O Amongst the different treatments - soaking in water was most effective,
and it removed 61 percent of the tannins and 84 percent of
hydrocyanic acid
As animal feed
O Ruminants: Mango seed kernels - incorporated in the concentrate mixture up to
50 % without any adverse effects
O In sheep, DM digestibility of dried seed kernels was 70 % but intake was low
mainly due to the tannin content
O Non-ruminants: Raw mango seed kernel meal - 510 % in the diet depressed
feed intake and growth in broiler chicks
O The recommendation for optimum growth - use boiled mango seed kernels < 5
% (broiler chicks during the starter phase (028 days)) and 1020 % (broilers
during the finisher phase (2863 days) )on DM basis
O The incorporation of 5 % raw mango seed kernel meal in layers decreased
laying rate and increased weight loss in layers
Pineapple processing waste
O Byproduct pineapple juice production pulp
O Pulp - containing sucrose, starch, and hemicellulose
O Low protein and fiber contents rarely used as animal feed
O Pulp suitable for fermentation
O Possible products lactic acid, bromelain, polyphenol, cellulose, humic
O Pineapple waste skin 45 % of discarded fruit 18% recoverable sugars
O Pineapple waste dried as animal feed
O Bromelain as a therapeutic Compound
O 13th most widely used herbal medicine
O Bromelain - all parts of pineapple, stem -most common commercial source
O Pineapples have a long tradition as a medical plant among the natives of south
and Central America.
O Antiedematous, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anti cancer agent
O Used as meat tenderizer and as a dietary supplement
O Bromelain - does not disappear as the fruit ripens
O Bromelain from pineapple stem - purified by successive use of ion-exchange
chromatography, gel filtration, and ammonium sulfate fractionation
Citric acid
O Production of citric acid by A. niger under solid state fermentation

conditions using pineapple waste as substrate

O Yarrowia lipolytica

O citric acid production was 202.35 g/kg dried pineapple waste

O Aspergillus foetidus
Lactic acid
O Liquid pineapple waste as substrate to ferment to lactic acid

O Lactobacillus delbrueckii under anaerobic conditions for 72 h.

O Used calcium alginate as the immobilization matrix to produce maximum

yield of 0.7822-0.8248 g lactic acid/g glucose

O Fungal production of lactic acid

O Rhizopus arrhizus and R. oryzae

Apple Byproducts
O Apple pomace - 2535% of the processed fruit
O Pomace - rich source of polyphenols, minerals & dietary fibre
O Earlier animal feed
O Reasonable approach - Source of pectin
O Pectin recovered by acid extraction & precipitation
O Pectin from apple pomace- superior gelling properties than citrus pectin
O brown hue oxidation of phenolic compounds co-extracted with pectin &
partially precipitated
O Pomace good source of polyphenols mainly in peels
O Catechins, hydroxycinnamates, phloretin glycosides, quercetin glycosides, and
O Conventional juice production poor in phenolics with 2-10 % antioxidant
O Most phenolics retained in pomace
Flow diagram
for the utilization
of pomace
Grape byproducts
O 80 % grapes wine production huge quantities of waste
O Pomace 20 % of grape weight
O Health promoting secondary metabolites
O Pomace source of phenolics, ethanol, tartrates, citric acid,
hydrocolloids, dietary fibre - recovered
O Grape seed - unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic
O Seed - phenolic compounds - gallic acid, catechin & epicatechin, wide
variety of procyanidins
O Anthocyanins valuable component
Citrus byproducts
O Citrus after juice extraction - primary waste fraction - 50% of fruit mass
O Processed to dried pulp cattle feed
O Fermented biogas, ethanol, citric acid, various enzymes, volatile flavouring
compounds, fatty acids and microbial biomass
O Pectin, dietary fiber, flavonoids, carotenoids
O Citrus seeds amount to 0.15% of the fruit mass oil seeds & terpenoids
O Meal proteins
O Peel - highest amount of flavonoids