Concrete and Abstract Concepts

‡ A Concrete Concept:
± Represents a substance ± A substance and its attribute ± An attribute predicated of substance
Examples: a man a father a tall building a just person this apple is sweet the teacher instructs

Concrete and Abstract Concepts
‡ An Abstract Concept:
± represents an attribute mentally separated from the substance in which it actually inheres ± the universal concept of substance is abstract as far as it has been mentally segregated at least from the individuating notes of a singular substance. ± It customary to call abstract only attributes viewed in separation from their substance

Examples: ‡ fatherhood ‡ tallness ‡ justice ‡ sweetness ‡ humanity

Relative and Absolute Concepts
‡ A Relative Concept represents at least a relation to another concept.
± relative adverbs and adjectives ± nouns entirely relative ± nouns relative in their specific difference

Example: ‡ identical ‡ equal ‡ similar ‡ different ‡ as good as ‡ better than ‡ best

Relative and Absolute Concepts
‡ An Absolute Concept does not represent a relation unless it becomes part of a judgment or a member of a division.
± there are absolute adverbs, adjectives, and nouns ± an absolute noun concept is defined by its own constituent notes, without reference to anything else

Example: ‡ Man is a rational animal.

Contradictory and Contrary Concepts
‡ Contradictory Concepts are the two members of a dichotomous division;
± they are a positive and the corresponding negative idea ± they denote two classes or attributes that leave no intermediate alternative within the totum divided

Example: ‡ voter non-voter ‡ sentient non-sentient

Contradictory and Contrary Concepts
A Negative Concept is called negative because its comprehension contains a note which signifies the lack of, or opposition to, the specific attribute to the positive (contradictory) concept. Occasionally, a negative concept represents all things except the positive idea.

Contradictory and Contrary Concepts
Formal and Material Negatives ± a formal negative concept is expressed by a term negative in spelling and meaning ± a material negative concept, by a term negative in meaning only

Contradictory and Contrary Concepts
Privative and Non-privative Concepts ± a privative negative represents a subject deprived of a note that belongs to its physical integrity, or a state of such privation ± all other negatives are non-privative

Contradictory and Contrary Concepts
‡ Contrary Concepts Example: denote two classes or ‡ hot ± cold attributes that leave at ‡ good - bad least one intermediate alternative within the totum divided.

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