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Image Processing

texts are organized, what strikes most students

is the vast array of algorithms with odd names

and obscure functions

they have similar purposes

and similar results

Image Processing

algorithms that do things to images:

1) Radiometric algorithms

change the DNs

Calibration

Contrast enhancement

2) Geometric algorithms

change the spatial arrangement of pixels or adjust

DNs based on their neighbors values

Registration

Visualization

Spatial-spectral transformation

Spatial filtering

Contrast stretching & calibration

Enhancement: Imagine a DN histogram centered at 75 DN and running from 50 to 100. In lab, you would

move sliders to 50 and 100 DN to display it well.

Mathematically, you are saying that (100-50)=50 DNs are going to be packed into 256 gray levels, DN.

Furthermore, the center of the distribution will be 128 DN.

DN=gain *DN+offset

Now if we take 75 DN, the central value that we want to be 128, and multiply it by 5.12, we get

384 DN, so we need to subtract 256 to get the right answer: DN=5.12*DN-256.

Calibration: We measure radiance in DNs, but we want to know reflectance. So we can take a known target

(say, black and white cardboard with reflectances measured in the lab of 5 and 25%) and image them to find

out what radiance DNs they give (say, 13 and 47, respectively). Then we can do a controlled contrast stretch

to give the image in reflectance units:

Now, the gain will be DDN /Drefl = (25-5)/(47-13)=0.59 (That is, refl=0.59*DN+offs, and we find offset by

Knowing 0.59*13=5, or offset = 5-0.59*13=5-7.67=-2.67, so refl=0.59*DN-2.67.

Geometric registration

distorted control points corrected images

are found by interpolation from

the nearest neighbors in the

acquired image

Image Processing

are based on the relationship of DNs within a given pixel

Color enhancement

Spectral transformations (e.g., PCA)

Spectral Mixture Analysis

4) Statistical algorithms

characterize or compare groups of radiance data

Estimate geophysical parameters

Spectral similarity (classification, spectral matching)

Input to GIS

Image Processing

5) Modeling

calculate non-radiance parameters from the radiance

and other data

Estimate geophysical parameters

Make thematic maps

Input to GIS

Image Processing

professional to become familiar with

remote-sensing texts.

Image Processing Sequence

(single image)

Raw image

data

1. Image display/inspection

2. Instrument calibration

Image rectification,

3. cartographic projection,

registration, geocoding Pre-processing

4. Atmospheric compensation

(topographic compensation)

Working image

data

Image Processing Sequence

(single image)

Working image

data

6. Further image processing

7. Spectral analysis

Selection of training

8. data/endmembers

Processing

Initial classification or other type

9. of analysis

Interpretation/verification

10. or further analysis

Product

Ratios in 2-space

TM3 TM4

TM4

60 Ratio 11

50 sunlit

Reflectance, %

40 Ratio 1.5

30

20

10 Ratio - 1.1

shadowed

0

0 1 2 3 shadow

Wavelength, micrometers

TM3

Ratios

The Vegetation Index (VI) = DN4/DN3 is a ratio. Ratios

suppress topographic shading because the cos(i) term

appears in both numerator and denominator.

I 4 r4

DN4 cos(i )

I 3r3

DN3 cos(i )

I 4 r4 cos(i ) I 4 r4

RATIO4,3

I 3r3 cos(i ) I 3 r3

NDVI

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

DN4-DN3 is a measure of

how much chlorophyll

absorption is present, but it

is sensitive to cos(i) unless

the difference is divided by

the sum DN4+DN3.

I 4 r4 I 3r3

DN 4 cos(i ); DN3 cos(i )

I 4 r4 cos(i ) I 3r3 cos(i )

NDVI

I 4 r4 cos(i ) I 3r3 cos(i )

I 4 r4 I 3r3

NDVI

I 4 r4 I 3r3

Dimension rotation

y

x ' cos sin x

y ' sin cos y

y

x

45

-0.7x, 0.7y 0.7x,0.7y

x ' 0.707 0.707 x

y ' 0.707 0.707 y

+

x ' 0.707 x 0.707 y

y ' 0.707 x 0.707 y x

y

60

x ' 0.5 0.866 x

y ' 0.866 0.5 y

0.5x,0.87y

x ' 0.5 x 0.866 y

y ' 0.866 x 0.5 y

-087x,0.5y +

90 x

x ' 0.5 0.866 x y

y ' 0.866 0.5 y

x

x' 0 x 1 y 0x,1y

y ' 1 x 0 y

+

y x

-1x,0y

Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Designed to reduce redundancy in multispectral

bands

Topography - shading

Spectral correlation from band to band

or pre-processing for classification or other

analysis

fewer bands

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_component_analysis

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) -

The math behind the button

cos sin

[ ] [ ] [

PC1

PC2

=

DN1

DN2

=

-sin cos ][ ]

DN1

DN2

cov [ n11 n12

n21 n22 ]

= 45

DN i ,k DN i

n 2

k 1

var iance n i ,i ;

n 1

DN i DN i DN j DN j

n

k 1

cov ariance n i , j

n 1

Cov=RTcovR; cov is the matrix having

eigenvalues as diagonal elements and

RT is the transpose of R. Eigenvalues

can be found by diagonalizing cov. R

has eigenvectors as column vectors

http://www.cs.otago.ac.nz/cosc453/student_tutorials/principal_components.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_component_analysis

Principal Component Analysis

PC2 DN3 sin(45) DN4 cos(45)

data. In the top case, all the image

data have similar DN2/DN1 ratios but

different intensities, and PC1 passes

through the elongated cluster.

PC1

In the bottom example, vegetation

causes there to be 2 mixing lines

(different DN4/DN3 ratios (and the

tasseled cap distribution such that

PC2 PC1 still passes through the centroid

of the data, but is a different rotation

that in the top case.

Tasseled Cap Transformation

Transforms (rotates) the data so that the majority of the

information is contained in 3 bands that are directly

related to physical scene characteristics

soil reflectance)

Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT)

connecting shadow and sunlit green vegetation parallels one

axis and shadow-soil another. It is similar to the PCT.

Next lecture Spectral Mixture Analysis

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