You are on page 1of 12


Introduction to A/D and D/A conversion

An electronic integrated circuit which transforms a signal from

analog(continues) to digital(discrete) form
Analog signals are directly measurable quantities
Most instrumentation transducers have an output signal in analog form.
Microprocessors can only perform complex processing on digitized signals
When signals are in digital form they are less susceptible to the deleterious
effects of additive noise
ADC Provides a link between the analog world of transducers and the digital
world of signal processing and data handling.
Flash type ADC

If Output


Flash type ADC

D/A conversion

To convert digital values to analog voltage

Performs inverse operation of analog to digital


Binary Weighted resistors are used to distinguish

each bit from the most significant to the least
Binary weighted resistors Reduces current by a
factor of 2 for each bit
Simple weighted resistor
The circuit shown is a digital to analog converter 4-
bits weighted binary resistance network circuit types.
Resistor values can be calculated using the weight of
the binary number.
Signal filtering

Filtering is used to separate signals from noise.

If the information signal has different spectrum than noise, it is possible to design a filter to
attenuate noise.

Filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio.

Selectively passing /rejecting low, medium and high frequency signals from frequency

Range of frequency passed by filter is pass band and rejected is stop band.

Boundary between two ranges is known as cutoff frequency.

Signal averaging

Signal averaging is a technique applied, intended to increase the strength

of signal relative to noise that is obscuring it.
Standard deviation of random noise decreases, as portions of it are added
together and their average is taken.
This property of noise can be used to detect signals called as averaging.
Synchronized periodical signals are added together and is averaged.
Wanted signal is retained while the noise tends to average out.
The average consist of simple computer and oscilloscope.
A typical signal average employs an input S/H unit, ADC, digital
accumulator and DAC to provide X & Y analog signals for the
Signal correlation

If a signal of known waveform is transmitted into a medium and is receive again,

unchanged in form but buried in noise, cross-correlation can be used to detect the
Receiver output consist of desired output and unwanted noise,
If we cross-correlate the transmitted signal with received, then result have two part,
one part is auto correlation function of desired signal which is common to both signal,
and cross-correlated unwanted signal.
There will be no correlation between signal and noise, so second part tends to zero,
leaving only auto correlated signal resulting in substantial increase in SNR.

Measurement systems always encounters electrical interference, either random or

There are many potential sources of interference in a systems, significant as
compared to often low power levels of analog transduces
Differential /series-mode interference causes one signal lead to be changed in
potential relative to the second lead.
Common mode interference causes both signal lead and ground cause potential to
change simultaneously.
Interference usually coupled by conduction through metallic, resistor and capacitor
links, or by radiation via stray capacitance and mutual inductance effects.
Measuring system easily coupled to ground at the transducers and at the signal condition unit.
By mounting of its case and through mains-power lead and results in ground loop.
Ground connections comprises interference and is eliminated by providing single point grounding of
signal channel.
Types of grounding
Safety grounding
Cabinet grounding
Shielding grounding
Circuit ground
Earth grounding

A conductor carrying AC is surrounded by magnetic field and voltage induced in

any conducting material.
Resulting in electromagnetic induction.
To reduce EMI we use
Conducting shield
Magnetic shield
Twisted leads
Conducting shields are thick so magnetic flux entering, induces current which
produce a magnetic flux to oppose the applied field.
Thank you