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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

Alexandra Reeves
Wake Forest University Department of Counseling

MMPI-2 Introduction Psychometric Properties Strengths/Limitations

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is a Additional scales have been created for the MMPI-2 (Hays,2013). In In 2003, the psychometric properties of the RC scales were
2003, a flexible test construction strategy was created (Simms, Strengths:
popular structured personality assessment. The original version, compared to the standard clinical scales (Simms et al.,2005).
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, was published in Casillas, Clark, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2005). This strategy permitted The RC scales were found to be equal or superior to the Developed from previous methods that emphasized
1940 (Drayton,2009).The second version, MMPI-2, was created in the clinician to, identify and measure the meaningful and distinct testing validity.
standard clinical scales with a median coefficient alphas that
1989 (Drayton,2009). The MMPI-2 is one of the most widely used components of each standard clinical scale (Simms et al.,2005). The Countless amount of literature on the empirical
ranged from .76 to .86 for the RC scales (Simms et al.,2005).
psychometric test that measures adult psychopathology four stages of test construction were as follows: (a) creation of a correlation of items, scales, and profile patterns.
Demoralization scale that measures a broad, emotionally colored
For the standard clinical scales, the comparable median
(Drayton,2009). This assessment is used to help evaluate the Ease of administration with multiple administration
participant for mental health disorders as well as aid in the variable that underlies much of the variance common to the MMPI-2 alphas were lower ranging from .59 to .79 (Simms et
counseling and treatment planning for the individual (Hays,2013). Clinical Scales (b) identification of distinct core components for al.,2005).
Objective scoring and high scorer reliability.
Not only does the assessment consist of clinical scales that assess each clinical scale, development of seed scales to tap each core
component using items from the standard clinical scales, and (d) A large ethnically, geographically, and
mental health issues, but the assessment also contains validity socioeconomically diverse normal standardization
scales to provide information on the clients attitude toward the derivation of a final set of RC scales composed of items from the
entire MMPI-2 item pool (Simms et al.,2005). sample.
testing process (Hays, 2013). Hays states, Most of the clinical
The temporal stability of the standard clinical scales is
scales consist of items that significantly differentiate between
in a range adequate to reflect both continuity and
people in a particular psychiatric diagnostic category (e.g., Multicultural/Ethical Factors change in symptoms and personality.
depression) and people in the general reference group (often
referred to as the Minnesota normal). An example is if a person Multicultural Considerations: (Nichols & Kaufman,2011)
with depression take the Depression Scale (Scale 2), then they Limitations:
would endorse significantly more/less than the Minnesota normal When diagnosing, a clinician uses testing information For the maximum accuracy of results, the test requires
(Hays, 2013). (MMPI-2), non-verbals, and emotional responses that the participate have a minimum ninth-grade
The MMPI-2 is a true/false, self-reporting assessment that has 567 (Garber, 2011). But that is just the surface when it Ethical Considerations: reading level as well as a moderately cooperative
questions (Drayton,2009). There are nine validity scales that assess comes to taking into account how people from attitude when it comes to taking the test.
for, lying, defensiveness, faking good and faking bad different cultural backgrounds might react in this As with any assessment, it is important to consult Influenced by variables.
(Drayton,2009). These scales make faking the results highly situation. The underlying issues could be: sociopolitical the ACA Code of Ethics. Section E of the code covers
issues of the time, social construction of Hard to generalize to other populations if needed.
difficult. The clinical scales are assessing for the following: mental the evaluation, assessment and interpretation
race/gender/culture, social views of mental health, Susceptible to deliberate deception.
health problems (depression, anxiety, PTSD), personality ethical guidelines.
western philosophies/theories of mental health, and (Nichols & Kaufman,2011)
characteristics (psychopathy), and general personality traits (anger, E.1.a. Assessment: The primary purpose of
the tools we develop to measure mental health
somatization, hypochondriasis, addiction potential, and poor ego educational, mental health, psychological, and
(Garber, 2011).
strength) (Drayton,2009). career assessment is to gather information regarding
American Indians: When a study was conducted by Hill, the client for a variety of purposes, including, but
Pace, and Robbin in 2010, 30 items from the MMPI-2 not limited to, client decision making, treatment
Specifics of assessment from Pearson Clinical: scales F,1,6,8, and 9 were identified as reflecting
planning, and forensic proceedings. Assessment may
significant differences from the normative group
include both qualitative and quantitative
Age Range: 18 years and older (Garber, 2011). There was 9 themes established from
interviews that were conducted after the assessment
Reading Level: 5th grade (Lexile average), 4.6 grade (Flesch-Kincaid) E.1.b. Client Welfare: Counselors do not misuse
(Garber, 2011).
Other Languages: English, Spanish, French for Canada assessment results and interpretations, and they
Whitworth and McBlaine conducted a study in 1993
Administration: Online, Computer, CD or Paper and pencil take reasonable steps to prevent others from
that verified that Latinos had higher L scores as well as
Completion Time: 60-90 minutes misusing the information provided. They respect the
differences in Scale 5 (Garber, 2011).
Forms: 567 True-False items clients right to know the results, the interpretations
Asian Americans: low-acculturated Asian Americans made, and the bases for counselors conclusions and
Norms: A nationally representative community sample of adult men and
scored significantly higher on 9 scales while bicultural
women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 recommendations.
Asian Americans had 6 significantly different scores
from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.) The following also apply:
than the normative sample (Garber, 2011).
Scoring Options: Q-global Scoring and Reporting, Q Local Software, Mail- E.2. Competence to Use and Population-Specific Considerations
in Scoring Service, Hand Scoring Interpret Assessment Instruments
Report Option: Extended Score Reports, Adult Clinical Interpretive E.3. Informed Consent in Assessment The normative sample for this assessment consisted of 1,462
Reports, Forensic Settings Reports, Personnel Interp. and Adjustment E.4. Release of Data to Qualified women and 1,138 men (Hays, 2013). This was done in order to be
Ratings Reports Personnel representative of the adult U.S. population when it comes to age,
Publication Date: 1989, 2001 (revised), updated 2003 and 2009 E.5. Diagnosis of Mental Disorders relationship status, race/ethnicity, and geography (Hays,2013).
Publisher: University of Minnesota Press E.6. Instrument Selection
(Pearson Education, 2017) E.7. Conditions of Assessment
Administration The sample (norms) were between the ages of 18-80 and were from
The MMPI-2 can be obtained from: E.8. Multicultural Issues/Diversity in several regions and diverse communities within the U.S. (Pearson Assessment Education, 2017). It would be important to keep this in mind if a
E.9. Scoring and Interpretation of client is a first generation immigrant from another country.
E.10. Assessment Security
E.11. Obsolete Assessment and
Outdated Results
E.12. Assessment Construction
E. 13. Forensic Evaluation: Evaluation
for Legal Proceedings