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CHAPTER 12

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS AND INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Instructional Methods and Material are NOT the same and a clear
distinction should be made between them .

Instructional Methods are the way information is thought

Instructional Material include print and non print media used to


transmit information and the accompanying hardware and
software needed for delivery.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Definition: It is a vehicle by which information is communicated

Purposes: to help the nurse educator deliver a message


creatively and clearly intended to supplement, rather than
replace, the act of teaching and the role of the teacher
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVENESS

Media should:
Change behavior by influencing a gain in
cognitive, affective, and/or psychomotor
skills
Enhance learningno one tool is better
than another
Complement the instructional methods
General Principles (contd)

Media should (contd):


Match available financial resources
Be appropriate for physical environment
Complement learners sensory abilities,
developmental stage, and educational level
Impart accurate, current, valid and
appropriate messages
Add diversity and information to learning
CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Three Major Variables to Consider when choosing instructional


material

1. Characteristics of the Learner


Sensorimotor abilities
Physical attributes
Reading skills
Motivational level
Developmental stages
Learning styles
CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

2. Characteristics of the Media


Print
Nonprint
Models
Audiovisual
CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

3. Characteristics of the Task


Learning domain
Complexity of behavior
THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
1. Delivery System
Definition : both the software (physical form) and the
hardware used to present materials
Examples

Software (physical form) : Power Point slides , DVDs

Hardware : computer, DVD players


COMPONENTS (CONTD)

2. Content
Definition: actual information imparted to the learner

Selection criteria for content


Accuracy
Appropriateness for skill determination
Readability
COMPONENTS (CONTD)

3. Presentation
Definition: Weston and Canston (1986) states that the
form of the message; in other words how information
is presented is the form most important for
selecting/developing instructional materials
They describe the form of the message as occurring a
long a continuum from Concrete to Abstract
including ;
COMPONENTS (CONTD)

Realia: most Concrete and accurate form of stimuli used to


deliver information e.g . An actual woman or mannequin
demonstrating breast-self examination
Illusionary representations: Less concrete e.g. real life visual
and auditory media such as audiotapes on how to
discriminate between normal and abnormal lung sound
Symbolic representations: most abstract types of message
/stimuli used for instruction e.g. Audiotapes ,oral;
presentation, graphs written text ,handout.
TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Written (Printed) Materials


Written (Printed) Materials

Advantages
Available to learner in absence of teacher
Widely acceptable, familiar
Readily available
Relatively cheap
Convenient form
Learner controls rate of reading
Content easily altered to target specific audiences
WRITTEN MATERIALS (CONTD)

Disadvantages
Most abstract form of reality
Immediate feedback limited
Proper reading level essential for full usefulness
Less useful with low literate learners or visually or
cognitively impaired learners
Inappropriate for illiterate learners
WRITTEN MATERIALS
Example of Written Materials ; Commercially Prepared
materials

These materials includes material that prepared by companies that


may or may not produced in collaboration with health professionals
,which raises the questions of how factual the information may be.
WRITTEN MATERIALS
Factors to be considered when using Commercially Prepared
materials

Who produced the item? Was there any input by healthcare professionals?
Can the item be previewed?
The price must be consistent with its educational value.
WRITTEN MATERIALS

Example of Written Materials ;Instructor Composed


Material

Educators may choose to write their own instructional


material for the purpose of cost saving or the need to
tailor content to specific audience.
Guidelines for writing Effective Instructor Composed Material
Fit your own institutions policies, procedures and equipment.

Build in answers to those questions asked most frequently by

your patients.

Highlight points considered especially important by your

healthcare team.

Reinforce specific oral instructions and clarify difficult

concepts.
EVALUATING PRINTED MATERIALS
Educator must consider :
Nature of the audience
Literacy level required
Linguistic variety available
Brevity and clarity
Layout and appearance
Opportunity for repetition
Concreteness and familiarity
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS

Demonstration materials includes many types of non-print media,

such as models and real equipment as well as displays, such as

posters ,diagrams, illustrations ,charts bulletin boards ..


DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
Advantages
Fast way to attract attention, make a point
Flexible
Portable
Reusable
Stimulate interest or ideas in observer
Can change or influence attitudes
Purchasable and/or can be made
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
(CONTD)

Disadvantages
Take up a lot of space
Time-consuming to prepareoften reused, outdated
May be overused
Unsuitable for large audiences
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
Models
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
Models are usually three-dimensional instructional tools that allow the
learner to immediately apply knowledge and psychomotor skills by
observing ,examining ,manipulating handling ,assembling and
disassembling objects while the teacher provides feedback (Rankin &
Stealing 2001)
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS MODELS

Advantages
Useful when real object is too small, too large, too
expensive, unavailable, or too complex
Allows safe, hands-on practice
More active involvement by the learner with
immediate feedback available
Readily available
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
MODELS (CONTD)

Disadvantages

May not be suitable for learner with poor abstraction


abilities or for visually impaired
Some models fragile, expensive, bulky, or difficult to
transport
Cannot be observed or manipulated by more than a
few learners at a time
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS
Displays
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS

Displays such as chalkboards, boards, flipchart are two-dimensional

objects ,they are useful tools for a variety of teaching purposes to

clarify, reinforce or summarize information on important topics and

themes.
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS

Displays
Babcock and Miller (1994) suggested important guidelines when
using chalkboards and white marker boards as follows;

Be sure that writing is legible and discernible


Step a side and face the audience after putting notations on the
boards to maintain contact with audience
Allow audience time to copy the message
Enlist a good note taker to capture a creative design or record
an idea before the board is erased
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS

Posters
Which poster is more helpful .!!!
DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS

Although they are a type of display material ,posters are being

addressed separately because they have become increasingly

unique, popular and important educational tools


DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS

Posters
When using poster the educators must Consider:
Color (opposite spectrum, one color should make up as 70% of the
display)
Graphics should be easily interpreted
White space and another background color
Avoid unfamiliar words and symbols
KISS principle (keep it small and simple)
Keep learning objectives in mind for the focus of the display tool
Be sure content is free from spelling and grammar mistake
Balance Titles / Script
AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS

Factors in selection
Technical feasibility
Economic feasibility
Social/political acceptability
Instructor familiarity
AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS
AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS

Technology software and hardware are exceptional aids because many

can influence all three domains of learning by promoting cognitive

development ,stimulating attitude change, and helps to build

psychomotor skills
AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS
Audiovisual materials can be categorized in to five major types ;

Projected Learning Resources


Audio Learning Resources
Video Learning Resources
Telecommunications Learning Resources
Computer Learning Resources
PROJECTED LEARNING RESOURCES

Projected Learning Resources such as;


Power Points
Overhead transparencies
PROJECTED LEARNING RESOURCES

Advantages
Most effectively used with groups
Especially beneficial with hearing-impaired, low-
literate learners
Excellent media for use in teaching psychomotor
skills
PROJECTED LEARNING RESOURCES (CONTD)

Disadvantages
Lack of flexibility due to static content of some forms
Some forms may be expensive
Requires darkened room for some forms
Requires special equipment for use
AUDIO LEARNING RESOURCES

Audio Learning Resources includes CDs, Digital Sound


Files, Radio
Advantages
Widely available
May be especially beneficial to visually-impaired, low
literate learners
May be listened to repeatedly
Most forms practical, cheap, small, portable
AUDIO LEARNING RESOURCES (CONTD)

Disadvantages
Relies only on sense of hearing
Some forms may be expensive
Lack of opportunity for interaction between
instructor and learner
VIDEO LEARNING RESOURCES

Video Learning Resources includes ; Digital Video Files,


DVDs, Webinars
Advantages
Widely used educational tool
Inexpensive; uses visual, auditory senses
Flexible for use with different audiences
Powerful tool for role-modeling and demonstration
Effective for teaching psychomotor skills
VIDEO LEARNING RESOURCES (CONTD)

Disadvantages
Viewing formats limited depending on use of VHS or
DVD
Some commercial products may be expensive
Some purchased materials may be too long or
inappropriate for audience
TELECOMMUNICATIONS LEARNING
RESOURCES
Telecommunications Learning Resources includes
Television, Telephones

Advantages
Relatively inexpensive, widely available
Disadvantages
Complicated to set up interactive capability
Expensive to broadcast via satellite
COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES
In our technological society ,the computer has changed our
lives dramatically and has found widespread application in
industry, business, schools and homes

Examples of Computer Learning Resources (See chapter


12 page 504)
COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES
(CONTD)
COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES

Advantages
Interactive potential: quick feedback, retention
Potential database is enormous
Can individualize to suit different types of learners,
different pace of learning
Time efficient
COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES
(CONTD)

Disadvantages
Primary learning efficacy: cognitive domain less
useful for attitude/behavior change or psychomotor
skill development
Software and hardware expensive
Must be purchased
Limited use for most older adults, low-literate
learners, those with physical limitations
EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR
SELECTING MATERIALS
Considerations for Selecting Materials

Learner characteristics
Task(s) to be achieved
Media available
STATE OF THE EVIDENCE

Performance is improved and learner satisfaction

increased with visual reinforcement.

Distance learning is an increasingly viable option for

learners.
LEARNING PYRAMID ; INFORMATION RETENTION BASED ON THE LEVEL OF
ACTIVE LEARNER INVOLVEMENT

Source : Adopted from National Training Laboratories. Institutes of Applied Behavioral Science
SUMMARY

Instructional materials should be used to support learning


by complementing and supplementing your teaching, not
by substituting for it.