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Multi-Staging in Impulse Turbines

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi

Improvement in Initial Design - Inspired by


Parson.
Simple Impulse Turbine

Va21 cos 2
P d Va1 cos 1 kb
2
1
2 cos 1
Availability of Steam for Condenser Temperature of 450C
Turbine Inlet : 3500
kJ/kg Turbine Exit
Specific
1
cosAvailable Jet Velocity
Pressure max .effEnthalpy
Temp Work
MPa C kJ/kg
2 kJ/kg m/s
1 1 509.9 2464 1036 1439
2 5 528.4 2232 1268 1592
3 10 549.6 2135 1365 1652
4 15 569 2080 1420 1685
5 20 586.7 2041 1459 1708
6 25 602.9 2012 1488 1725
7 30 617.7 1989 1511 1738
8 35 631.3 1969 1531 1750
Multi Stage Impulse Turbine
The most powerful steam turbine-generator in the
world at the time of it's construction:1903

Built in 1903, the 5,000-kilowatt


Curtis steam turbine-generator was
the most powerful in the world. It
stood just 25 feet high, much
shorter than the 60 feet
reciprocating engine-generator of a
similar capacity
Compounding of impulse turbine
Compounding is done to reduce the rotational speed of the
impulse turbine to practical limits.
Compounding is achieved by using more than one set of nozzles,
blades, rotors, in a series, keyed to a common shaft; so that the
jet velocity is absorbed by the turbine in stages.
Three main types of compounded impulse turbines are:
a) Pressure compounded Steam Turbine : The Rateau Design
b) velocity compounded Steam Turbine : The Curtis Design
c) pressure and velocity compounded Impulse turbines : The
Rateau-curtis Design.
Multistage Impulse Turbine : GE Product
The Curtis Design
Pressure compounded impulse turbine : Rateau Design
Impulse Turbines with pressure stages

Multistage turbines with pressure stages have found a wide field of


usage in industry as prime movers (~ 10 MW).
The number of pressure stages vary from 4 to 5.
The distribution of enthalpy drop in a large number of pressure stages
enables the attainment of lower velocities for the steam flowing
through the system of moving blades.
As a result more advantageous values of blade speed ratio and blade
friction factor are obtained
.
Selection of Number of Stages
Impulse Turbines with pressure stages
Total enthalpy drop available for mechanical power
n
htotal hi Va1,i Vo 2 hi
i 1
cos 2,i
U Va1,i cos 1,i U kb ,i
Pb ,i m 1
cos
1, i

cos 2,i
d ,i 2i cos 1,i i kb ,i 1
cos 1,i
U
2 1 2 1
Va2
Vr1
Vr2 Va1
Variation of Diameter along a stages

Diameter
d

Stage 1 Stages Stage Z


The Curtis Design
A System of Velocity Triangles for Curtis Turbine
U
2,1 1,1 2,1 1,1
Va2,1 Va1,1 Vr1,1
Vr2,1

U
2,2 1,2 2,2 B1,2
Va1,2
Va2,2 Vr1,2
Vr2,2

U
2,3 1,3 2,3 1,3
Va2,3 Vr2,3 Va1,3 Vr1,3
The Curtis Impulse Turbine
Total enthalpy drop available for mechanical power

Va1,1 V02 2 htotal Va1,i Va 2,i 1 i 1

cos 2,i
U Va1,i cos 1,i U kb ,i
Pb ,i m 1
cos
1, i
n

P b ,i
d i 1
htotal
m

cos 2,i
U Va1,i cos 1,i U kb ,i
n
1
i 1 cos 1,i
d
htotal
Curtis Turbine With 2 Rotors
cos 2,1
Pb ,1 mU Va1,1 cos 1,1 U kb ,1
cos 2, 2
1 U Va1, 2 cos 1, 2 U kb , 2
Pb , 2 m 1
cos 1,1 cos 1, 2

Total power with similar blading

cos 2
U kb
Pb,t m 1Va1,1 cos 1,1 U Va1, 2 cos 1, 2 U
cos 1

U
2,1 1,1 2,1 1,1
Va2,1
Vr1,1
Vr2,1 Va1,1
ith Reversible Symmetric Stage
cos 2, j
U Va1, j cos 1, j
Pb , j m U kb , j 1
cos
1, j

U
2,j 1,j 2,j 1,j
Va2,j Va1,j Vr1,j
Vr2,j
Efficiency of Multi Rotor Curtis Turbine
For a three rotor Curtis Turbine:
U cos 2 U
Va1, 2 U
Va1,3 U
curtis 2 kb,1 1 cos 1,1
cos 1, 2 cos 1,3
Va1,1 cos 1
V
a1,1 V
a1,1 V
a1,1 V
a1,1 Va1,1

For a n-rotor Curtis Turbine:


U cos 2 U n 1
Va1,i 1 U
curtis 2 kb,1 1 cos 1,1 cos 1,i 1
Va1,1 cos 1
Va1,1
i 1 V
a1,1 Va1,1

The Curtis-Rateau Design