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PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF LOOM, LOOM

MECHANISM
LOOM

Machine or device for weaving


Interlacing two sets of yarns

Loom is to hold the warp threads under tension


to facilitate the interweaving of the weft
threads
Heald shaft: This part is related to the shedding mechanism. The
heald shaft is made of wood or metal such as aluminium. It carries
a number of heald wires through which the ends of the warp sheet
pass. The heald shafts are also known as 'heald frames' or 'heald
staves'. The number of heald shafts depends on the warp repeat of
the weave. It is decided by the drafting plan of a weave.

Main features of the healds shaft:


It helps in shed formation.

It is useful in identifying broken warp threads

It maintains the order or sequence of the warp threads

It determines the order of lifting or lowering the required number of


healds for a pick. In other words it helps in forming the design or
pattern in a fabric.
It determines the warp thread density in a fabric, i.e. the numbers
of heald wires per inch determine the warp thread density per inch.
Sley or lay: It is made of wood and consists of the sley race or race
board, reed cap and metal swords carried at either ends. The sley
mechanism swings to and fro.
It is responsible for pushing the last pick of weft to the fell of the cloth
by means of the beat up motion.
The sley moves faster when moving towards the fell of the cloth and
moves slower when moving backwards.
This unequal movement is known as 'eccentricity of the sley'.
It is needed in order to perform the beat up and also to give sufficient
time for passage of shuttle to pass through the warp shed.

The beat up of the lastly laid pick of weft is accomplished through a


metal reed attached to the sley.
Shuttle: It is basically a weft carrier and
helps in interlacement of the weft with the
warp threads to form cloth. The shuttle
which is made of wood passes from one
end of the loom to the other. It travels
along the wooden sley race and passes
between the top and bottom layers of the
warp sheet. The shuttle enters a shuttle
box fitted at either ends of the loom, after
passing through the warp shed. A shuttle
normally weighs about 0.45 kgs.
Shuttle box: It is the housing for the shuttle and is
made of wood. It has a spindle and a picker. It may
also accommodate the picker without spindle. The top
and side of the box towards the sley race are open.
The shuttle dwells inside the box for the intermediate
period between two successive picks.

Warp beam: This is also known as the weaver's beam. It is


fixed at the back of the loom. The warp sheet is wound on to
this beam. The length of warp in the beam may be more than a
thousand metres.

Back Beam: This is also known as the back


rest. It is placed above the weaver's beam. It
may be of the fixed or floating type. In the first
case the back rest merely acts as a guide to
the warp sheet coming from the weaver's
beam. In the second case it acts both as a
guide and as a sensor for sensing the warp
tension.
Picker: The picker is a piece made either of
leather or synthetic material. It may be placed
on a spindle or grooves in the shuttle box. It is
used to drive the shuttle from one box to
another. It also sustains the force of the shuttle
while entering the box.

Reed: It is a metallic comb that is fixed to the sley with a reed cap. The
reed is made of a number of wires and the gap between wires is known as
dents. Each dent can accommodate one, two or more warp ends. The count
of the reed is decided by the number of dents in two inches. The reed
performs a number of functions which are enumerated as follows:
It pushes the lastly laid pick of weft to the cloth fell
It helps to maintain the position of the warp threads
It acts as a guide to the shuttle which passes from one end of the loom to
the other.
It determines the fineness of the cloth in conjunction with the healds.
It determines the openness or closeness of the fabric.
There are various types of reed such as ordinary reed, gauze reed,
expanding reed, V reed etc.

Breast Beam: It is also known as the front rest. It


is placed above the cloth roller at the front of the
loom and acts as a guide for the cloth being
wound on to the cloth roller. The front rest together
with the back rest helps to keep the warp yarn and
cloth in horizontal position and also maintain
proper tension to facilitate weaving.

Cloth Beam: It is also known as the cloth roller. The


woven cloth is wound on to this roller. This roller is
placed below the front rest. It is also known as the
cloth roller. The woven cloth is wound on to this roller.
This roller is placed below the front rest.
LOOM MECHANISM

Primary,
Secondary, and

Auxiliary
PRIMARY
Shedding: separating the warp threads -
Done with Tappets, Dobby, Jacquard
Picking: passing the weft thread
Beating-up: pushing the newly inserted length
of weft to the fell.
SECONDARY
Warp control (or let-off): this motion delivers warp to
the weaving area
Cloth control (or take-up): this motion withdraws
fabrics from the weaving area
AUXILIARY
Warp protector mechanism: The warp protector mechanism will stop the
loom if the shuttle gets trapped between the top and bottom layers of the
shed. It thus prevents excessive damage to the warp threads, reed wires
and shuttle.
Weft stop motion: The object of the weft stop motion is to stop the loom
when a weft thread breaks or gets exhausted. This motion helps to avoid
cracks in a fabric.
Temples: The function of the temples is to grip the cloth and hold it at the
same width as the warp in the reed, before it is taken up.
Brake: The brake stops the loom immediately whenever required. The
weaver uses it to stop the loom to repair broken ends and picks.
Warp stop motion: The object of the warp stop motion is to stop the loom
immediately when a warp thread breaks during the weaving process.
FABRIC REPRESENTATION

Methods of Weave Representation


Repeat of weave and shift
Drafts
Weaving plan
Lifting plan
Relations between Weave, Drafts, and Lifting.
METHODS OF WEAVE REPRESENTATION

How can you describe the structure of a fabric?


We can use different ways:

Cross-section diagram

Canvas
Plan diagram method
longitudinal-section diagram
Plan diagram

longitudinal-section
diagram

Cross-section
diagram
MAIN POINTS ABOUT THE CANVAS METHOD:

The canvas method is widely used in the world.


REPEAT OF WEAVE AND SHIFT

Repeat:

Here is a plain weave. From the diagram, we can see, the


3rd warp thread has the same movement with the 1st, and
the 4th same with 2nd. Similarly, the 3rd weft thread is
same with the 1st weft thread; the 4th is same with the 2nd.
Thus, the weave repeats after 2 ends and 2 picks. So, we
define that: (shown in the next page)
The warp repeat----- the minimal number of warp
threads after which the movements of warp threads
repeat.
The weft repeat ----may be defined analogically.

The Weave repeat---- a complete element of the


weave.
Following are some examples:
2) SHIFT (MOVE)

Shift is the distance from a painted square on a thread


to its corresponding painted square on its adjacent
thread.
The shift can be counted in warp way, So, and in weft
way, Sy, (mostly in warp way)
The shift can be either positive or negative, depending
on the direction of counting. Counting from the left to
right or from low to high gives positive shift.
Schematic diagram of
shift
1.3.3 DRAFTS

1. The various Drafts


1) Some concepts
Draft ---- The draft shows the number of shafts and the
manner in which the warp threads are drawn into the shafts.
Why does it need to draft ?
The warp threads must be drawn into the healds, for separating the
warp threads to form shed.
Position:
The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.
THE VARIOUS DRAFTS CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS
FOLLOWS:

. Straight . Divided
. Skip and sateen . Grouped
. Pointed . Curved
. Broken . Combined
STRAIGHT DRAFT

Each successive thread is drawn in successive


shaft, i.e. the first thread in the first shaft, the
second thread in the second shaft, and so on
(see Fig. 1.9).

Fig.1.9
SKIP DRAFT
This is used in weaving the fabrics with a high density of warp threads
for reducing the friction between thread and thread as well as thread
and healds

Three healds on each


shaft Two healds on each
shaft
2. REQUIREMENTS TO DRAWING-IN

1). The possibility of using a straight draft should be


studied first. Then the simplest type of draft, suitable for
the given weave should be chosen.
2). The number of shafts should be as small as possible,
but the density of healds is to be calculated and should
not exceed the standard value.
3). The distribution of threads on different shafts should
be as uniform as possible. In some cases additional shafts
can be added to reduce the density of healds.
Requirements to Drawing-in

4). It is advisable to use the front shafts with


minimum height of lifting for the threads with
biggest number of intersections in the weave
repeat and for a weaker system of warp threads.
5)Warps with different movement must not be
drawn into the same shaft and warps with same
movement can be drawn into different shafts
WEAVING PLAN

The weaving plan consists


of three elements placed in
a certain order: (1) weave,
(2) draft, or drawing-in, (3)
lifting plan.
These three elements are closely
dependent on one another. If any
two elements of the weaving plan
are known, the third element can be
constructed. (see the figure on the
right)
Weaving plan gives the introduction
of weaving process.
LIFTING PLAN

In order to produce the required weave the designer


has to provide a lifting plan for the purpose of
controlling the lifting and lowering of the shafts. In
dobby shedding the plan is used either for pegging
a set of lags or cutting a paper card.
Lifting plans are indicated on the right of the
weave diagram.
Example:
See the right figures, to
obtain the given weave
there are 4 vertical spaces
in the lifting-plan controlling
the 4 corresponding shafts
in the draft
RELATIONS BETWEEN WEAVE, DRAFT, AND
LIFTING.

Three elements of a weaving plan are dependent on


one another. Any element of the weaving plan can
be constructed if two others are given.
CONSTRUCTION OF LIFTING PLAN
FROM THE GIVEN WEAVE AND DRAFT.





CONSTRUCTION OF DRAFT FROM A GIVEN
LIFTING PLAN AND WEAVE.

This diagram shown the lifting plan and the weave are given, and the
problem is to construct the draft.

To Construct the
draft
PRINCIPLE AND METHOD

The number of vertical spaces


at C corresponds to the number
of horizontal spaces at B. It

means that the first vertical
space at C controls the first
shaft, the second vertical space
controls the second shaft, and
so on. Then the draft is
constructed by comparing the
arrangement of the lifting plan
at C and weave at A. and so on.
3. CONSTRUCTION OF WEAVE FROM A GIVEN
DRAFT AND LIFTING PLAN.
PLAIN WEAVE
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CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN WEAVE


Both sides of the weave are identical
Threads interlacing in alternate order
The repeat contains two ends and two picks.
Each thread gives maximum amount of support to the adjacent threads.
Texture is stronger and firmer than any other ordinary cloth.
The weave can be made from all kind of textile raw materials i.e. cotton
yarn, linen, jute & man-made fibers, both spun and continuous filament
yarns.
It comprise a high production of the total output of woven fabrics.
Two heald shafts are sufficient to produce plain weave; when the EPI is large
four or six heald shafts are used with skip draft.

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CLASSIFICATION OF PLAIN CLOTH

Plain cloth

Warp face cloth Weft face cloth Approximately squared cloth

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DERIVATIVES OF PLAIN WEAVE


Derivatives of plain weave

Rib weave Matt/ Basket/ Hopsack weave

Warp rib Weft rib Regular matt Irregular matt Stitch matt Fancy matt

Regular warp rib Rgular weft rib

Irregular warp rib Irregular weft rib

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ORNAMENTATION OF PLAIN CLOTH


The threads in both warp and weft vary in color, raw material, Types of
construction and in thickness.
Threads of different colors are combined in check form.
By using fancy slub yarn
By combining different orders of denting
By using two warp beams, which are differently tensioned. E.g: Seersucker
stripe production
By using different twisted yarn, such as hard twisted weft yarn for producing
crepe effect.
By using different textile materials , such as wool and cotton produce union
fabric.
By using a specially shaped reed, which rises and falls the threads are
caused to form zigzag lines in the cloth.
By using extremely fine or coarse yarn.

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ORNAMENTATION OF PLAIN CLOTH


Different colors
Varying yarn counts

By using coarser or finer yarn in a pattern

By applying different tensions on yarn

By using slub yarn

Different orders of denting

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warp rib weave:
These are produced by extending the plain weave in warp wary direction. In
Figure shows the warp rib weaves constructed on regular and irregular basis.
Weft rib weaves:
These are constructed by extending the plain weave in weft direction as
shown in Figure.
In both the warp and weft rib weaves, the appearance of the cloth depends on
the respective thread settings, and to achieve good effects, it is necessary to
weave a weft rib with a high number of picks per inch and a comparatively low
number of ends per inch. Similarly the warp rib effect can be enhanced with a
high number of ends per inch and a comparatively low number of picks per
inch. The prominence of the rib can be increased by suitable use of coarse
and fine yarns. The dependence of all rib constructions upon the correct
thread settings is marked.
Uses: Rib weaves are used in gross grain cloths, matelasse fabrics, repp cloth
which is extensively employed for window blinds in railway carriages and other
vehicles, upholstering furniture, and cambric picket handkerchief.

Matt Rib weaves:


These weaves are also variously known as hopsack or basket
weaves. The matt rib structures result from extending the
plain weave in both directions.
The regular and irregular types are shown in Figure
In case of regular matt weave, the plain weaves are extended
equally in the warp and weft directions, where as in case of
irregular matt weaves, the plain weave is extended unevenly
or irregularly in the warp and weft directions.
Uses: Matt weave finds extensive uses for a great variety of
fabrics such as dress materials, shirtings, sail cloth, duck
cloth etc
TWILL WEAVE
INTRODUCTION TO TWILL
1) Concept:

The most characteristic of twill is that they have diagonal lines on the cloth.
THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWILL
WEAVES ARE :
(i)They form diagonal lines from one selvedge to
another.
(ii)More ends per unit area and picks per unit area
than plain cloth.
(iii)Less binding points than plain cloth
(iv)Better cover than plain weave
(v)More cloth thickness and mass per unit area.
FACTORS DETERMINING THE
TWILL

The following factors determine the relative


prominence of twill weaves
(i) Nature of the yarn
(ii) Nature of the weave
(iii) The warp and weft threads/inch, and
(iv) The relative direction of twill and yarn twist
INFLUENCE OF THE TWIST OF THE
YARN
The twill fabric clearness and prominence of
the twill lines are accentuated if their
direction is opposite to the direction of twist

If, however, the lines of a twill are require to


show indistinct, the twill should run the same
as the direction of twist.
TWILL WEAVES FABRICS
Generally 2/1 twill in Jeans, warp or weft face
boot linings, corset i.e fit garment.
Generally 2/2 twill in blanket, sheeting
Generally 3/1 twill in a drill fabric
Generally 2/2 twill, warp face Gabaridin,
rainproof overcoating
Generally 3/1 twill in Denim, close fitting
trousers,skirts etc
etc
DESIGNATION OF
TWILL
2up, 2down; 2- and 2-, 2/2

more convineaintly
RELATIVE
FIRMNESS
The intersecting of threads gives the cloth firmness, and the
more frequent the intersections are the firmer the cloth is
CLASSIFICATION OF TWILL
WEAVE
The above types of twills are further subclassified as:
(a) Warp face twills
(b) Weft face twills
(c) Warp and weft face twills

The twill weaves are produced in a wide variety of forms. They are however
classified broadly into important categories, namely :
(i) Ordinary or continuous twills
(ii) Zig zag , pointed or wavy twills
(iii) Rearranged twills such as satin/sateen weaves and corkscrew weaves
(iv) Combination twills
(v) Broken twills
(vi) Figured and other related twill weaves
CONTINUOUS
TWILL
CONTINUOUS
TWILL
Warp faced twill Weft faced twill Balanced & unbalanced twill

In these types of twills In these weaves the In these types of twills


the warp thread floats weft thread floats over the warp and weft
over all the picks in a the warp on all picks in a floats may be equal or
repeat except one pick. repeat except one. unequal.
The minimum repeat
size required is 3.

2/1, 3/1, 4/1, 5/1 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5 2/2, 3/3, 4/4, 5/5
Zig zag , pointed
or
wavy twills
One of the simplest forms of modified twill is the
waved twill achieved by reversing the direction
of the twill at suitable intervals.

The reversal can occur either upon a warp


end(horizontal wave), or upon a weft pick
(vertical wave).

Horizontal effect economically produced in point


draft using few heals on tappets.

Vertical effect required dobby due to large


number of picks in lifting plan.
WEAVING PLAN

Pointed draft is used for the angle twill.













Notes:
Short warp or weft floats should be used so as to
avoid overlong floats when the weave is reversed.
Vertical angled twill weaves are achieved with
point draft.
Horizontal angled twills are achieved with straight
draft.
HERRINGBONE
TWILLS
The twill line of herringbone weaves is broken at
predetermined intervals to continue in the opposite
direction (reversal of direction).

Cuts or breaks occur in the fabric where warpfloats


are exchanged for weft floats and vice versa.

Clean cuts avoid long floats that can occur in


angled weaves.
WEAVE

DRAWN
Herringbone weave construction is similar to
angled twill except the repeat calculation.

Example: construct a herringbone weave based


on weave 2 twill , KO = 6.
2
Owning to principle of opposing, at point of
reversal
A warp lift with weft lift (and vice-versa)
Warp face with weft face in reverse direction
HERRINGBONE WEAVE
SAMPLE:
BROKEN
TWILL
Broken twill is
formed by a break in
the continuation of
the twill line at
predetermined
intervals.

(lifts) indicates the sequence of the


rearranged ends or picks.
1. BRAKING AND REVERSING OF
SEQUENCE

C continuous twill
C1 Half broken
C2 frequent breaking
E2 brak size (3) and actual weave size (8)
Total ends= 24
2. ENTER AND SKIP (OR FILLING
AND SKIP)
Most suitable number to skip is one less than half
number of threads in repeat
For 2/2 twill,skip1(4/2 - 1), Fig A,B and C
For 3/3 twill,skip2(6/2 - 1), Fig D and E
The number of threads in the repeat of
design ascertained by noting position of
weave distant from each other
Fig F Repeat size of final design is as
follows
8(repeat of original twill)/1(downward) x
THE ANGLE OF
TWILL
The angle of twill is the angle between the diagonal twill line
This
and anangle is dependent
imaginary horizontal line on theparallel
or axis ratiotobetween
the weft.

the ends/inch and picks/inch in the cloth.


When the warp ends/inch is equal to the weft
picks/inch, the twill angle will be 45.
When the warp ends/inch exceeds the weft
picks/inch the twill angle
will be an obtuse angle i.e., >45 (high angle or
steep twill).
When the weft picks/inch exceeds the warp
1) The density ratio changes the
fabric appearance. (See Fig.3.14)
SEE FIG.3.14

Tan = / p1 = Po/Py
1
py
o

The inclination angle depends on the


density ratio:
Po = Py; tan = 1; =450
PoPy; tan 1; < 450
PoPy; tan 1; > 450
2) THE SHIFT CHANGES THE FABRIC
APPEARANCE.

(1)Calculate the repeats,


Where, ROB is basic twill repeats.
(2)Draw the first end according to the formula of the basic twill
(3)Draw the other ends according to the same formula, but with the
changed shift
3.SELECTING OR REARRANGING
4. ADDING TO BASE MARK
In Forgoing methods may result in loose fabric it ispreferred
to construct starting with bas line
In Steep twill, the warp should be as a rule, show more
prominently on the surface than a weft and vice versa in flat
twill.

Considering reverse convention in figure U and W


Sateen/Satin Weave

In pure sateen and satin weaves the


surface of the cloth consists almost
entirely of weft or warp float, as in the
repeat of weave each thread of one series
passes over all but one thread of the
other series.
Concept:
The characteristic of the sateen/satin weave is
that they have a smoothness and lustrous
fabric surface.

Sateen weaves have a weft effect


and
satin weaves have a warp effect
Parameters:
R 5 and R6
1 S (R-1)
R and S must be expressed by prime numbers
R is Repeat and S is Shift

The sateen weave is denoted by a fraction. But the


meaning is different from that of twill. The numerator
of this fraction is equal to the repeat of weave. The
denominator is equal to the shift (Sy) of overlaps.
EXAMPLES:

Figures A, B represent sateen 5/3 and 7/3.


A Sateen 5/3 B sateen 7/3
And they are also called 5 ends(5 shafts) sateen and 7 ends
(7 shafts) sateen.
WEAVE DRAWN:

1. Drawing the outline according to the


repeat, and giving the number of the
threads.

2. Drawing the first end or pick. (Satin
for first end, sateen for first pick).
Here is an example
of 5/3 satin
3. Drawing the other ends or picks
according to the shift

4. Weaving plan - Straight draft


POSSIBLE WEAVES FOR GIVEN
REPEAT
There should not be common factor between R and S.
For example for R=10 possible S are 3 and 7 out of
2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 as shown in figure
APPLICATIONS:
SATIN-BACK GABARDINE, DOESKIN CLOTH, SATIN-BACK
CREPE, SATIN DRILL, LIGHT WEIGHT LININGS, SLIPPERS,
BRIDAL GOWNS
DEVELOPMENT OF SATEEN AND SATIN
SIMPLE DEVELOPMENT

In simple derivatives the new design is built up by using original


satin or sateen as the base and subtracting or adding marks as
required, in the same relative position to each base mark.
By adding warp or weft float
By adding design
Addition of mark in Irregular manner
EXTENSION OF SATEEN WEAVES

Horizontal or vertical extension


Both way Horizontal and vertical extension
Adding marks symmetrically with extension
THANK
YOU!!!