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Friday 11 February 2011

Lecture 12: Image Processing

Image Processing

Because of the way most remote-sensing

texts are organized, what strikes most students
is the vast array of algorithms with odd names
and obscure functions

What is elusive is the underlying simplicity.

Many algorithms are substantially the same

they have similar purposes
and similar results
Image Processing

There are basically five families of

algorithms that do things to images:

1) Radiometric algorithms
change the DNs
Contrast enhancement

2) Geometric algorithms
change the spatial arrangement of pixels or adjust
DNs based on their neighbors values
Spatial-spectral transformation
Spatial filtering
Contrast stretching & calibration
Enhancement: Imagine a DN histogram centered at 75 DN and running from 50 to 100. In lab, you would
move sliders to 50 and 100 DN to display it well.

Mathematically, you are saying that (100-50)=50 DNs are going to be packed into 256 gray levels, DN.
Furthermore, the center of the distribution will be 128 DN.

DN=gain *DN+offset

So the amplification factor or gain will be 256/(100-50)=5.12: DN=5.12*DN+offset

Now if we take 75 DN, the central value that we want to be 128, and multiply it by 5.12, we get
384 DN, so we need to subtract 256 to get the right answer: DN=5.12*DN-256.

Check: DN=5.12*50-256 = 0; DN=5.12*75-256=128; DN=5.12*100-256=156

Calibration: We measure radiance in DNs, but we want to know reflectance. So we can take a known target
(say, black and white cardboard with reflectances measured in the lab of 5 and 25%) and image them to find
out what radiance DNs they give (say, 13 and 47, respectively). Then we can do a controlled contrast stretch
to give the image in reflectance units:

Now, the gain will be DDN /Drefl = (25-5)/(47-13)=0.59 (That is, refl=0.59*DN+offs, and we find offset by
Knowing 0.59*13=5, or offset = 5-0.59*13=5-7.67=-2.67, so refl=0.59*DN-2.67.

Check: 25=0.59*47-2.67=25.06 (roundoff)

Calibration is just a special kind of contrast stretch

Geometric registration

Acquired image, Map with locations of Pixel locations in original and

distorted control points corrected images

DN values in corrected image

are found by interpolation from
the nearest neighbors in the
acquired image
Image Processing

3) Spectral analysis algorithms

are based on the relationship of DNs within a given pixel
Color enhancement
Spectral transformations (e.g., PCA)
Spectral Mixture Analysis

4) Statistical algorithms
characterize or compare groups of radiance data
Estimate geophysical parameters
Spectral similarity (classification, spectral matching)
Input to GIS
Image Processing

5) Modeling
calculate non-radiance parameters from the radiance
and other data
Estimate geophysical parameters
Make thematic maps
Input to GIS
Image Processing

There is a dazzling array of things for the future

professional to become familiar with

Were trying to over-simplify it to begin with

Most algorithms are handled pretty well in most

remote-sensing texts.

Spectral Mixture Analysis is an exception, so

- well look at Spectral Mixture Analysis next lecture

Image Processing Sequence
(single image)

Raw image

1. Image display/inspection
2. Instrument calibration
Image rectification,
3. cartographic projection,
registration, geocoding Pre-processing
4. Atmospheric compensation

5. Pixel illumination-viewing geometry

(topographic compensation)

Working image
Image Processing Sequence
(single image)

Working image
6. Further image processing
7. Spectral analysis
Selection of training
8. data/endmembers
Initial classification or other type
9. of analysis
10. or further analysis

Ratios in 2-space
60 Ratio 11
50 sunlit
Reflectance, %

40 Ratio 1.5



10 Ratio - 1.1
0 1 2 3 shadow
Wavelength, micrometers

The Vegetation Index (VI) = DN4/DN3 is a ratio. Ratios
suppress topographic shading because the cos(i) term
appears in both numerator and denominator.

I 4 r4
DN4 cos(i )

I 3r3
DN3 cos(i )

I 4 r4 cos(i ) I 4 r4
I 3r3 cos(i ) I 3 r3
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

DN4-DN3 is a measure of
how much chlorophyll
absorption is present, but it
is sensitive to cos(i) unless
the difference is divided by
the sum DN4+DN3.

I 4 r4 I 3r3
DN 4 cos(i ); DN3 cos(i )

I 4 r4 cos(i ) I 3r3 cos(i )
I 4 r4 cos(i ) I 3r3 cos(i )
I 4 r4 I 3r3
I 4 r4 I 3r3
Dimension rotation
x ' cos sin x
y ' sin cos y

-0.7x, 0.7y 0.7x,0.7y
x ' 0.707 0.707 x
y ' 0.707 0.707 y
x ' 0.707 x 0.707 y
y ' 0.707 x 0.707 y x
x ' 0.5 0.866 x
y ' 0.866 0.5 y
x ' 0.5 x 0.866 y
y ' 0.866 x 0.5 y
-087x,0.5y +
90 x
x ' 0.5 0.866 x y
y ' 0.866 0.5 y
x' 0 x 1 y 0x,1y
y ' 1 x 0 y

y x
Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Designed to reduce redundancy in multispectral
Topography - shading
Spectral correlation from band to band

Either enhancement prior to visual interpretation

or pre-processing for classification or other

Compress all info originally in many bands into

fewer bands
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) -
The math behind the button

In the simple case of 45 axis rotation, Finding

cos sin
[ ] [ ] [
-sin cos ][ ]
cov [ n11 n12
n21 n22 ]
= 45
DN i ,k DN i
n 2
k 1
var iance n i ,i ;
n 1

DN i DN i DN j DN j

k 1
cov ariance n i , j
n 1
Cov=RTcovR; cov is the matrix having
eigenvalues as diagonal elements and
RT is the transpose of R. Eigenvalues
can be found by diagonalizing cov. R
has eigenvectors as column vectors
Principal Component Analysis

In the simple case of 45 axis rotation,

PC1 DN3 cos(45) DN4 sin(45)

PC2 DN3 sin(45) DN4 cos(45)

The rotation in PCA depends on the

data. In the top case, all the image
data have similar DN2/DN1 ratios but
different intensities, and PC1 passes
through the elongated cluster.
In the bottom example, vegetation
causes there to be 2 mixing lines
(different DN4/DN3 ratios (and the
tasseled cap distribution such that
PC2 PC1 still passes through the centroid
of the data, but is a different rotation
that in the top case.
Tasseled Cap Transformation
Transforms (rotates) the data so that the majority of the
information is contained in 3 bands that are directly
related to physical scene characteristics

Brightness (weighted sum of all bands principal variation in

soil reflectance)

Greenness (contrast between NIR and VIS bands

Wetness (canopy and soil moisture)

Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT)

TCT is a fixed rotation that is designed so that the mixing line

connecting shadow and sunlit green vegetation parallels one
axis and shadow-soil another. It is similar to the PCT.
Next lecture Spectral Mixture Analysis