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SBWM Division





An A.C. device used to change high voltage low

current A.C. into low voltage high current A.C. and
vice-versa without changing the frequency
In brief,
1. Transfers electric power from one circuit to another
2. It does so without a change of frequency
3. It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction
4. Where the two electric circuits are in mutual
inductive influence of each other.
Principle of operation

It is based on principle of MUTUAL INDUCTION. According to which an

emf is induced in a coil when current in the neighboring coil changes.
Constructional detail : Shell type

Windings are wrapped around the center leg of a laminated core.

Constructional detail : Core type

Windings are wrapped around two sides of a laminated square core.

Sectional view of transformers

High voltage conductors are smaller cross section conductors than the low voltage coils.
Core type Shell type

Coil and laminations of core type Sandwich windings


The HV and LV windings are split into no. of sections

Where HV winding lies between two LV windings
In sandwich coils leakage can be controlled
Transformer Construction
Cut view of transformer
Transformer parts & Accessories
Transformer with conservator and breather
A silica gel breather is the most commonly used way of filtering air from moisture. Silica gel breather for
transformer is connected with conservator tank by means of breathing pipe.

This is a cylindrical tank mounted on supporting structure on the roof the transformer main tank. The main function
of conservator tank of transformer is to provide adequate space for expansion of oil inside the transformer.

Whenever electrical power transformer is loaded, the temperature of the transformer insulating oil increases,
consequently the volume of the oil is increased. As the volume of the oil is increased, the air above the oil level in
conservator will come out. Again at low oil temperature; the volume of the oil is decreased, which causes the volume
of the oil to be decreased which again causes air to enter into conservator tank. The natural air always consists of more
or less moisture in it and this moisture can be mixed up with oil if it is allowed to enter into the transformer. The air
moisture should be resisted during entering of the air into the transformer, because moisture is very harmful for
transformer insulation. A silica gel breather is the most commonly used way of filtering air from moisture.
Buchholz Relay in Transformer
Buchholz relay in transformer is an oil container housed the connecting pipe from main tank to conservator tank. It has
mainly two elements. The upper element consists of a float. The float is attached to a hinge in such a way that it can
move up and down depending upon the oil level in the Buchholz relay Container.
Buchholz Relay Principle
The Buchholz relay working principle of is very simple. Buchholz relay function is based on very simple mechanical
phenomenon. It is mechanically actuated. Whenever there will be a minor internal fault in the transformer such as an
insulation faults between turns, break down of core of transformer, core heating, the transformer insulating oil will be
decomposed in different hydrocarbon gases, CO2 and CO. The gases produced due to decomposition of transformer
insulating oil will accumulate in the upper part the Buchholz container which causes fall of oil level in it.
Fall of oil level means lowering the position of float and thereby tilting the mercury switch. The contacts of this mercury
switch are closed and an alarm circuit energized. Sometime due to oil leakage on the main tank air bubbles may be
accumulated in the upper part the Buchholz container which may also cause fall of oil level in it and alarm circuit will be
energized. By collecting the accumulated gases from the gas release pockets on the top of the relay and by analyzing
them one can predict the type of fault in the transformer.
More severe types of faults, such as short circuit between phases or to earth and faults in the tap changing equipment,
are accompanied by a surge of oil which strikes the baffle plate and causes the mercury switch of the lower element to
close. This switch energized the trip circuit of the circuit breakers associated with the transformer and immediately
isolate the faulty transformer from the rest of the electrical power system by inter tripping the circuit breakers
associated with both LV and HV sides of the transformer. This is how Buchholz relay functions.

Buchholz Relay Operation Certain Precaution

The Buchholz relay operation may be actuated without any fault in the transformer. For instance, when oil is added to a
transformer, air may get in together with oil, accumulated under the relay cover and thus cause a false Buchholz relay
Diagram of Buchholz Relay

The main source of heat generation in transformer is its copper loss or I2R loss. Although
there are other factors contribute heat in transformer such as hysteresis & eddy current
losses but contribution of I2R loss dominate them. If this heat is not dissipated properly, the
temperature of the transformer will rise continually which may cause damages in paper
insulation and liquid insulation medium of transformer. So it is essential to control the
temperature with in permissible limit to ensure the long life of transformer by reducing
thermal degradation of its insulation system. In electrical power transformer we use external
transformer cooling system to accelerate the dissipation rate of heat of transformer.

ONAF Oil Natural Air Forced

OFAF Oil Forced Air Forced
OFWF Oil Forced Water Forced
ODAF Oil directed Air forced
ODWF Oil directed water forced
Typical three phase transformer connections

Y- zigzag

- zigzag

Open Delta or V

Scott or T
Typical single phase transformer connections
Working of a transformer

1. When current in the primary coil

changes being alternating in
nature, a changing magnetic field
is produced
2. This changing magnetic field gets
associated with the secondary
through the soft iron core
3. Hence magnetic flux linked with
the secondary coil changes.
4. Which induces e.m.f. in the
An autotransformer (sometimes called auto step down transformer) is an electrical
transformer with only one winding. The "auto" (Greek for "self") prefix refers to the single
coil acting on itself and not to any kind of automatic mechanism.

Primary and secondary on the same winding. Therefore there is no galvanic isolation.
Ideal Transformers
Zero leakage flux:
-Fluxes produced by the primary and secondary currents
are confined within the core
The windings have no resistance:
- Induced voltages equal applied voltages
The core has infinite permeability
- Reluctance of the core is zero
- Negligible current is required to establish magnetic
Loss-less magnetic core
- No hysteresis or eddy currents
Transformer on No-load

Transformer on load
Balun Transformers
A balun is a device that joins a balanced line (one that has
two conductors, with equal currents in opposite directions,
such as a twisted pair cable) to an unbalanced line (one that
has just one conductor and a ground, such as a coaxial
cable). A balun is a type of transformer: it's used to convert
an unbalanced signal to a balanced one or vice versa. Baluns
isolate a transmission line and provide a balanced output. A
typical use for a balun is in a television antenna. The term is
derived by combining balanced and unbalanced.
Case Study for Determining of Transformer rating..
Find Rating of Single Phase Transformer
Rating of Single Phase Transformer:
P = V x I.
Rating of a Three Phase Transformer
Rating of a Three Phase Transformer:
P = 3. V x I

Now calculate for the rating of transformer according to

P=V x I (Primary voltage x primary current)
P = 11000V x 5.25A = 57,750 VA = 57.75kVA
P = V x I (Secondary voltages x Secondary Current)
P= 415V x 139.1A = 57,726 VA = 57.72kVA

Once again, we noticed that the rating of Transformer (on Nameplate) is

100kVA but according to calculationit comes about 57kVA.
The difference comes due to ignorance of that we used
single phase formula instead of three phase formula.
Now try with this formula
P = 3 x V x I
P=3 Vx I (Primary voltage x primary current)
P =3 x 11000V x 5.25A = 1.732 x 11000V x 5.25A = 100,025 VA = 100kVA
P = 3 x V x I (Secondary voltages x Secondary Current)
P= 3 x 415V x 139.1A = 1.732 x 415V x 139.1A= 99,985 VA = 99.98kVA
Transformer Tests
The performance of a transformer can be calculated on the basis of
equivalent circuit
The four main parameters of equivalent circuit are:
- R01 as referred to primary (or secondary R02)
- the equivalent leakage reactance X01 as referred to primary
(or secondary X02)
- Magnetising susceptance B0 ( or reactance X0)
- core loss conductance G0 (or resistance R0)
The above constants can be easily determined by two tests
- Oper circuit test (O.C test / No load test)
- Short circuit test (S.C test/Impedance test)
These tests are economical and convenient
- these tests furnish the result without actually loading the

Electrical Machines
Open-circuit Test
In Open Circuit Test the transformers secondary winding is open-circuited, and
its primary winding is connected to a full-rated line voltage.

Core loss Woc V0 I 0 cos 0

Woc R0
cos 0 Iw
V0 I 0
I c or I w I 0 cos 0 X0
Usually conducted on H.V side I m or I I 0 sin 0 I 02 -I w2 I
G0 w
To find I V0
I 0 V0 Y0 ; Yo 0
(i) No load loss or core loss V0 I
V0 Woc
(ii) No load current Io which is Woc V0 G 0 ; Exciting conductanc e G 0 2

helpful in finding Go(or Ro ) and V0

Bo (or Xo ) & Exciting susceptanc e B0 Y02 G02
Short-circuit Test
In Short Circuit Test the secondary terminals are short circuited, and the
primary terminals are connected to a fairly low-voltage source
The input voltage is adjusted until the current in the short circuited windings
is equal to its rated value. The input voltage, current and power is

Usually conducted on L.V side

To find
(i) Full load copper loss to pre determine the efficiency
(ii) Z01 or Z02; X01 or X02; R01 or R02 - to predetermine the voltage regulation
Transformer Efficiency
Transformer efficiency is defined as (applies to motors, generators and
Pout Ploss
Types of losses incurred in a transformer:
Copper I2R losses
Hysteresis losses
Eddy current losses
Therefore, for a transformer, efficiency may be calculated using the following:
VS I S cos
PCu Pcore VS I S cos
Losses in Transformer
Transformer Losses
Core/Iron Loss =V12 / Rc1
Copper Loss = I12 R1+ I22 R2

Definition of % efficiency

V2 I 2Cos 2
Losses V2 I 2Cos 2
V2 I 2Cos 2
V12 / Rc1 I12 R1 I 2 R2 V2 I 2Cos 2

V2 I 2Cos 2
V12 / Rc1 I 2 Req 2 V2 I 2Cos 2

Cos 2 = load power factor

Maximum Transformer Efficiency
The efficiency varies as with respect to 2 independent quantities namely, current and power factor

Thus at any particular power factor, the efficiency is maximum if core loss = copper loss
.This can be obtained by differentiating the expression of efficiency with respect to I2
assuming power factor, and all the voltages constant.

At any particular I2 maximum efficiency happens at unity power factor. This can be
obtained by differentiating the expression of efficiency with respect to power factor, and
assuming I2 and all the voltages constant.

Maximum efficiency happens when both these conditions are satisfied.

Star (Y) connection
Line current is same as phase current
Line-Line voltage is 3 phase-neutral voltage
Power is given by 3 VL-LI L cos or 3VphIphcos

Delta () connection
Line-Line voltage is same as phase voltage
Line current is 3 phase current
Power is given by 3 VL-LI L cos or 3VphIphcos



P.O:Gamharia, Dist: Sarikela-Kharsawan, Jamshedpur-832108, Jharkhand

Permit No.:.........................
From. To. .. Time: From. To
Equipment: ..
Nature of Job:
Isolation details:

Applicants Name &Signature. Authorization Name & Signature .

Power OFF : .................................................

Men at Work Tag Provided: Tag No.
I confirm that necessary switch / breaker/ isolator made open / draw-out and locked.
Elect Engineer Name &Signature:

CLEARANCE: I certify that all persons under this PTW have been withdrawn from equipment. All equipments/ Tools/loose materials have been

Maint. In charge (Elect/Mech.) Name & Signature..

Return of Permit after completion of job:

Applicant Authorization Electrical authorization

Name ... .

Signature ..

Date.. Time. Date Time Date Time

Applicable Safety Appliance: (Put tick mark on applicable points)

Electrical Mechanical Gas Prone / Confined Space
Electrical Safety Shoes & Helmet / Ear plug / Gas Prone / Confined space is free of any toxic
Safety Shoes, Helmet & Hand gloves
Dust mask / gloves, rubber mats, etc gas
Welding Screen & Gas Cutting Goggles/ Grinding Oxygen deficiency test carried out (min. 19.5%
Insulated Tools for work
Goggles and max. 23.5%)
Control Fuse removal / checked Supply All compressed gas cylinders kept in Vertical
Ventilation & flameproof lighting arrangement
cables insulation condition.
Discharge rod / ELCB Flash Back Arrestor / Gas trolley with Chain Apron / Jacket / Breathing Apparatus
Full body harness ( above 02 meter) height) Apron / Jacket / Breathing Apparatus Adequate means of access & egress
Warning Tape (Safety Ribbon) below working Equipment properly flushed , drained &
Test Lamp & Multi meter for power isolation
area depressurized
Danger Board / Men at Work Tag Ear plug / Gas Mask / Full Body Safety Harness Medical O2 Cylinder / N2 purging
Working platform & Ladder Medical O2 Cylinder / N2 purging Safe & appropriate hand tools used.
Competent Supervision / Authorized Competent Supervision Continuous supervision during confined entry
Note :- Ensure equipment is de-energized in all aspects
Any other point:

Copies: Pink - Applicant, Yellow - Authorizer, White - Retain with book

:(1) LOTO ?
A - - B - -
C - D
:(2) PTW ?

A B c D
:(3) ?

A = B = C =
D = 0
:(5) ONAF ?
B Oil Natural Air
A Oil Natural Air Flow C Oil Natural Water Forced D Oil Neutral Air Fill
- Forced