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Demography from greek word:

Synos people
Ypagly to draw or write
Natural and social history of human species or the
mathematical knowledge of populations of their
general changes, and of their physical, civil,
intellectual, moral conditions (Achille Gillard)
Empirical, statistical and mathematical study of
human populations population size, composition
and spatial distribution (Bogue)
Foci of demography
Population size
If present number is smaller or larger than it was in
the past, what would it be at the future
Immediate causes: natality, mortality, migration
Population composition or structure
Pertains to all measurable characteristics of the
people who make up a given population
E.g. Age & sex, marital status, occupation, education
Distribution of population in space
Place maybe very large or small
Using demography, a Public health
worker can be able to:
To plan, prioritize and implement health
programs rationally
To study determinants or reasons for the
occurrence of problem
To predict future developments and their
possible consequences
Most common sources of
demographic form
1. Census
Total process of collecting, compiling, and publishing
demographic, economic and social data pertaining at
a specified time or times, to all persons in a country or
delimited territory
Minimum list of population characteristics:
Age, sex, race or ethnic origin, number of children ever born,
educational attainment, marital status, place of birth,
Conducted every 5 to 10yrs at most nations
Names are the basis for head count for determining
total population
2 ways of allocating people
1. de jure method assigns individual to a place of
their usual residence regardless of where they
were actually enumerated during the census
2. de facto method people are allocated to the
areas where they were physically present at the
census date regardless of where they usually live
2. Sample surveys
Collecting information from only a subset of the

3. Vital registration systems

Deals w/ the continuous recording of vital events like
births, deaths, stillbirths, marriages, adoptions,
divorces, and annulments as they occur in the

4. voters registration, school enrolment, ITR, SSS

Tools of demography
1. Counts
Absolute numbers of a population or any
demographic event occurring in a specified area
during a specified time period
2. Ratio
Single number that represents the relative size of
2 numbers
3. Proportion
Numerator is part of denominator
a (k) :when k is 100, proportion becomes
a+b percentage

4. Rate
Refers to frequency of occurrence of events over a
given interval of time
Measures amount of change
E.g incidence rate number of events at given time
divided by number of population effected
Describing population composition
1. Sex ratio
Compares the number of male individuals to the
number of females in the population
= no. of males x 100
no. of females
= n males for every 100 females

2. Sex structure
Determined by computing for the sex ratio of each
age group
Male per
100 females
3. Median age
E.g if 16yo is the competed meadian age, it means
half of the population is aged 16yo and the other
half is below 16yo

4. age-dependency ratio
Relates the size of dependent segment of the
population to the economically productive age-
group of the population
Factors affecting population age
Populations fertility level
Peace and order situation
Urban rural differences
5. Population pyramid
A graphical representation of the age and sex
composition of the population
Broad base and gently sloping sides
High rates of birth and death
Low median age and high dependency ratio
Broader base with sides bow in much more
sharply as they slant from 0-4 to the top
Typical of countries that are beginning to grow
rapidly bec of marked reduction in infant and
child mortality but are not yet reducing
Median age decreasing
Old fashioned beehive
Typical in western Europe countries
Low birth rates
Median age is highest
Dependency ratio is lowest
Dependents are mostly elderlies
Bell shaped
Transitional type pyramid
After more than 100years of declining birth
and death rates, has reversed the trend in
fertility while maintaining the death rate at
low levels
Marked and rapid decline in fertility
Low death rate
Reduced birth rate very rapidly
6. Life expectancy birth
Average number of years an infant is
expected to live under the mortality
conditions for a given year
Describing the population distribution
Indicators of how people are distributed in a
specified territory or space
Urban rural distribution
Population density
Crowding index
Crowding index
Computed by dividing total number of persons in
the household by the number of rooms in the
The higher the index, the easier it will be for
disease transmission to occur
Measuring changes in population size
1. Natural increase
Difference between number of births and number
of deaths w/c occurred in a specific population
w/in a specified period of time

2. Rate of natural increase

When the difference between the number of
births and deaths are expressed relative to the
population size and represents the difference bet
crude birth and crude death rate
Birth Death
Population counts obtained during two censuses instead of data on just births and

3. Absolute increase
Measures the average number of people added to
the population per year

4. Relative increase
Actual difference between the two census counts
expressed in percent relative to the population
size during the earlier census
5. Annual rate of growth
Unlike two earlier measures, this rate takes on the
assumption that the population is changing at a
constant rate per year
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